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each 30 feet wide. The central portion is open clear to the roof and has a traveling crane of ample capacity moving over its entire length. The side wings are divided into a main floor, on a level with the central portion, and

a gallery or second floor; the first being 16 feet and the latter 14 feet high in the clear. This gallery is also built across 18 feet of the front end, thus connecting the two galleries and furnishing a platform by way of which the traveling crane may transfer material and product to and from the main floor. Along the center of these galleries and across the front end runs a tram track, provided with light push cars for facilitating the transfers. Stairways are provided at each end and in the center for conveniently and speedily reaching any part of the shop from floor to galleries and vice versa.

At the front end of the machine shop proper are the offices connected with and forming a part of it, consisting of two structures 50 feet square, with a driveway space of 20 feet between them. On the first floor of one of these are the offices, storeroom, etc., and in the other the tool-making room, a room for storage tools and fixtures, and

a stock

room, for small finished parts. On the second floor is located the drawing room, while over the driveway is the pattern shop.

The offices are only those particularly connected with the manufacturing and shipping, and not the general offices of the company. A wing connects the front buildings with the foundry. The ground floor of this wing is used as a storage

[graphic]

Fig. 1.– Front Elevation of Shops for a Model Plant to build Medium Sized Machinery. Scale, one inch equals forty feet.

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room for pig and scrap iron, and a flask room, while the second floor is a pattern storage loft, connected at one end with the pattern shop and at the opposite end with the foundry by a trap door 8 x 18 feet, directly over the train track leading through the flask room.

The foundry is 85 X 150 feet, arranged with a central part 35 feet wide and two side wings or bays, each 25 feet wide. The central part is covered by a traveling crane running the entire length. There are two cupolas, a large and a small one, served by two cranes of sufficient reach to swing into the central space covered by the traveling crane.

Large work is cast in the central space or within reach of the cranes, while small work and bench molding occupy parts of the floor not covered by the cranes. On each side of the central part are tram tracks, which are crossed by one running to the flask room and one that goes through the chipping room and on across the yard to the machine shop.

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A wing built on the side of the foundry toward the machine shop contains a platform upon which coal and iron for charging the cupolas are delivered by a tram car raised to that level by an elevator arranged for the purpose. This stock is weighed on track scales in front of the elevator. Beneath the cupola platform are the tumbling barrels, convenient to the cupolas for working over the slag, and to the chipping room for cleaning small castings.

The flask room is located at the front, while between it and the tumbling barrel space is the core room, containing a suitable core oven. At the opposite end, facing the yard, is the chipping and pickling room, where the castings brought in from the foundry are pickled, chipped and weighed, before being sent to the machine shop. If the castings are too heavy for convenient handling in the chipping room they may be run through to the yard and there handled by a boom crane covering the tram track upon which they are run into the machine shop. Castings of moderate size, yet too heavy to move by hand, are expeditiously handled by a light overhead trolley hoist in the chipping

room.

At one end of the outer wings are the wash room and toilet. If more

floor space is needed these may be located in a gallery placed 8 or 10 feet above the foundry floor.

In the further corner of the yard, as far as possible from the foundry and engine room, is the forge shop, 50 x 80 feet, which is reached by tram cars, the track running through its length near the center. On the outer walls are the chimneys for the forges and heaters, and in the rear are the storage shed for bar iron and steel, the wash room, toilet, and space for coal. These adjuncts are in a shed built with brick walls and of such outline as to conform somewhat to the curve of the railway track, the forge shop having been so located as to admit of this arrangement.

When down-draft forges, served by exhaust fans, are used, it will not be necessary to build more than one chimney, the flue of which should be large enough to carry off the smoke and gases from all the forges.

The power house is located midway in the length of the machine shop, so that power may be applied to the line shafting at a point that prevents much of the torsion incident to long lines of shafting driven from one end. This building is 65 x 100 feet and contains the engine room, 40 x 48 feet, the boiler room, 48 x 52 feet, and also the wash room, and water-closets used by workmen in the machine shop.

Near the boiler room is the chimney stack, with which the smoke flues of all the boilers are connected. Coal is brought in on push cars along the tram track, to the front of the boilers, where a track scale is placed for weighing it. Ashes are removed by the same tram track to whatever point is most desirable to deliver them.

Across the rear end of the yard is the storehouse, 50 x 100 feet, for finished machines, or product. This connects with the rear end of the machine shop by a tram track running from the scales beneath the traveling crane through a wide doorway and the entire length of the storehouse. The rear side of the storehouse (next to the railway track) has wide, sliding doors, through which the finished product is readily moved into the railway cars for shipment, Here, as in the chipping room of the foundry, it may be desirable to make use of overhead trolley hoists to facilitate rapid and economical handling of machinery to be shipped.

A 12-foot space is left between storehouse and forge shop for a branch of the tram tracks, as a convenient means of receiving material from the railway at this point.

Adjoining the storehouse is the carpenter shop, 40 x 60 feet. Thus the men who prepare the finished machinery for shipping are near their work, and the lumber used for this purpose, and the necessary machinery for cutting it up, are close at hand and require no unnecessary handling.

In the angle formed by the storehouse and carpenter shop are the storage

sheds for cast iron and steel chips from the machine shop, or for similar materials.

Along the side of the yard, and extending from the forge shop to within 20 feet of the foundry, are arranged the stock sheds. These hold foundry sand and coal, engine coal, coke, etc., which is delivered into them directly from the railway cars, the track being raised to the proper grade after it has passed the storehouse. It is continued the whole length of the foundry so as to deliver foundry sand directly into the windows of the foundry if desirable, keeping that in the storage shed as a reserve supply.

Between the storage sheds and foundry is a gate, through which may pass a branch of the tram car track for receiving stock and material from the railway cars at this point.

Details of the plans herein outlined and the progress of the work from the raw materials to the finished product will be given in future chapters. The second chapter will deal especially with the construction of the buildings.

Whatever may be the dimensions of the building of a manufacturing plant, or however carefully provision be made for all necessities for handling materials, etc., there is always the possibility, and frequently the probability, that some day the works will have to be increased in capacity or changed in form.

It is, therefore, important to consider these points at the outset, and to provide for an expansion of the business in accordance with future needs, and at the same time not to disarrange or break up the general plan of the works. With these points in mind, the two following plans are given for enlarging the machine shop when more room is needed:

First, the building may be extended to the rear across the railway track, the rear wall being removed and the traveling crane tracks continued through the length of the additional building. Doors are provided for the passage of cars upon the railway track, and also a specially-built car habitually used for connecting the floors of the old and new building, its platform being on a level with the two floors. Thus the machine shop capacity could be increased to any reasonable extent.

Second, one, two or three wings may be built at right angles to the machine shop and on the side opposite the power house. These might be of one or two stories and of any desired length. They may contain traveling cranes to convey material to and from the traveling crane of the main shop, or have convenient trolley hoists and train car tracks, according to the character of the work to be done.

The capacity of the foundry may be increased one third by extending it toward the power house. The same space may be obtained by using for foundry space that provided for chipping, core, and flask rooms, and provid

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