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• turn, complimented him with a present of “It might have been concluded that no

a hay-cock or a fleece; less as a recome one could thus, as it were, have converted pence for this particular service than as a his body into a machine of industry for the general acknowledgment. The Sabbath humblest uses, and kept his thoughts so was in a strict sense kept holy; the Sun. frequently bent upon secular concerns, day evenings being devoted to reading the without grievous injury to the more preScripture and family prayer. The princi- cious parts of his nature. How could the pal festivals appointed by the Church were powers of intellect thrive, or its graces be also duly observed; but through every other displayed, in the midst of circumstances day in the week, through every week in apparently so unfavourable, and where, to the year, he was incessantly occupied in the direct cultivation of the mind, so small work of hand or mind ; not allowing a a portion of time was allotted ? But, in this moment for recreation, except upon a Sa- extraordinary man, things in their nature turday afternoon, when he indulged him. adverse were reconciled ; his conversation self with a newspaper, or sometimes with a was remarkable, not only for being chaste magazine. The frugality and temperance and pure, but for the degree in which it was established in his house were as admirable fervent and eloquent; his written style as the industry. Nothing to which the was correct, simple, and animated. Nor name of luxury could be given was there did his affections suffer more than his in. known ; in the latter part of his life, in- tellect; he was tenderly alive to all the deed, when tea had been brought into al. duties of his pastoral office: the poor and most general use, it was provided for visi- needy he never sent empty away,'--the tors, and for such of his own family as re. stranger was fed and refreshed in passing turned occasionally to his roof, and had that unfrequented vale,—the sick were vibeen accustomed to this refreshment else. sited; the feelings of humanity found where ; but neither he nor his wife ever further exercise among the distresses and partook of it. The raiment worn by his embarrassments in the worldly estate of his family was comely and decent, but as simple neighbours, with which his talents for bu. - as their diet ; the home-spun materials were siness made him acquainted ; and the dis made up into apparel by their own hands. interestedness, impartiality, and uprightAt the time of the deceasé of this thrifty ness which he maintained in the managepair, their cottage contained a large store ment of all affairs confided to him, were of webs of woollen and linen cloth, woven virtues seldom separated in his own con. from thread of their own spinning. And science from religious obligations. Nor it is remarkable, that the pew in the chapel could such conduct fail to remind those in which the family used to sit, remained who witnessed it of a spirit nobler than . a few years ago neatly lined with woollen law or custom ; they felt convictions which, · cloth spun by the pastor's own hands. It but for such intercourse, could not have is the only pew in the chapel so distinguish- been afforded, that, as in the practice of ed; and I know of no other instance of his their pastor there was no guile, so in his conformity to the delicate accommodations faith there was nothing hollow; and we of modern times. The fuel of the house, are warranted in believing, that, upon these like that of their neighbours, consisted of occasions, selfishness, obstinacy, and dispeat, procured from the mosses by their cord, would often give way hefore the own labour. The lights by which in the breathings of his good will and saintly in. winter evenings their work was performed, tegrity. It may be presumed also, while · were of their own manufacture, such as his humble congregation were listening to still continue to be used in these cottages ; the moral precepts which he delivered from they are made of the pith of rushes dipped the pulpit, and to the Christian exhorta. in any unctuous substance that the house tions that they should love their neighbour affords. White candles, as tallow candles as themselves, and do as they would be are here called, were reserved to honour done unto, that peculiar efficacy was given the Christmas festivals, and were perhaps to the preacher's labours by recollections • produced upon no other occasions. Once in the minds of his congregation, that they

å month, during the proper season, a sheep were called upon to do no more than his was drawn from their sinall mountain own actions were daily setting before their flock, and killed for the use of the family ; eyes. and a cow, towards the close of the year, « The afternoon service in the chapel was salted and dried, for winter provision : was less numerously attended than that of the hide was tapped to furnish them with the morning, but by a more serious audi.

shoes.By these various resources, this tory ; the lesson from the New Testament. - venerable clergyman reared a numerous on those occasions, was accompanied by · family, not only preserving them, as he Burkitt's Commentaries. These lessons be

affectingly says, “ from wanting the neces. read with impassioned emphasis, freguent. saries of life;' but afforded them an un. ly drawing tears from his liearers, and stinted education, and the means of rais. leaving a lasting impression upon their ing themselves in society.

minds. His devotional feelings and the powers of his own mind wire further exer- interest due from them, among others, un , cised, along with those of his family, in der the title of church stock: a great hard. perusing the Scriptures ; not only on the ship upon the incumbent, for the curucy Sunday evenings, but on every other even. of Loweswater was then scarcely less poor ing, while the rest of the household were than that of Seathwaite. To what degree at work, some one of the children, and in this prejudice of his was blameable need her turn the servant, for the sake of prac. not be determined ;-certain it is, that ba tice in reading, or for instruction, read the was not only desirous, as he himself says, Bible aloud ; and in this manner the whole to live in peace, but in love, with all men. was repeatedly gone through. That no He was placable, and charitable in his common iinportance was attached to the judgments; and, however correct in conobservance of religious ordinances by his duct and rigorous to himself, he was ever family, appears from the following memo- ready to forgive the trespasses of others, rundun by one of his descendants, which and to soften the censure that was cast I am tempted to insert at length, as it is upon their frailties.--It would be unparcharacteristic, and somewhat curious. donable to omit that, in the maintenance • There is a small chapel, in the county of his virtues, he received due support from palatine of Lancaster, where a certain cler- the Partner of his long life. She was egyman has regularly officiated above sixty qually strict in attending to her share of years, and a few months ago administered their joint cares, nor less diligent in her the sacrament of the Lord's Supper in the appropriate occupations. A person who same, to a decent number of devout com- had been some time their servant in the municants. After the clergyman had re- latter part of their lives, concluded the pa. ceived himself, the first company out of negyric of her mistress by saying to me, the assembly who approached the altar, “she was no less excellent than her hus. and kneeled down to be partakers of the band ; she was rood to the poor, she was sacred elements, consisted of the parson's good to every thing !' He survived for a wife, to whom he had been married up- short time this virtuous companion. When wards of sixty years; one son and his she died, he ordered that her body should wife ; four daughters, each with her hus. be borne to the grave by three of her band; whose ages all added together a. daughters and one grand-daughter; and, mount to above 714 years. The several when the corpse was lifted from the threshand respective distances from the place of hold, he insisted upon lending his aid, and each of their abodes to the chapel where feeling about, for he was then almost they all communicated, will measure more blind, took hold of a napkin fixed to the than 1000 English miles. Though the coffin, and, as a bearer of the body, enter. narration will appear surprising, it is with. ed the Chapel, a few steps from the lowly out doubt a fact, that the same persons, Parsonage. exactly four years before, met at the same “ What a contrast does the life of this place, and all joined in performance of the obscurely-seated, and, in point of worldly same venerable duty.

wealth, poorly-repaid Churchinan, present “ He was indeed most zealously attach- to that of a Cardinal Wolsey ! ed to the doctrine and frame of the Established Church. We have seen him con.

66 O 'tis a burthen, Cromwell, 'tis a bur. gratulating himself that lie had no dissenters in his cure of any denomination. Some

Too heavy for a man who hopes for heaallowance must be made for the state of opinion when his first religious impressions were received, before the reader will acquit him of bigotry, when I mention, that, at LETTER FROM THE AUTHOR or the time of the augmentation of the cure,

ESSAYS ON PHRENOLOGY. he refused to invest part of the money in the purchase of an estate offered to him MR EDITOR, upon advantageous terms, because the pro- I HAVE read with much pleasure prietor was a Quaker ;-whether from scru- the " atteinpt to reconcile Metaphypulous apprehension that a bleesing would sics and Phrenology” which appeared not attend a contract framed for the benefit in your Number for May, and feel of the Church between persons not in reli- greatly indebted to your philosophical gious sympathy with each other ; or, as a

correspondent for the liberality, can. seeker of peace, he was afraid of the un-.

dour, and ingenuity, and, I may add, complying disposition which at one time

success of his attempt. He observes, was too frequently conspicuous in that sect. Of this an instance had fallen under his

that in the Essays on Phrenology, the own notice : for, while he taught school at Metaphysicians are spoken of in terms Loweswater, certain persons of that deno. calculated rather to widen the breach, mination had refused to pay, or be dise than to cement the union betwixt trained unon, for the accustomed annual them and the Phrenologists; and an


ven !'”

this is, in some degree, true, and as, in ticular faculties; and the mirthful fit consequence of subsequent events, the being over, they are disposed to intwo sciences appear not to be so wide, quire seriously into the subjec: of ly opposed as I had at first conceivel,. their joke. The day, perhaps, is not I beg leave, through the medium of far distant, when their delusion itself your pages, to make a few observa- will afford an ample fund of entertions illustrative of what now appears tainment both to themselves, and af to be the relation betwixt them. terwards to posterity ; but, the joke

The greatest causes of the opposi- apart, I may observe, that the full tion which the doctrines of Phrenolo- value and the high merit of Dr gy encountered from the philosophers, Brown's discoveries are perceived by were the entire novelty of the division none so distinctly as by Phrenologists, . of the powers of the mind which they and that his reputation for profundity contained, and the irreconcileable dif- and acuteness will rise every day as ferences betwixt them and the systems Phrenology becomes known. It is of metaphysical philosophy generally easy to shew how this will be the received. The Metaphysicians exhi- 'case, and for the sake not only of scibited a long list of Faculties, Consci- ence, but of the numerous admirers ousness, Sensation, Perception, Con- of Dr Brown, who cannot but feel ception, Attention, Abstraction, As- an interest in every thing that is sociation, Meinory, Imagination, and likely to enhance, in any degree, the Judgment, and the Phrenologists de- esteem in which his genius is held, I clared not only that no organs were beg to be allowed to make a few obto be found in the brain correspond- servations on the relation of Metaphying to such powers, but that other sics to Phrenology, in addition to · powers, of which the Metaphysicians those of your correspondent. had no idea, were to be found in con. It is now granied on all hands that stant concomitance with particular the mind has no consciousness of the cerebral parts. They, therefore, de organs by which it acts on the exter. nied that the faculties of the Meta- nal world, and that dissection throws physicians were primitive powers, and no light on the functions of the brain. exhibited, in opposition to them, an It is a question, therefore, purely of account of the faculties which they observation, whether the brain be the had discovered by observation. organ of the mind, and whether par-.

While matters stood thus, the dif.. ticular parts of it be the organs of parferences were irreconcileable. The ticular powers or not. But supposone system could not subsist if the ing a moment that such is the case, other was true. But Dr Thomas let me ask what will the result be in Brown arose, and by one of those regard to the philosophy of the mind ? wonderful efforts of mental power, It will be interesting in no common which only one man in a century degree, for it will make a mighty reseems capable of making, he broke volution not only in the mode of culdown the wall of partition, and ena- tivating the science, but in the extent bled the parties to unite as friends and degree of its certainty, applicaengaged in the prosecution of one tion, and utility. common object, instead of contending The object of the Metaphysicians as opponents. He shewed by the has always been to discover the elemost profound, yet correct metaphy- mentary principles of the human sical analysis, that the faculties of the mind, and they have endeavoured to Metaphysicians were not powers, but accomplish this end by, reflecting on states, of the mind. This was pre- and analyzing the thoughts and feel. cisely what the Phrenologists had all ings of which they are conscious. along contended for. And he then Every one of them has borne testimade a new division of the mental mony to the difficulty of this analysis, powers, which, as your ingenious cor and lamented, that, even after it has respondent has shewn, coincides in a been accomplished, only few minds wonderful degree with the results of are capable of comprehending the rephrenological observations.

sults. Hence, in the opinion of the The public have now laughed to reading public, the science of Mind satiety at the idea of the brain being has, in the words of a contemporary the organ of the mind, and of differ- reviewer,"resembled rather the fan, ent parts of it being the organs of nar. tastic evolutions of the inimic-actors

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in great affairs, than the earnest ex. The Phrenologist, on the other hibitions of those who had something hand, would answer the question : to contend for; and their works, as if briefly by saying, that, in point of without a base on which to poise fact, he had found the intensity of the themselves, have tottered, and sunk desire for property to go in regular into oblivion, in sure and melancholy concomitance with the dimensions of succession."

a particular portion of the brain, strong The object of Phrenology is pre- when it was large, and weak when it cisely the saine; but it presents faci- was small, and that, hence, he could lities for attaining the end in view of with certainty pronounce, not only which Metaphysics cannot boast. As that it was innate, but that the dea soon as the fact is ascertained by ob- grees of its intensity differed in differservation, that a particular portion of ent indiviiluals, and that the extent the brain goes in concomitance with a of these differences was ascertainable. : particular mental power, a mode of But we may take another example. ascertaining the nature, functions, It has long been a question among me. laws, and number, of the primitive taphysicians and moral philosophers, faculties of man presents itself, di- whether there is an innate moral sense vested of the difficulties of the meta- in the mind or not. Some philosophysical analysis, and attended with phers contend that there is, while the certainty, stability, and precision, others, by such an analysis as we have of physical inquiries. If it were ask- now noticed, resolve our sentiments ed, whether the Desire for Property of right and wrong into feelings of be innate or acquired ? the Metaphy- Benevolence, into Love of Approba. sician would reflect on the desire for tion, or into Perceptions of Utility, property of which he himself is con- The Phrenologist, on the other hand, scious, and analyze it. The result of declares that he finds a regular prothis analysis, in almost every case, has portion existing betwixt the intensity been a decision that such a desire is of the sentiment of Justice and a parnot innate in the mind; that proper- ticular portion of the brain, and hence ty is desired merely as a means of at- concludes, that it is innate, and not retaining other enjoyments; and that solvable into any other. the ardour with which some men en- Every one will perceive from these deavour to heap up stores of wealth examples, the advantage which Phrenowhich they never apply to purposes logy confers for attaining a knowledge of utility, arises from their associating of the constitution of the human the ideas of property and enjoyment mind. If its fundamental proposi. together for such a length of time, tion be found by experience to be that at list they become incapable of true, which I am certain that it will contemplating them apart, and hence be, we require only to observe and feel the same longing for wealth which discriminate attentively the kinds of mankind, in general, do for the plea- mental acts which accompany parti. sures which it purchases. Another cular forms of brain, to attain a cerMetaphysician, however, might dis- tain knowledge of the primitive faculpute the correctness of this analysis, ties of man. It is vain and absurd to and endeavour to shew that the de- adhere to the mode of reflective anasire in question could not be resolved lysis to the exclusion of observation, into any other feeling, and, of course, when the one presents such difficul. that it is primitive in itself. How, ties, and the other such facilities; then, could the point between them and it is something approaching to be determined ? According to the me- childishness to be deterred from entaphysical mode of philosophizing, on- tering upon new and better fields of ly by each party writing long discus- philosophizing afforded by Phrenolosions about a mental process, so fleet- gy, merely because the novelty of the ing and evanescent in itself, that it is doctrines and the cumbrous length of extremely difficult to make it at all a the nomenclature had at first excited subject of reflection, and so much a fit of merriment in the public mind, mingled with other feelings, that only Every faculty, power, or tendency of one intellect out of a thousand is en- the mind ascertained by phrenological dowed with the degree of acuteness observation, is a point gained in the which is indispensable to trace it to science of the mind, which cannot be its source.

suhject to future revolutions. No philosopher would uttempt by rea- they have never yet enjoyed for pers. soning or analysis to shew, that the fecting the Philosophy of the Mini. eyes hear or the ears see, or that sound in this union, however, it is not to might be resolved into sinell. In the be concealed that metaphysical opisame manner, whenever philosophers nions must, in the first instance, yield will take the trouble to observe, they to phrenological observations. In will find that the desire for property every case where metaphysical analyis attached to one part of the brain, sis is inconsistent with the result the sentiment of justice to another, of observation, it must be erroneous. benevolence to a third, and many Our first object in every instance, other feelings to many other parts, therefore, ougut to be to ascertain the and that the degree of effect with fact of particular powers depending on which each may be experienced, bears the same or on different organs, and a definite relation to the size and ac- then we may proceed to the analytic tivity of the organs; and such facts investigation. But we must never being ascertained, it is evident that pretend to class two organs or two fathe ultimate principles of our nature culties together, or deny the existence will be ascertained at the saine time, of any organ, inerely because we canand so clearly, palpably, and unequivo- not yet see the metaphysical distinccally, that all discussions about them tion between their functions. The must cease, as they have long ceased, soundness of these observations is ilabout the functions of the senses. lustrated in no ordinary degree by the

While, however, phrenology affords comparison which your ingenious corsuch facilities to the philosopher on respondent has made betwixt the phi, the mind, it asks the aid of his pro- losophy of Dr Brown and the docfound analysis to bring it to perfec- trines of Phrenology. His opinions tion. It is impossible that two feel. are at utter variance with those of the ings or two intellectual acts can de- metaphysicians who have preceded pend on distinct organs, and be capa. him: So are the results of Phrenology: ble of existing in the same individual But his conclusions are more profound in different degrees, without there and truer to nature than theirs ; and being a real difference in their nature. they in consequence approach incomBut to the inquisitive mind it is gra- parably nearer to the results of phretifying to perceive the metaphysical nological observation. The next step, distinction, as well as to know the po- in all probability, will be to unite the pular fact, that the organs are differ. two sciences into one. ent; and hence the mental power I have still a few observations to manifested by each organ becomes an add, but they shall be reserved for a object of metaphysical analysis, and future Number, not to trespass too the ultimate result of such analysis far on your pages. must in every instance be truth, be

RES NON VERBA QUÈSO. cause we have a landmark to guide our reflections, and a touchstone to try their accuracy. When the ana- ACCOUNT OF THE YEARS OF SCARCITY lysis agrees with the practical conclu. IN SCOTLAND FROM 1694 to 1700.* sion, we may be certain that we have In the year 1694, in the month of arrived at the truth; when it dis&- August, that crop got such a stroke in grees, there is an error in the process. one night by east mist or tog standing Thus Phrenology, when complete, like mountains, (and where it remust include a perfect system of me, mained longest and thickest, the bad. taphysics; and inetaphysics, when der were the effects, which all our perfect, must coincide with phrenolo- old men, that had seen frost, blasting, gy. In short, the two sciences, in- and mildewing, had never seen the stead of being distinct, must be blend- like, that it got little more good of ed into one; and instead, therefore, the ground. of looking on the metaphysicians as In November that winter, many opponents, I shall henceforth regard were smitten with wasting sore flux. them as fellow labourers in the same es, and strange fevers, (which car: vineyard; and I am convinced that whenever they become acquainted Extracted from the Life and Prophe. with Phrenology, they will discover cies of Mr Daniel Cargill, by Peter Wal. that it affords thein facilities, which ker. Ovò. Edinburgh.

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