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in the latter case the conductor pipes will continually freeze up in winter while in the former case the warm air from the sewer will always keep them clear even in the most inclement weather. A makeshift for keeping ice out of conductor pipes is to run a jet of steam into them near the ground. This does not always keep them clear and the tendency of the steam in cold pipes is to condense and the warm water thus produced soon rusts out the pipes, causing a frequent outlay for repairs, as well as the cost of the steam supply; while connecting them directly with the sewers, the first cost is the only one except the usual and unavoidable wear of the pipes.

Certain areas about the yards will need paving, as, for instance, the driveways, the space around the catch basins, protecting strips around the foundations of the buildings, and in similar places. Very hard tar concrete makes an excellent driveway, unless it be used for very heavy trucking where the horses are liable to slip, particularly in wet weather. To avoid this a brick pavement, constructed with brick set on edge and the courses arranged at right angles to the line of the driveway, will be found an excellent surface. The bricks should be the regular hard paving bricks such as used in street paving, and laid by men who are expert workmen at this class of paving, to insure success.

Cobble stone pavements are more economical and are very durable, but not as neat in appearance or as agreeable when we must walk over them frequently.

The protecting strips around the foundations of the buildings should be of the ordinary tar concrete such as is used for sidewalks, and should be not less than two feet wide and incline away from the building not less than an inch to the foot.

For large areas of yard space the ground should be brought nearly up to the desired grade and then covered with fine gravel, or fine cinders, rolled down hard. It may be rendered more firm by the addition of fine, dry clay, which, when sprinkled lightly with water and then rolled down, will form a “bond" to hold the cinders together. Another method, where cast iron chips from lathes and planers are plenty and cheap, is to sprinkle these evenly over the fine gravel, mix the two together with a hand rake, then roll down hard. Then sprinkle with water, and the rusting of the iron chips will in a little time form, with the gravel, a hard, compact mass. If this has been laid to the depth of even two inches, in a proportion of equal parts of iron chips and fine gravel, and allowed to lie without disturbing for a month or so, subject to rains, or occasional sprinkling, it will make a very satisfactory yard surface for any use except heavy trucking.

Around catch basins, tar concrete should be laid for a distance of five to ten feet in all directions.

Where the grounds are large and the crossing of specially prepared driveways interfere with the grading to induce a flow of surface water to the catch basin, a small water-way should be provided under it at proper intervals. This

may be built of bricks, but still better, with a brick floor and an arch composed of an inverted U-shaped section, or sections, of cast iron an inch and a quarter thick. Ordinarily the space need not be over six inches high and eight to twelve inches wide. This form will be less liable to injury by driving over it; it will not be subject to displacement as if built of bricks, and may be more readily cleaned of ice and snow in winter.

Catch basins should be covered with slightly arched cast iron gratings, the purpose of the arching being to prevent it from being easily clogged by bits of rubbish which may be washed to it by a heavy and sudden downpour of rain. Catch basins should be constructed of such dimensions that they need be cleaned out but twice a year, although by building them of double the capacity they may be only cleaned once a year, which had better be done in the summer or early autumn, before cold weather comes on, as a more convenient time than in the spring when snow is melting, the frost coming out of the ground, and the work becoming more disagreeable. As to the capacity of these catch basins, they should contain, up to the top of the bridgewall, about one cubic foot to every hundred square feet of yard surface to be drained. This will be amply sufficient for annual cleaning.

These observations are intended to be practical. They are the result of experience as well as observation, and the more care and consideration that is given to the few matters to which attention is directed in this chapter, the less we shall be annoyed by the incidental and usually considered accidental expenses that so frequently cause much unexpected trouble and outlay in the regular course of the management of manufacturing plants.

PART SECOND

MACHINE SHOP EQUIPMENT

CHAPTER XVI

MACHINE SHOP EQUIPMENT

General features. The special scope of this portion of the work. The usual errors. A

practical view of the subject. General requisites. Proper equipment for a medium class of work. A definite and comprehensive plan for manufacturing operations. The results of a lack of a proper plan. The business that “ought to pay” but does not. Too much conservatism. Seeing the end from the beginning. The only proper plan. Possible enlargements must be provided for. The “piecemeal” plan. Ill-considered and expensive alterations. The last state worse than the first. Better to make new things than patch up old ones. A complete and symmetrical whole.

In the preceding chapters of this work, constituting Part First and under the general heading of Machine Shop Construction, we have carefully followed, step by step, the process of planning and erecting a modern machine shop plant, giving special attention to all its parts, discussing the various plans and methods of construction, and describing the most approved forms of foundations, walls, roofs, floors, etc., and properly providing for the prime necessities of light, heat, ventilation, and power.

We have given special attention to the requirements of manufacturing operations and so planned the entire plant as to bring its component parts into a proper relation to each other, even when confined to a very limited land space upon

which to build. Ample provision has been made for all probable extensions and enlargements in the future that may be due to the possible increase of the business for which the plant is erected.

There has been provided a simple and efficient means for the transportation of stock and material and the convenient handling of the same during the successive processes of manufacture.

Some of the various mistakes and difficulties into which the builder is liable to fall by inconsiderate planning and execution of his work have been pointed out and commented upon.

The endeavor has been made to lay all these matters before the prospective builder and the careful and studious reader as some of the results of years of practical experience, constant and conscientious study, and ample observation of the varied and complex phases of this interesting subject.

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