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and connect with the overhead system to good advantage. Switches are as readily used in this system as in floor tracks, but the same degree of adaptability of racks, boxes, or other special accessories will not be realized.

Particular attention has been given to this question of transportation as it is a matter where a good deal of useless expense may be saved if it is properly understood, rightly considered, and carefully planned and arranged.

By a perfectly arranged system of transportation much time of the employees at the machines may be saved, as well as some of the confusion incident to the employees going after their work or delivering what they have completed, as is sometimes the case.

Proper arrangements should be made for conveying small tools to and from the tool room. It is a most unnecessary waste of time to permit operatives to leave their machines to grind tools, or to go to the tool room to exchange them. Overhead carriers similar to the cash carriers in large stores may be utilized with considerable saving of time over the employment of a sufficient number of boys, as a sharp tool may be quickly sent to the machine and the dull one taken out and returned without the operator leaving the machine.

Should there be only one tool room to several floors, a vertical carrier may connect them with the overhead carriers, requiring only the services of a boy on each floor. This vertical carrier is simply a belt or chain running over a pulley at the basement and another at the top floor, and being provided with small trays, or buckets, which should be painted a different color for each floor, so that their contents may readily reach their proper destination. A speaking tube should connect the different floors.

One of the most important matters to be kept constantly in mind in the ma gement of a factory is the pay roll; and in keeping this at a minimum, let us not forget that cheapness is not necessarily economy. And that cheap employees are often like cheap goods, ultimately expensive. Shop men of experience will all remember instances where the work done by a good man at a high rate actually cost less money than if done by an inferior man at half the pay, while the shop burden of expense was less on account of quicker work.

The one important point is to keep each class of employees on the work where they are the most profitable to the establishment, and this proposition involves conditions that can only be met by years of practical experience.

Again, employees should, as far as possible, be kept on the same class of work, as they thereby attain not only a great degree of speed, but accuracy in doing their work, which is not possible if they are changed from one kind of work to another. This is one of the most certain methods of increasing their efficiency.

A watchful care must be exercised over all time accounts, particularly of such employees as may be called upon to labor on different classes of work, or on different orders, to the end that no part of their time is charged to some general account when it is possible to assign it to a special one.

All employees should register their time on day time cards in a recording time clock, for the use of the time keeper in making up the pay roll, and again on job time cards (a separate one for each job, or order number), for the use of the cost clerk. These latter must, of course, aggregate the time indicated on the day time cards. They should be made out by the department foreman, who should see that they are properly recorded, and he should approve them with his O. K. stamp at the end of the week before they go to the cost clerk.

Within the limits of this chapter it is only possible to refer briefly to some of the more salient points in factory economy and efficiency, but it is hoped that a few hints given may nevertheless prove useful and practical to those having charge of these matters, and that if they are conscientiously worked out upon the lines herein suggested and those more minutely described in the previous chapters, with a watchful care to their adaptation to the prevailing local conditions, and to their success in actual practice day by day, the author is assured that their success will be amply demonstrated in other cases, as he has often found in his own experience under similar conditions and circumstances.



The necessity of such an organization. Sick benefits. The lodge method. Death claims.

Accidents and sickness. Economy of the proposed system. The general plan. The physician. Officers of the association and their duties. Business meetings. Weekly dues. Classification of members. Table of classes, dues, and treasury receipts. Rate of weekly benefits. Suspensions of the payment of dues. Simplicity of the plan.


Necessity and value of such an emergency department. Under supervision of the physician

of the Mutual Aid Association. His duty as an inspector. Liability to injury. Necessity of prompt attention. A case in point. Simplicity of the work. Emergency room, its work and its equipment. Medicine cabinet. Instruments. Portable case. Electric call bell. First cost. Economy of maintenance in proportion to benefits conferred.


Shop conditions. Necessity of a shop reading room. Its value to both employer and the

employees. The class of reading matter desirable. Technical publications. The employers' opportunity. The room necessary. Politics to be avoided. Circulating technical publications. Lectures and shop talks on pertinent subjects. Lessons in mechanical drawing and plane geometry. The spirit of the unity of interests.


Good reasons for its organization. The progressive manufacturer. The room necessary.

Cold lunches. Practical utility. A noonday restaurant. Plan of management. The Menu. Kitchen equipment. Practical advantages. Expenses of maintenance.

Machine Shop Mutual Aid Association The fact that in the lives of all employees of shops and factories, in common with other people, come periods of illness and times of accidental injury, incapacitating them from following their usual avocations, and coming unexpectedly, as they do, often find them unprepared financially for such a loss of revenue and the additional expenses incident thereto, is the strong argument of the insurance companies' agents in seeking that class of their

business which promises "sick benefits” and assistance in cases of accident. There is no doubt that such insurance often does much good in assisting the person during the time when he is incapacitated from performing his customary work.

But, that the usual methods of insuring in this manner are the most economical is certainly an open question, and many there are who do not believe that it is. Again, the form of mutual insurance in lodges, many of which form a larger superior body, or grand lodge, and several of these again forming a supreme body, while they may be an improvement in some respects, do not seem to meet all the requirements, as may be readily seen from the fact that once in a while we hear of these organizations going to pieces, and the persons who have faithfully paid in their money year after year find it swept out of existence so far as their interests are concerned. While it is true that this form concerns more particularly the death claims, yet it does also affect those for sickness or accidental injuries as well. It is true, however, that this plan is more economical to administer than the first plan, yet it still has too great administrative expenses, which may be avoided by the plan here proposed. It also has the disadvantage that in some parts of a large field of operations more money will be required for claims than in other parts, and consequently the healthier portions must be drawn upon to make up the deficiencies of the less favored localities.

So far as financial assistance in cases of accident is concerned, it would seem best that each organization, as the employees of one shop or manufactory, for instance, should stand alone, and by mutual assistance realize the greatest measure of benefit with the least possible outlay for administrative expenses. There is no good reason why the same should not hold good in the cases of sickness. By this plan there will be a much greater degree of confidence among the subscribers or members, inasmuch as they all usually know each other, elect their own officers, and fix the dues, benefits, and general policy of the organization. Abundant instances of the success of such an organization are at hand.

The plan here recommended is one, with a few modifications, with which the author was connected, and which succeeded beyond the expectations of its organizers, for many years. Briefly the plan is this. To organize a Mutual Aid Association, confined to the employees, male and female, of one company, firm, or corporation, who subscribe to its constitution and by-laws, agreeing to pay into its treasury stated amounts in proportion to their weekly pay, as dues or premiums, in accordance therewith. In consideration of these payments they are to receive, when ill or disabled by injuries, a certain proportion of their weekly pay, and also the attendance of a physician selected and paid by the association, if they desire his services.

The officers are a president, vice-president, secretary, and treasurer; also an auditing committee of three members. The dues of the secretary and treasurer are remitted in consideration of their services. No salaries are paid except to the physician, who is not a member of the society. In small societies one person may fill both offices of secretary and treasurer. Where there are female members they should be represented in the board of officers. Business meetings are held once in three months, at which the officers report the business done during the preceding quarter. The proprietors of the concern will usually furnish a room in which the meetings may be held.

The dues per week are one half of one per cent of the weekly pay, as being convenient to calculate. Thus each member pays a half cent for each dollar of weekly pay.

If the

pay is not in even dollars the next even dollar above the amount is taken as a basis in fixing the amount of dues. For convenience, the dues are collected once in four weeks (not monthly). The benefit paid after the first week of illness or injury is one half the weekly pay, reckoning fractions of a dollar of pay the same as in fixing the amount of dues.

For a society of five hundred members a physician will usually contract to attend such members as desire his services for $250 per year.

From the foregoing facts we may see that in a shop with five hundred employees, divided into classes as to amount of pay, the amounts collected will be as shown in the following table:

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This gives us $25.87 per week for the payment of claims. Experience proves that there will seldom be as many as three persons in the five hundred members receiving aid at any one time, and the number is usually considerably less.

The amount of the aid or benefit paid being one half the weekly pay, it will be found upon calculation to average $5.62 per week, or $16.86 for three beneficiaries, which will leave a liberal balance for unusual calls, as well as for the payment of a physician, this balance being $218.00.

Whenever the funds accumulate in the treasury to an amount over $300, the collection of all dues ceases until the amount is reduced to that figure.

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