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TO WATER CLOBETS
enough in the wall to be above the lockers, which should be constructed of expanded metal, or its equivalent, but never of boards, or in any way to prevent the free circulation of air, and of sanitary cleanliness. The water-closet room opens from the wash rooms.
Windows open from each side, and there is an additional one at the far end. Those on the
sides are placed high enough to be out of the way of the water-closets on one side and the urinals on the other. There are eighteen waterclosets and twenty one urinals in the room. The urinals are divided by partitions 2 feet wide and 5 feet 8 inches high, and the water
closets are 32 inches wide and proFIG. 158. — Plan of Wash Room.
ject 4 feet from the wall. Each closet is provided with a light door having double swing, spring butts, and a sliding bolt on the inside. These doors should not reach the floor by about 12 inches, and should extend to the top of the partition. The partitions should be 5 feet 8 inches high. A plan is shown in Fig. 159.
All partitions of the water-closets or urinals, if of wood, should be well painted with a heavy mineral paint, the last coat being of enamel, the preferable color being a steel gray, which is very hard and durable and will stand much washing. It will be better, of course, if these partitions are of metal, similarly painted. They may be of cast iron of an inch thick, strengthened by suitable ribs. For the waterclosets wooden partitions will be
BOILER HOUSE preferable. The floor should be of some non-absorbent material with no seams or joints to retain offensive odors. A smoothly
LLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLL surfaced cement composition,
LLLLL such as is used for sidewalks,
FIG. 159. — Plan of Water Closets. and commonly called "artificial stone” will be the best that can be put down at a reasonable expense. For the second story this may be laid, 2 inches thick, over a wooden floor composed of 3 x 4 inch scantling laid on edge. A similar floor will be suitable for the wash rooms, and much more economical in the long run than a wood floor, which will have to be renewed in a few years as it will decay from the constant wetting from the wash sinks.
On the ground floor the cement surface may be prepared for by broken stone, etc., similar to the usual shop concrete floor, only not nearly so deep.
TO WASH ROOM
All the piping for the water supply and for sewer connections should be in plain sight so as to be easily accessible when necessary to make repairs. The urinals should be automatically flushed with an ample supply of water at short intervals. The drainage pipes from the wash room should be utilized for flushing the sewer connections of the water-closets and the urinals. Water from the roofs of the buildings may be used for a like purpose, thus insuring a clear and ample drainage, free from the danger of clogging up the flow of water and the generation of sewer gas.
The water-closets and urinals provided for the machine shop will be used also by the carpenter shop and the storehouse employees, but these employees may have lockers located in the carpenter shop, if desirable, and they will doubtless be better satisfied with such an arrangement. The wash rooms and water-closet rooms should be in charge of an attendant whose duty it will be to see that everything is in proper working order and that sanitary regulations are strictly observed.
It would seem at this point advisable to say something more explicit about machine foundations than has been said in the chapter on this subject in Part First of this work. The planer has been selected as an example, and this for the reason that it is a machine tool upon whose accuracy much depends on the foundation upon which it is placed. This description is the result of much experience in this direction by the author, and will well repay the careful consideration of the men who may have charge of similar work.
The failure of machine foundations, even when built by experienced masons, is proverbial, and much money is frequently expended in this direction only to find the efforts end in failure again and again. It is an important subject for the mechanical engineer and no owner should attempt such work without the plans of an engineer who fully comprehends the particular case under consideration and prepares his drawings to fully meet the requirements.
With the constantly increasing demand for a much finer grade of work in all mechanical establishments; for more accurate fitting; for standard sizes; for practically perfect circular work where the circle is involved; for work that is to be square, to be at absolutely right angles; and for straight work to be as nearly absolutely straight as it is possible to make it; with the demand for machine tools of such construction and accuracy as was not thought necessary or hardly possible in the average machine shop of a dozen years ago — many of the standard machine tools, such as lathes, shapers, millers, and planers, have attained a degree of precision that seemingly leaves little to be desired in this direction. That these tools are expensive to build as well as to buy is one of the necessities imposed by this demand for accuracy. And it is met fairly, and the price is paid by all up-to-date establishments making even a pretense to producing reasonably accurate work.
Let us consider for a moment the application of this condition of demand and its successful supply in the case of a planer. It is certainly commendable, and shows a progressive spirit on the part of the management, to purchase the best and most accurately built planer in the market, as well as the one that will produce the greatest quantity of work — good work — work that one may have reason to be proud of and may not have need to apologize for.
But, having purchased the best planer the market affords, all conditions being equal, it becomes an important question as to the best method of setting it up so as to give the best results. Right here be it said that however much is paid for a planer, or however good may be the reputation of the establishment from which it is purchased, the machine will not do good work unless it is properly set up; unless it has a properly built foundation upon which it may be supported. And as a good price has been paid for a good machine, we must not expect a good foundation at a cheap price. Good things cost something, whatever they are.
Of the failures of foundations of the "good enough” kind many of us know all that we need. It is proposed to describe and illustrate a foundation that will properly fulfil all the requirements and conditions of the case. First, it may be weil to call attention to some of the vital points involved in the matter.
It is best to have all planers on the ground floor. Small ones with extra heavy beds may be placed on an upper floor, but certainly those for work over four feet long should be placed on the ground floor. All planers 30
square and 10 feet long, and over, should be set on special foundations.
All excavations for foundations should be carried down to “hard pan,” or perfectly reliable, hard gravel bed, whether it be found three feet down, or ten feet.
All piers should be begun with quite large stone, laid as a wide footing, to the depth of from twelve to twenty-four inches, according to the depth of the foundation.
All foundations should be laid in strong cement mortar, by which is meant that containing two parts Portland cement, one part lime, and about three parts of clean, sharp sand. The amount of sand will vary considerably with its fineness, sharpness, and freedom from dirt. The finer the sand, the greater the quantity necessary. The spaces between the piers and between the walls and the surrounding earth should be tightly rammed with hard gravel, if it can be had. It will be well to use a hose and plenty of water in "puddling” this gravel in as closely as possible, as much support may thus be given to the masonry.
In the engraving, a foundation is shown for a planer 48 x 48 inches x 18
feet. Fig. 160 is a vertical, longitudinal section of the foundation, and Fig. 161 is a plan. Substantial ground is supposed to have been found at a depth of five feet, and upon this the stone footings for the piers are laid, two and a half times the width of the stone cap, and a proportionate increase in the
length of the piers. This stone footing is laid two feet deep, and upon it the brick piers are built with a “batter” of 2 inches to the foot.
In laying the bricks each course should be completed separately, and not by building a shell of one width of brick around the outside for several courses up at a time and filling in with brickbats and wide joints. In raising the corners not over three courses are built up, as cement mortar sets rapidly and it is very important that the work should be bound together as closely and strongly as possible.
Flush joints should be insisted upon in all machine foundation work. All piers should be capped with stone of fairly even thickness and perfectly level on the upper side.
In the center a pit is built as shown in the engraving. It should be six feet deep and extend from the pier beneath the rear of the side posts or housings, to a point far enough in front of
the center gear to admit of free access to it in case of needed repairs. This pit should be wide enough to admit of placing in it wooden removable steps as shown.
On each side of the planer, pockets should be built for the pulleys, in case the planer is supplied with pulleys extending below the floor line. These pockets should be of such size as to permit the pulleys to be slipped on and off at the end of the shaft, and at least twelve inches wider than the diameter
FIG. 160. — Vertical, Longitudinal Section of Planer Foundation.
of the pulleys. In this case they are shown for a planer having pulleys on both sides.
As nearly in a vertical line with the cutting tool as may be are two hollow columns, usually made of heavy cast iron pipe, resting upon the brick floor of the pit, reinforced at these points by a large, well set stone. These columns
support the planer bed at the two points, the weight being taken by heavy adjusting screws and a sole plate as shown.
A foundation of this kind should stand from five to ten days, according to its depth, after it is built, before the planer is placed upon it, in order that all mortar joints may be thoroughly set and perfectly hard and firm. The planer may be leveled up by steel wedges, lifting it about one quarter of an inch from the stone caps.
space around the resting places of the bed may then be closed with putty and melted lead poured in to give it a solid bed on which to rest, after which the steel wedges may be removed, leaving the weight upon the lead only. Melted brimstone is sometimes used, but its liability to crack from sudden jars renders it inferior to lead for this purpose.
In leveling up a planer, it is frequently the practice to level across the flat surfaces each side of the V's, or, if the table has been planed off when the planer was prepared for inspection in the shops, to place the level on that. The best plan, however, is to level up the bed before the
table is put on. To do this properly, turn up three round pieces of steel whose diameter is such that as they lay in the V's of the bed they will project a half inch above its sides, and of a length equal to twice their diameter. These should be accurately ground to exactly the same diameter. (They may be made all in one piece and after
FIG. 161. — Plan of Planer Foundation.