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wards cut up if preferred.) Place them in the shaper and plane a flat place one half to three quarters of an inch wide on one side of each of them, and be sure that they caliper exactly the same across from the round surface to the flat space. Place one of these in each V, at one end of the bed, with the flat surface up. Lay on the parallel straight-edge and then the level, and bring the bed up to it. The third piece is then placed in one of the V's, the length of the straight-edge away from one of those already located.

Now, level lengthwise. Transfer one of the other pieces to the V opposite the last one located and level crosswise again. Then from the last two level lengthwise, and so on the entire length of the bed. It may be necessary to go over the bed several times, never less than three times, but by this means a long bed may be leveled correctly and “out of wind.” The time spent in accurately leveling up and setting a planer bed will be well spent when it comes to doing accurate work, and so saving many dollars in the usual expense of scraping work to fit on account of poor planing.

To have a planer so set up as to do really first-class work will save from 40 to 60 per cent of the usual scraping expenses, due to even fair work, besides the satisfaction of having a machine whose work can be depended upon.

The general principles here laid down should be followed in building the foundations for all classes of machine tools requiring a substantial foundation. And it should be remembered that in building such foundations they must be, first, of sufficient weight of material in proportion to the weight of the machine to be placed upon them to be able to withstand successfully all shocks and jars without injury, as well as to be capable of sustaining the weight of the machine without undue settling so as to throw the machine out of level or out of line in any part. And second, that the excavation is down to solid ground, certainly that all “made ground” or artificial filling is taken out; and that if the earth is still yielding, artificial support must be obtained as described in Part First for the foundations of buildings.

PART THIRD

MACHINE SHOP MANAGEMENT

CHAPTER XXV

MACHINE SHOP MANAGEMENT

Modern methods. Divided responsibilities. The "shop tree.” The three grand factors.

Capitalization. Manufacturing. Selling. Graphic diagram of the organization of a manufacturing establishment. The regular channel for orders and reports. Relations of the departments. The secret of success in management. The value of individuality. Indiscriminate criticism harmful. Frenzied mechanics. The quiet and methodical manager. Some prime facts concerning systems. Any reasonable system better than none at all. Patchwork systems. The successful system. A system to be effective must be carried out as planned. A good system requires a strong manager. Vacillation of management disastrous. Plan of organization. Efficiency the first requisite. The management. The United States Army system. A criticism. The military idea in the shop. Analogous positions and duties. The superintendent's functions. The assistant superintendents and their duties. The foreman and his work. The “gang boss” and his value in the shop.

THERE is no truer illustration of the saying that “old things have passed away and all things have become new,” than is shown by the modern methods of the management of the manufacturing enterprises of the present day. The days of the “one-man management” have passed away, and in their stead has come the management by a system of divided and properly distributed responsibility, whereby the real head of the establishment takes up only the consideration of the larger, broader, and more comprehensive questions of importance in management, leaving to his able assistants the questions of the next grade of importance, and in their special spheres, while they, in turn, divide the next grade of lesser responsibilities with their assistants, the foremen, and so on down through the several grades of less importance to the operatives or workmen.

Thus we have what has come to be known as “the shop tree,” representing graphically this plan for the division of responsibility in the management of the entire plant.

There are three grand factors that go to make up the sum of this problem of manufacturing which should not be lost sight of at the outset. The first is the capitalization of the scheme; the second the manufacture of the product; and the third, the marketing or selling of the product. The first factor comprises the stockholders, represented by the Board of

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