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structive or interesting; and that it quarters, with the brevet rank of captain appeared to them as if they had known in Africa, and manager of expeditions for nothing of Africa before.”
discoveries in the interior, with liberty to Whether in consequence, as Mr publish annual reports of all enterprises. Bowdich asserts, of an unlucky quar
This the Committee did not think fit to rel with Mr Murray the bookseller,
comply with; but told him that L. 1000 aor of some other unexplained cause,
* would be set apart for the expences of
cause, missions of discovery, and that he might It appears that these gentiemen soon resume his situation, and take his chance began to see the matter in a different with the governor (his uncle) and council light.
as to his appointment to conduct these In the review of the mission to missions; this cid not suit him, and Ashantee, the following sentence is hinc iræ et lacrymæ ! He sets off for Paris, passed on the conduct of Mr Bow- offers his services to the French Institute, dich and his two associates in Ashan- and hurls his vengeance, in the shape of a · tee, who, it will be remembered, took vituperative pamphlet, at the head of the
- 6 African Committee,' giving vent to his upon themselves to supersede their
spleen against all their establishments. He superior officer Mr James:
asserts that the officers of the service have 16 We incline to think that the annals of neither character nor ability, that the diplomacy do not furnish such an instance governors are mere shop-keepers, that the of contempt and disobedience to a superior English uniform is disgraced, the flag officer as is here impudently avowed, in the insulted, the forts impotent, and the offiface of the world, by the leader himself. cers in league with the natives of the Headed by Mr Bowdich, these gentlemen waterside to cheat those of the inland in had evidently formed a conspiracy to get trade.”-Quar. Rev. Vol. XXII. p. 299. rid of Mr James, well knowing that he had it not in his power to take any steps against
And not content with all this ebullithem with his wretched guard of two na
tion of wrath, he attacks him again, tive soldiers. They presumed, no doubt, in a note to an article in a subsequent on the near relationship of Mr Bowdich Number. “M. Dupuis (the gentle(nephew, we believe) to the Governor-in- man appointed by Government as ReChief, and the event justified their confisident at Coomassie) has at length dence.”-Quar. Rev. Jan. 1820.
proceeded to Ashantee, to endeavour A high character of Mr James, to repair the mischief occasioned by written by Sir James Yeo, is then the thoughtless conduct of Mr Bowquoted; and it is observed of the dich and his young companions, and treaty which Mr Bowdich concluded by his famous treaty. which was to last with the King of Ashantee, that the for ever.”—I). Vol. XXIII. p. 244. two principal articles were, permis These are hard words; and when sion for a British officer to reside con- it is remembered that they are apstantly at Coomassie, and the engage plied to a young man, who has no ment of the two Kings to commit their other possession than his character, children to the care of the Governor- and who had risked his life, in cirin-Chief, for education, at Cape Coast cumstances of imminent danger, in Castle: that Mr Hutchison, who the performance of what he conceived had beer left behind as Resident at to be a public service to his country, Coomassie, finding his situation irk- we think no one can approve of their some and useless, soon deemed it pru- being employed, unless the opinion, dent to withdraw; and the King's so confidently expressed, rests on very children were never sent.”.
firm grounds. But if the facts are After some farther ridicule of Mr correctly stated in the document conBowdich's political enterprises, and of tained in the paper before us, (and his literary efforts, the Reviewer pro- the responsibility, as to the correctness ceeds to his Geography, which he of these statements, rests of course characterizes as “ wholly contrary to with Mr Bowdich,) we must take the the laws of nature.” He then follows liberty of saying, that they appear to Mr Bowdich to England, and thence us to have been very incorrectly stated to France, with unrelenting animosi- in the Quarterly Review. ty:
Mr Bowdich tells us, that he was On his arrival in England he expect
himself anxious to reply to the Quared immediately to be appointed to a situa. terly Review as soon as it appeared : tion on the coast of Africa of his own cary. but he adds, “ The generous soliciing out-a salary of £500 a year, with the appointments of a member of council, com. * It should be mentioned that this is manding officer of the troops at head. only L. 600 Sterling money.
tude of a man venerated throughout 66 Extract from the Governor's Dispatch. Europe, who condescended to profess " Mr James being ordered to return here himself my admirer, when even the as soon as possible, will, deliver you his inQuarterly Review smiled on me in structions, and you will inimediately on rethe first moments of my successful ceipt of this letter, take upon yourself the debut as an African traveller, and management of the mission. I have every who hastened to prove himself my reliance on your prudence and discretion, friend when it became the fashion to
and still firmly hope, that the terinination slander and persecute me, influenced
of the embassy will be attended with suc
cess, and that the sanguine expectations my silence by the following note :"
which we have entertained as to the result " Je ne sais, mon cher Monsieur, si vos of it will not be disappointed. amis d'Angleterre vous ont donné un con- " The king has received a very errone. seil bien utile en vous engageant à écrire ous impression of the affair of the Fantee contre le Quart. Review.
notes, which I regret to hear was the cause “ Je verrai avec plaisir citer mon nom of a serious disturbance. I am glad, how. chaque fois que je puisse vous donner un ever, to find, that by your prompt mode of temoignage public de mon estime et de l'in. conduct, you were in some measure able to terét qu'inspire votre noble, et courageux repress the unfavourable bias it seems to devouement. J'ai retardè ma reponse : j'ai have occasioned. voulu consulter une personne qui vous est “ T. E. Bowdich, Esq. Coomassie. sincerement attachée, et qui comme moi, craint que votre reponse pourroit vous ar
" Extract from the Governor's Letter reter dans la carriere utile que vous voulez
accompanying the Dispatch. suivre. M. Cuvier pense, comme moi, que " The fate of the mission was suspend. l'on ne gagne jamais rien contre les jour. ed by a thread ; your decisive manner of naux qui agissent comme les troupes re- acting has, I am happy to find, extricated glées, comme des armées permanentes. it from the danger with which it was threat. Nous desirons votre repos, et des succès, ened. The zealousness with which you Monsieur, qui doivent recompenser un si are actuated in this very interesting cause, genereux devouement, des etudes si labo- is highly gratifying to me, and I have every rieuses. Veuillez bien excuser ma fran- confidence that your exertions will be the chise et agréer l'expression de ma haute et means of accomplishing every object of the affectueuse consideration.
mission to the utmost of our expectations, (Signed) “HUMBOLDT.
and to the honour and credit of yourself. 66 Paris, ce 5 Mai 1820.”-Reply, p. 3. The public letter will inform you of Mr It was the subsequent note to the James's reca,
"T. E. Bowdich, Esq. Article on the Course of the Niger, therefore, which called forth the re- " Extract from the Letter of the Viceply; of which we propose to state
President of the Council. the leading points.
" I feel the fullest conviction that the The first charge is, that Mr Bow
chief objects of the mission will now be efdich, trusting to the favour of his re
fected, and thet it will terminate in a manlation the Governor, formed a con
ner highly creditable to yourself, and adspiracy against his superior officer, Mr vantageous to the public. With sincere James, interfered unnecessarily in the wishes for your success and safe return, I conference at Coomassie, and occasion- am, &c. ed much mischief by so doing. Mr "T. E. Bowdich, Esq. Bowdich enters into a long siatement regarding the character of Mr Hope
66 Dispatch of the Governor and Council of Smith, the Governor, and of Messrs
Cape Coast Castle to the African Com. Hutchison and Tedlie, his compa
mittee. vions, to shew how improbable it is
chew how improbable it is " We cannot conclude this paragraph that these gentlemen should have act- without noticing the distinguished manner ed the base parts here assigned to in which the negotiation with our new althem. But what is more to the pure lies, the Ashantees, was conducted by Mr
Bowdich. pose, he then refers to public docu
By his talents, energy, perse
verance, and prudence, obstacles that seemments, which shew, that his conduct
ed invincible have been surmounted, and at Coomassie was fully approved and
whatever may be the extent of our future sanctioned, and that he was particu- intercourse with the interior, the founda. larly recommended to the African Com. tion must certainly be attributed to him : mittee on account of it, not only by the to recommend him to your notice, would Governor, but by the four other mem- be a reflection on your judgment.-Afri. bers of the council.
cun Committee, pp. 12-14.
These documents, it must be ob- angry messages, *) yet it must be observed, were printed in the pamphlet served, first, that the responsibility, on the African Committee, which was in regard to it, does not strictly rest on in the hands of the Reviewer who ac- Mr Bowdich, but on the Governor cused Mr Bowdich of conspiracy. Mr and Council of Cape Coast Castle, who Bowdich adds,
not only sanctioned and confirmed,
but highly applauded it; and, se“ To the good opinion of the Vice-Pre- condly, we must admit that there the sident of the Council, who wrote the letter following remarks of Mr Bowdich are above quoted, I had only a public claim, of some weight. and the Ex-Governor in Chief, then at Cape Coast, while he cherished the impres
" Recollect the Ashantee army was presion that mu cvidence on the Committce had pared to butcher the whole of the remainunjustly tended to his rccal, conscientiously ing Fantees when I negotiated' my fadeclared to my friends, that, if he had been mous treaty,' as the geographer calls it ; in command, instead of my relative, he recollect that the path was opened, and a would have given me the first wacant fort free trade instituted ; that Mr Hutchison for my conduct. The other two members was left as resident ; that Mr Dupuis still of the Council, which unanimously resolv
enjoys a salary as such ; and it must be aled on Mr James's recal from Coomassie,
lowed that a little was done for humanity : and who signed the dispatch recommend
and I will prove in a week or two, if I have ing me to the Committee, were known to not proved it already, that something was be my enemies."-Reply, p.
done for history and solid geography.”— Reply, p. 64.
" Was I to be answerable," he con. We formerly found fault with Mr
tinues, " for the mischiefs which might Bowdlich for “ crowing too much over
result from a system of government on the poor Mr James,” when it was unne part of the African Committee, which I cessary; but when his own character had exposed, and entreated my country to is called in question, he may be allow- reform for the sake of that unhappy coned to state, that Mr James,” after tinent ? Was I to expect that no misunhis recall, “ was condemned unani- derstanding might arise from substituting mously by these five members of coun- Mr Dupuis, a merchant and vice-consul of cil; that it was resolved unanimously,” Mogadore, without doubt an honourable so the public document runs, « that man, but a total stranger to the Ashantees Mr James was guilty of all that was
and the country, for Mr Hutchison, the
favourite of the king, and an ornament to laid to his charge;" and it was ad
the cause ?" —Reply, p. 66. ded, “ that, in consideration of his state of mind and body at the time. In regard to the return of Mr Huthe be displaced from his seat in coun- chison from Coomassie, it will be obcil for twelve months, retaining his served, that the Quarterly Review and government of Accra.”
Mr Bowdich are at issue, the former We do not consider it necessary to asserting that Mr Hutchison, “ findenter farther into the character of Mr ing his situation irksome and useless, James, but we think it must be ad- soon deemed it prudent to witha mitted, as a sufficient answer to the draw;" whereas Mr Bowdich says, charge of contempt and disobedience that, " after fulfilling the arduous towards a superior officer, that the duties of Resident, to the admiration colleagues in office of that superior of the Governor, industriously acquirofficer themselves, and the persons who had delegated him on the em- * The cause of these appears from a letbassy, considered the offence as justi- ter from Cape Coast Castle, quoted in Mr fied by the circumstances of the case; Bowdich's Reply, to have been as follows: and disgraced him, and strongly re
-“ The bearer of it declared in the public commended the junior officers on ac
hall, that the King had sworn to attack and count of their respective conduct in
destroy Cape Coast Town ; that he hud no that affair. And although it be true
paluver with the inhabitants of the Castle,
yet, if the Castle opened upon his troops, he, that the treaty with the Amg. the King, advised the Governor to add to the Ashantee, like many other treaties height of the walls. The King's plea is, with more civilized monarchs, has not that the Cape Coast people industriously been productive of perpetual peace and circulated that the King of Buntookoo had amity, (which, however, so far as the "been victorious. Such a report, to my English are concerned, seem to have knowledge, zoas in circulation."--Reply, only been interrupted by one or two p. 66.
ing the languages, and accommodating so ; an officer resident here is sufficient to himself to every thing, he was super- settle all differences, and we wish to proseded and thrown back from a situa, tect him to evince our Adelity. In con. tion of L. 400 a-year, to a writership
sequence of this representation, the king of L. 160, and that to benefit a stran
was reluctantly compelled to give up the
point, and the result was communicated to ger to the service, Mr Dupuis.” The
me through Apokoo, who gave me the following extract which he gives from
I strongest assurances of the king's and chiefs' Mr Hutchison's last Dispatches from
good wishes, but the measure they had Coomassie, seems sufficient to shew, chosen was necessary to ensure their safety that the former account of the matter from intrigues and misrepresentation ; addis incorrect; and, at the same time, ing, in confidence, that their interest oblig. explains the circumstance of the young ed them to cheat the king a little, which negro Princes never having arrived at they could not do if any of his children or Cape Coast.
followers were educated by Englishmen,
and their incomes would be seriously ina “ Coomassie, 3d Feb. 1818. « Sir,—The public letter of the 9th
jured in consequence,--that they must ult. arrived on the 29th, with the articles
prevent it for the same reason that they
would support the residency. Such a refor the king therein mentioned, for which
sult naturally led me to inquire whether his majesty desires me to return his ac.
or, not I might be considered as an intruder krowledgments, and also for the clothing
from being the organ of the supreme coungiven to his people, with which he is ex
cil to his majesty ; but the chiefs are not tremely pleascd. " I beg leave to state, that the gold sent
more jealous of their own princes than they
are anxious for the maintaining of a residendown by the king as a pledge for powder
cy in this place, from the circumstance of and guns was against my opinion, given at the desire of the king in the first in.
all presents, pay, or articles of trade from
the British forts being divided amongst stance, and afterwards persisted in by the
them, which otherwise is einbezzled by the council, from their anxiety to prove their
inferior messengers sent down for such honour in public transactions, which made
purposes. the request be repeated. I trust this ex.
to Your wish to obtain any information planation will be satisfactory. " Your public letter of the 26th ult. was
respecting the books or papers of the Eu
ropeans drowned in the Quolla, so anxiousdelivered me by the messenger when the
fy expressed, made me use every effort to king had left town, the contents of which
secure it as far as possible, in consequence I therefore communicated to Agay, hie as
of which I gave the Shereef Brahima a sured me that his majesty had given up all
note to receive at Cape Coast Castle from thoughts of further interference, and had
L.20 to L. 40 Sterling, according to the instructed the messengers on their depar.
value of the books or papers produced. A ture for Cape Coast, to announce to Adoo
messenger was dispatched early in JanuaBradie, that all further communication with
ry, and the Shereef assures me, that on his Brew the slave trader must cease, in con
return to Boussa, his influence with the sequence of my positive statement that the
sultan will enable him to collect what other governor in chief could not deign again to
things were obtained by the people, and enter into an affair so often agitated.
forward them to Cape Coast Castle. 6 His majesty has been anxious all along
“ I was flattered by the king urging me that some of his family should receive
in council to pledge that I would myself an English education, that they might maintain their influence in the empire, as,
return uguin as resident; but as such an from the order of succession, they must fall
assurance could not be given by me, I reinto the second rank after his decease.
ferred his majesty to you on that point. Preparations were, accordingly, made for
Should my services be again required, I some of the princes to be sent to head
shall be actuated by the same principles
which have always governed me in Ashan. quarters, when the aristocracy and great chiefs repairing in a body, represented to
tee ; whether or not they merit approbation
is not for me to judge. the king their unwillingness that any in
“ I need not repeat to you, Sir, that the novation should take place respecting the established customs of the nation. We
annihilation of the slave trade is insepara
ble from the maintenance and improvement are willing,' said Apokoo, who stood forth
of our new connection. as their speaker, 'to prove to your majes
“ I received three ounce of gold * as ty our devotion to your person, by receiving your foot on our necks, and taking the
presents from the king at the Adai cussacred oath that we will perform all your
toms, and yesterday, on taking leave, a commands. Our gold, our slaves, and our
farther present of three periguins t for the lives are yours, and are ready to be delivered up at your command : The English are our friends, and we wish them to continue * L. 12 currency. + L. 30.
expence of my journey. I have the ho- son, of his demands having been renour to be, &c. &c.
fused in consequence of the exposures « WILLIAM HUTCHISON.” made in his previous work. “HowAfter this evidence of the footing ever my conscientions exposures may on whieh this gentleman was, as Re- have incensed the Committee, my sident at Coomassie, we cannot find conduct and services have been very fault with Mr Bowdich's assertion, differently viewed by others.” that “ the field for Mr Dupuis's ex- We conceive it to be but justice to ertions was opened by the labours and Mr Bowdich to give in his own words sufferings of Tedlie, Hutchison, and his ideas of the best mode of acquirhimself, and that he had merely to ing both commercial advantage and follow in the track which they had scientific information in Africa, with beaten.” The Quarterly Review does the material parts of which, it will be not precisely inform us, nor have we observed, that the Quarterly Reviewbeen able to learn, what the mischief ers themselves “ most cordially conwas which this gentleman went to cur.” Coomassie to repair ; but one thing is certain, that the establishment of
"To become intimately acquainted with
the interior of Africa, and to tranquillize the office of Resident at Coomassie, which he went to fill, and which the mercial intercourse and civilization.
er it, are the first great steps towards consGovernor and Council at Cape Coast « To place residents in situations to me. Castle (and the Quarterly Review it- diate between the great contending kingself, in its moments of good humour) doms, and to originate commerce, is not considered to be an object of great im only the most humane, the most prudent, portance, and of very difficult attain and the most economical, but the only lement, was accomplished by the exer gitimate method of acquiring political intions of Mr Bowdich and his friends. fluence and power. We do not intend to trouble our
." Assured that benevolence is associated readers with the differences between
with commerce in the views of the British
government in Africa, it is desirable for the Mr Bowdich and the Reviewer in
happiness of the natives as well as our own geography, understanding that Mr in
interests, that we should be the first to exBowdich is about to publish a small
plore and attach the interior powers ; the volume on the geography of Africa, views of other European settlers on the in which, of course, he will fight his coast, who would anticipate us, being more own battle. Neither shall we meddle selfish, or simply commercial. with the personal dispute between Mr " The address of residents would daily Bowdich and the African Committee, extend and strengthen the British influ. on which the Quarterly Review has
ence, induce and preserve peace, originate pronounced so summary a judgment;
and nurse commercial intercourse, combut it does appear to us rather ungea,
municate encouraging impressions of the
British character to the more distant king. nerous to give him no credit for pub
doms, introduce or improve the arts and lic motives, and to ascribe entirely to habits connected with civilization, and by malice and revenge, his conduct in example and temperate reasoning gradually laying before the world the proceed- superinduce a disposition more congenial ings of that Company, when it is re- to humanity, if not to the true religion. membered, that the justice of his re- Residents would also collect for geograpresentations is fully admitted by the phers and naturalists the rare desiderata Reviewer; and that, in consequence of and novelties unattainable by travellers en the exposures which he made, and in passant, and pave the way for missions to conformity with the suggestions he
ons he more distant countries ; by a chain of threw out, the whole system of the
which, the Committee may not only reach,
but establish themselves on the Niger."administration of that colony is about
African Committee, p. 18, 19. to be changed by the government itself, and, of course, with the full ap. To this we will add what he says probation of the Quarterly Review. in the paper before us, of the possible That his publishing statements inju- improvement of the Negroes. rious to the African Committee, was
" It appears to me that there are excep. not merely the consequence of the re- tio
tions only to the general character of the infusal of his demands, is sufficiently habitants of this part of Africa, whose obvious from this, that he complains minds would afford fruits to cultivation, in his second work, (on the African and whose hearts are sensibly alive to vir. Committee,) and apparently with rea- tue and benevolence; but I can assure the