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The general formula for this transformation will be found in the Memoir of Mr Murphy before referred to, but the result is of such extreme complexity, that it happens fortunately that we have seldom to employ these transformations for high orders of differentials; and where this is necessary, that the nature of the case usually gives us the means of simplification.
(1) Change the formula
into one where y is the independent variable.
The result is
(2) The expression for the radius of curvature when x is the independent variable is
dx When y is made the independent variable, it becomes
ď « dy?
into an equation in which y is the independent variable.
The result is
(4) Change the variable in
dy' (1 + y') "
The result is + u = (* +6=+).
(6) There is a very convenient formula by which we can change generally the independent variable in y" from
dy" y to x when y = 6". Taking the symbol of operation alone,
Now by the theorem given in Ex. 18, of Chap. 11. Sec. 1, we have generally
(1 - novo - 29 (1 - yn dit mo
Change the independent variable in
du 2 a
dy1 - y
Instead of availing ourselves of the formulæ for expressing du du. dy and dys in
and in terms of the differentials of u and y with regard to x, we may effect the required transformation more
simply by differentiating successively and simplifying at each step. Thus, observing that
(n + mamma 1,
differentiating again and multiplying by a + y, we have
(a + y) alv. + (a + y) an der