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good cheer, I have one whole side yet; for Augustan age, except certain selecthe skin is off but on one side.'”
tions from Juvenal, Persius, and MarVol. II. pp. 52–54. tial.” The bounty of Lady Maxwell, Mr Southey has devoted three one of his converts in high life, enachapters of his book to notices and bled him to establish this school. She anecdotes of Wesley's lay-coadjutors, was of the Brisbanes in Ayrshire, was most of whom were very singular cha- marriel to Sir Walter Maxwell at the racters. Along with many other ec- age of 17; at 19 was left a widow; centricities, they were men who li- and six weeks after the death of her terally took no thought for to-morrow. husband, lost her son and only child. “ To remedy this evil, it was at length This lady gave Wesley L.500 to build agreed, that every circuit should al- his school; and when she understood low its preacher three pounds a quar- that a debt of L.300 had been incurter, to provide himself with clothing red, she gave him that sum also. It and books.” It afterwards hecame need scarcely be added that the strict necessary to make some provision for rules of discipline were found almost the wivcs of itinerants. For many impracticable, and had afterwards to years the stated allowance was four be somewhat relaxed. shillings a week; an additional twenty shillings a quarter was afterwards
« Provision had thus becn made for the granted for every child : and when a maintenance of the preachers' families, and
the education of their sons. A Conference, preacher was at home, the wife was
S to which Wesley, in the year 1744, invited entitled to eighteenpence a-day for his brother Charles, four other clergymen, his board. The education of the chil- who cooperated with him, and four of his dren of preachers next claimed the lay preachers, was from that time held anattention of the founder. “ Ought nually, and became the general assembly, not the Society," said Wesley, “to in which the affairs of the Society were exsupply what the parent could not, amined and determined. They began their because of his labours in the gospel ?" first meeting by recording their desire, A school was accordingly built in the that all things might be considered as in middle of Kingswood. three miles the immediate presence of God ; that they from Bristol. It was of a size to con- n
might meet with a single eye, and as little tain fifty children, besides masters and
children who had every thing to learn ;
that every point which was proposed might servants, with a room and a study for
ay for be examined to the foundation, that every Wesley's own use. The children were person might speak freely whatever was in to rise at four, summer and winter ; his heart; and that every question which to spend the time till five in private, might arise should be thoroughly debated in reading, singing, prayer, self-exa- and settled. There was no reason, they mination, and meditation. " From said, to be afraid of doing this, lest they five till seven they breakfasted and should overturn their first principles : for, walked, or worked, the master being if they were false, the sooner they were with them. for the master was con overturned the better ; if they were true, stantly to be present; and there were
re were they would bear the strictest examination. no holidays, and no play on any day.”
loys They determined, in the intermediate hours
• of this Conference, to visit none but the “The school hours were from seven
sick, and to spend all the time that reto eleven, and from one to five : eight mained in retirement; giving themselves was the hour of going to bed ; they to prayer for one another, and for a blesslept in onc dormitory, each in a se- sing upon this their labour. With regard parate bed ; a master lay in the same to the judgment of the majority, they aroom, and a lamp was kept burning greed that, in speculative things, each there. Their food was as simple as could only submit so far as his judgment possible, and two days in the week should be convinced ; and that, in every no meat was allowed. The things to practical point, each would submit, so far be taught there make a formidable as he could, without wounding his concatalogue in the founder's plan ; scie
der's plan. science. Farther than this, they maintain
1 ed, a Christian could not submit to any reading, writing, arithmetic; Enga
18 man or number of men upon earth ; either lish, French, Latin, Greek, Hebrew; to council, bishop, or convocation. And history, geography, chronology, rhe- this was that grand principle of private toric, logic, ethics ; geometry, alge- judgment on which all the reformers probra, natural philosophy, and meta- ceeded. • Every man must judge for himphysics. No Roman author was to self; because every man must give an acbe read, who had lived later than the count for himself to God.' But this prin.
ciple, if followed to its full extent, is as spend any more time at any place than is unsafe and as untenable as the opposite ex. strictly necessary. treme of the Romanists. The design of ". 2. Be serious. Let your motto be, this meeting was to consider what to teach, Holiness to the Lord. Avoid all lightness, how to teach, and what to do; in other jesting, and foolish talking. words, how to regulate their doctrines, “ 3. Converse sparingly and cautiousdiscipline, and practice. Here, therefore, ly with women ; particularly with young it will be convenient to present a connected women in private. account of each.” Vol. II. pp. 164, 165. 66 4. Take no step towards marriage - The power, which I have,” said
1 without first acquainting us with your deWesley, “ I never sought."
But his °6665. Believe evil of po one: unless you biographer says, “ however he may see it done, take heed how you credit it. have deceived himself, the love of Put the best construction on every thing : power was the ruling passion in his you know the judge is always supposed to mind.” The societies, the time and be on the prisoner's side. place of their meetings, and the ad “66. Speak evil of no one ; else your mission or expulsion of their mem- word, especially, would eat as doth a canbers, were wholly under his direction. ker. Keep your thoughts within your own The people wished to subscribe, and breast, till you come to the person concernwere allowed. The collection of the
666 7. Tell every one what you think money required stewards, and stew ards were appointed. His authority
wrong in him, and that plainly, and as
soon as may be, else it will fester in your over the lay-preachers, and over the heart. Make all haste to cast the fire out Conference, also originated in himself. of your bosom.
The first of the preachers offered 66 8. Do not affect the gentleman. You " to serve him as sons," as he have no more to do with this character than should direct. The case continued with that of a dancing-master. A preach, the same when their number increa- er of the gospel is the servant of all. sed. “They," said he,“ did not de
666 9. Be ashamed of nothing but sin; sire the meeting,” (of Conference,)
not of fetching wood (if time permit) or of “ but I did, knowing, that in a mul
drawing water; not of cleaning your own titude of counsellors there is safety.”
shoes, or your neighbour's,
oć 10. Be punctual. Do every thing s In reference to himself, as the person exactly at the time: and, in general, do in whom the whole and sole authority was not mend our rules, but keep them; not vested, Wesley called his preachers by tlie for wrath, but for conscience sake. name of helpers; and designated as assist “11. You have nothing to do but to ants those among them who, for the duties save souls. Therefore spend and be spent which they discharge, have since been de in this work. And go always, not only to nominated superintendents. It soon be those who want you, but to those who want came expedient to divide the country into you most. circuits." There were, in the year 1749, 6 12. Act in all things, not according twenty in England, two in Wales, two in to your own will, but as a son in the gos Scotland, and seven in Ireland. In 1791, pel. As such, it is your part to employ the year of Mr Wesley's death, they had your time in the manner which we direct ; increased to seventy-two in England, three partly in preaching and visiting the flock in Wales, seven in Scotland, and twenty from house to house ; partly in reading, cight in Ireland.. Every circuit had a cer- meditation, and prayer. Above all, if you tain number of preachers appointed to it, labour with us in our Lord's vineyard, it more or less, according to its extent, under is needful that you should do that part of an assistant, whose office it was to admit or the work which we advise, at those times expel members, take lists of the societies at and places which we judge most for his Easter, hold quarterly meetings, visit the glory.'” Vol. II. pp. 202-204. classes quarterly, keep watch-nights and love-feasts, superintend the other preach. The preachers were restrained by ers, and regulate the whole business of the the Conference from entering into circuit, spiritual and temporal.”
trade,-- from publishing any thing in
Vol. II. p. 201. verse or prose till it was corrected and 66 The rules of a helper are strikingly
sanctioned by Wesley, and from make characteristic of Wesley, both in their man
ing or vending drops, pills, balsams, ner and their spirit.
or medicines of any kind. They were 666 1. Be diligent. Never be unemnot to preach oftener than twice on a ployed a moment: never be triflingly em- week-day, or three times on the Sabployed. Never while away time; neither bath ; and they were advised to begin and end precisely at the time ap- settled upon the Methodist plan, in pointed. An itinerant was previously order that he might preserve his own exercised as a local preacher, and some influence, and insure the continuance remained contentedly in that hum- of itinerant preaching. "A collection bler office.
of hymns, composed chiefly by Charles, The leaders of classes are to Me- was published for the use of the Sothodism, what the non-commissioned ciety, and he prided himself upon the officers are in an army. A leader was singing in his meeting-houses. The appointed by the assistant, convened preachers were forbidden to introduce the members of the class weekly, vi- any hymns of their own composing; sited those who absented themselves, in other respects they had great lati. and received the contributions of the tude allowed them. “ The service class. The men, the women, the was not long : Wesley generally conmarried, and the single, met also in cluded it within the hour.” separate bands, at least once a week, Whitefield preceded Wesley in to confess their faults to each other. Scotland, and it is well known what Unreserved openness was required; wonderful effects were produced by and such questions as these were ask, his preaching, especially at Cambused—What known sin have you con lang and Kilsyth. But Wesley could mitted since our last meeting? What make no impression. " I admire the temptations have you met with ? How people," he said, “ so decent, so seriwas you delivered? What have you ous, and so perfectly unconcerned.” thought, said, or done, of which you Thomas Taylor, a preacher, was apdoubt whether it be sin or not? It pointed to Glasgow. He had previis marvellous,” says Southey, " that ously been employed in Wales, where any man should have permitted his he had suffered much fatigue, and wife, or daughter, to enter into these been exposed to some danger'; but bands, where it is not possible for in- found his new situation, which he denocence to escape contamination.” The scribes with much characteristic soSelect Society, or band, composed of lemnity, still more discouraging than those only " who continually walked any thing he had hitherto experien, in the light of God's countenance, ced. having fellowship with the Father,
" There were no Methodists here, no
The and the Son,” as well as the “ night: nie watch,” were also objectionable insti- in, no friend with whom to communicate;
night place of entertainment, no place to preach tutions. The night-watch originated it was a hard winter, and he was in a strange with the reclaimed colliers of Kings- land. Having, however, taken a lodging, wood, who transferred their late se- he gave out that he should preach on the derunts at the ale-house to the school. Green. A table was carried to the place, house, and spent them in praying and and, going there at the appointed time, he singing hymns. They were appoint found-two barbers' boys and two old woed to be held once a month, near the men waiting. 'My very soul,' he says, time of the full moon. « He also ad- sunk within me. I had travelled by land pointed three love-feasts in a quarter;
and by water near six hundred miles to this
place, and behold my congregation ! None one for the men, a second for the wo
but they who have experienced it can tell men, and a third for both together, what a task it is to stand out in the open that we might together eat bread,
air to preach to nobody, especially in such he says, ' as the ancient Christians a place as Glasgow !" Nevertheless, he did, with gladness and singleness of mounted bis table, and began to sing ; the heart. A travelling preacher presides singing he had entirely to himself; but at these meetings; any one who choos- perseverance brought about him some two es may speak; and the time is chiefly hundred poor people ; and continuing, day employed in relating what they cail after day, he collected at last large autheir Christian experience.” Wesley
diences. One evening, the largest congre.
gation that he had ever seen was assemcomplained of the want of family re
bled ; his table was too low; and, even ligion among his people, not reflect.
when a chair was placed upon it, the rosing, it seems that his class-meetings,
at nis class-meetings, truin was still not sufficiently elevated for band-meetings, love-feasts, and mid- the multitudes who surrounded him ; so night assemblies, were calculated to he mounted upon a high wall, and cried take away both the time and the in- aloud,-- The hour is coming, and now is, clination for its exercise. He took when the dead shall hear the voice of the care that every new chapel should be Son of God, and they that hear shall live !! They were still as the dead; and he con- departed, he left a certain provision for his ceived great hope, from the profound atten- successor, and a flock of seventy souls. tion with which they listened: but, when But, even in this populous city, Wesley, he had done, he says, they made a lane upon his last visit to Scotland, when his for me to walk through the huge multi- venerable age alone might have made him tude, while they stood staring at me, but an object of curiosity and reasonable won. no one said, Where dwellest thou ?" der, attracted few hearers. The congre.
*This reception bronght with it double gation,' he says, was miserably small, mortification-to the body as well as the verifying what I had often heard before, mind. An itinerant always counted upon that the Scotch dearly love the word of the the hospitality of his flock, and stood, in- Lord on the Lord's day. If I live to deed, in need of it. Taylor had every come again, I will take care to spend only thing to pay for: his room, fire, and at the Lord's day at Glasgow."" tendance cost him three shillings per week ;
Vol. II. pp. 252–255. his fare was poor in proportion to his lodging; and, to keep up his credit with his
We cannot accompany the preach. landlady, he often committed the pious
ers to Ireland, to America, or to the fraud of dressing himself as if he were goWest Indies ; or give the details of ing out to dinner, and, after a dry walk, the establishment of Methodism in returned home hungry. He never, in all these far distant and widely separated the rest of his life, kept so many fast days. parts of the world; but before WesHe sold his horse : this resource, however, ley's death, he had the satisfaction of could not maintain him long; and, in the knowing that his system had taken midst of his distress, a demand was made root in all these places. upon him by one of his hearers, which was not likely to give him a favourable opinion
After a while, Charles Wesley of the national character. This man, per
ceased to itinerate, married, became a ceiving that Taylor was a bad singer, and settled man, and was contented to frequently embarrassed by being obliged perform the duties, and enjoy the to sing the Scotch version, (because the comforts, of domestic life. John also people knew nothing of the Methodist married; but it was previously agreed, hymns,) offered his services to act as pre- that he should not preach one sermon, centor, and lead off the psalms. This did nor travel one mile the less on that excellently well, till he brought in a bill of account. The lady was a widow, with thirteen and fourpence for his work, which
four children; and she so tormented
four children: was just fourpence a time. The poor him by her outrag
him by her outrageous jealousy, and preacher paid the demand, and dismissed him and the Scotch psalms together. Tay.
abominable temper, that she deserves lor's perseverance was not, however, whol. to be classed in a triad with nantiply lost. Some dissenters from the kirk pe, and the wife of Job, as one of the were then building what is called in Glas- three bad wives. Wesley, indeed, gow a Kirk of Relief, for the purpose of was neither so submissive as Socrates, choosing their own minister. One of the nor so patient as the man of Uz. And leading men had become intimate with him, after a period spent in discord, she and offered to secure him a majority of the left him, no more to return. On this voters. This was no ordinary temptation : event, he says, in his journal, “ Non comfort, honour, and credit, with L. 140
eam reliqui, non dimisi, non revocabo. a-year, in exchange for hunger and con
I did not forsake her, I did not disa
I did not forsake tempt : but there was honour also on the
miss her, I will not recall her.” other side. The preacher, though he was
It is natural to suppose that Wesalone in Glasgow, belonged to a well-or. ganized and increasing society, where he
The ley would be involved in controversy. had all the encouragement of Co-operation, He, indeed, provoked a host of oppofriendship, sympathy, and applause. He nents, the most formidable of whom rejected ihe offer; and, before the spring, were Warburton and Toplady; but he formed a regular society of about forty he had also some powerful assistants. persons, who procured a place to meet in. The leaders and the mob chose differand furnished it with a pulpit and seats. ent sides. Whitefield and Wesley When they had thus housed him, they be differed about the doctrines of the gan to inquire how he was maintained, if
Gospel, the former adhering to those he had an estate, or what supplies from
of Calvin, and the latter to those of England. He then explained to them his
Arminius; and thus arose the division own circumstances, and the manner in which the preachers were supported, by
hy of the Methodists into Calvinistic and
of the Methodists into a şmall contributions. This necessary part
Arminian. Lady Huntingdon, who, of the Methodist economy was cheerfully on the death of her husband, devoted established among them; and, when he her income to the establishment of schools and chapels, is generally re- by Faith. In Adam he maintained garded as the head of the Calvinistic all died. “ From that time every man branch. Mr Fletcher, a native of who is born into the world bears the Swisserland, sided with Wesley, and image of the Devil, in pride and selfbecame, by his preaching and write will, -the image of the beast in sen, ings, one of the main supporters of sual appetites and desires ;” and in his cause.
consequence inherits, as his portion, In 1784, Wesley arrogated to him. “ error, guilt, sorrow, fear, pain, disself the Episcopal power, and obtain- ease, and death.” Hence, the necesed the settlement of the Conference sity of the new birth, a metaphor on a legal foundation. An hundred which he pursued through all its preachers of his own connection were bearings with a wảntonness of ill-dinominated to constitute this body, and rected fancy. Faith he described provision was made to continue its “the eye of the new born soul, wheresuccession, and preserve its identity. by every true believer seeth Him They were to assemble yearly at Lon- who is invisible'—the ear of the soul, don, Bristol, or Leeds, or any other whereby the sinner 'hears the voice place they might be pleased to ap- of the Son of God, and lives '--the point; and had power to administer palate of the soul, whereby a believer all the affairs of the Methodist con- tastes the good word and the powers nection. Having thus settled matters, of the world to come'--the feeling of he declared he had no cares, no anxa the soul, whereby he feels the love ieties, no sorrows. His manner of of God shed abroad in his heart. It life was favourable for longevity, and is the internal evidence of Christianihe was blessed with a vigorous con- ty—a perpetual revelation equally stitution and a cheerful temper. “I strong, equally new through all cencommonly read on horseback," said turies which have elapsed since the he," having other employment at incarnation, and passing now, even as other times.” And in this way he it has done from the beginning, distudied history, poetry, and philoso- rectly from God; into the believing phy. In his seventy-second year, and soul.” Faith implies besides,“ a sure soon after a painful operation, he ex- and firm confidence in the individual claimed, “ How is this that I find believer, that Christ died for his sins, just the same strength as I did thirty loved him, and gave his life for him.” years ago?” He felt no decay in write Repentance, incleed, is previously iming sermons, and believed he did it as parted; but it signifies nothing more well as ever. But upon his eighty- « than a deep sense of the want of all sixth birth-day, he said, " I now find good, and the presence of all evil.” that I grow old ;" and complained Perfection he defined to be " a conthat his sight, strength, and memory, stant communion with God, which had decayed. On the 17th of Febru- fills the heart with humble love." ary he caught cold after preaching, "Why, Mr Wesley,” said Bishop which increased to fever, and proved Gibson to him, “ if this is what you fatal on the ed of March, being the mean by perfection, who can be an 88th year of his life. He gave orders gainst it?" " The true Gospel,” that he should be buried in woollen, said he,“ touches the very edge both and at the desire of many of his of Calvinism and Antinomianism ;" friends his body was carried to the and many of his associates and follow. chapel in London, and there lay in a ers fell into both. He believed in a kind of state. The crowds that flock- chain of beings from an atom of uned to see him were so great, that it organized matter to the highest of became prudent to accelerate the fu- archangels. His notions of diabolical neral to prevent accidents.
agency were very extensive-he ime Wesley's doctrine of “ sinless pere puted to it disease, bodily hurts, fection” has been repeatedly alluded storms and earthquakes, night-mare, to in the course of the preceding sum- epilepsy, and madness. A belief in mary. This, with his notions of witchcraft naturally followed froin “ full assurance," was the most dan- these premises. He thought the day gerous of his opinions. He exhorted of judgment would last several thouhis disciples to insist, with all bold- sand years ; he considered the evils to ness, at all times, and in all places, which the brute creation are subject on the New Birth and Justification as the conscquence of the Fall; and