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NOTICEOEESPECTING THE 1
cts frequent te
idols, he offered this explanation :
“ How,” said he, “would Jaganath The Temple of Juggernath Jaga-' frighten all the people, and keep them nath may in shape be described as a in order, were he not of so terrible an cone deprived of its apex, and in a appearance?... og han hy go out the port if line with it are two squares with py- "Jaganath 'is here worshipped as ramidical roofs, attached to the side Krisna or Vishnu, one of whose bones of that cone. The conical building is is said to be preserved in the image. itself 147 feet high, and it is sur Whenever there are two new moons mounted first by an earthen vessel of in the month of Assaur, a new idol is 20 feet, and over it by a wheel of 14 formed. Search is made by the Brafeet, making a total of 181 feet. The mins through the forests for the neemt total height of the square next adjoin-' tree, which is to be employed. It is of ing it, to the top of the wheel is 105 feet, said to be found with a lamp burning and of the one beyond 81 feet. These under it, and guarded by a snake, and til three, composing, in fact, one temple, that no bird or animal eyer rests upon u 12 make the most conspicuous appeare' it. When the image is made, the ance, but within the square inclosure carpenter has his eyes blinded by ses por in which they stand are several simi- ven cloths, and the bone of Krishnu, lar smaller buildings. The Temple which is said to be inclosed in a caso") stands on a small sand hill about half ket, is transferred from the throat 'of? a mile from the sea, and tradition says the old to that of the new image. The that its foundation is sunk to a depth carpenter commonly died as soon as equal to the height of the building a- the work was completed, but no one bove ground. Close to it a smaller would refuse so honourable a death o' and older temple is shown, about 30 However, this dying seems now to feet below the great one, and said have fallen into disuse. The old to be on the original level of the pre- image is buried in an inclosure near sent structure.
the north gate of the Temple, which By accounts preserved in the Tem. is said to be guarded by al snake with!” ple, it is said to have been erected a- seven heads, and where nobody ever a bout 620 years ago, or about A. D. goes except when an image is to be 1198. . As this is a very moderate de deposited. The present idol was made gree of antiquity in the Hindoo code, in 1809.
L e to orlo 6916 and as the same records, with å mo- On the second day of the first new desty somewhat unusual, call the moon after the month of Assáur, they Temple of Bhowanesur in the neigh- great festival of the Ruthjattra (cha w bourhood 450 years older, we may riot) commences. The three idols of perhaps, in the absence of other data, Jaganath, Bulbuddur, and Soobud9X3 be satisfied with this date. Of course, hra, are then brought from the Tem-13 Jaganath is said to have been wor- ple and placed on the chariots to be shipped at this place very many thou-, conveyed to the Goondeecheh baree or sand years before the erection of the garden, about a mile from the Tempresent Temple. There are about ple, where, in consequence of an ao 100 other deities within the outer wall greement of some thousand years of the Temple. 7349W, I woda hor " standing, with the holy Rajah Inder SA
The appearance of the three prin- domun, Jaganath is engaged to pay a se cipal idols, especially of Jaganath, the visit of seven days every year. The chief of them, is disgusting in the ex- ruth or car, called Nundeeghose, on treme, but they have been already which he travels is thirty-six feet in described with sufficient accuracy, height, and as much in length and ** especially in the 8th volume of the breadth. It has sixteen wheels, each a Asiatic Researches, where is a very six feet in diameter, and with sixteen ingenious and partly just explanation spokes. The other cars have fourteen of the shape they have assumed ; des and twelve wheels, and are a few feet riving it from the character of the lower. Six ropes, each 180 feet long, mystical O'm; the sound not to be are employed to pull each of them, pronounced excepting by a Bramin. and with 100 men at each rope, when This is acknowledged by all Hindoos, Jaganath is in good humour he moves
on tolerably well, all things considere pilgrims at the Asnan and Ruth jattras, ed. "If out of humour, however, it is in May and June 1814, was 77,323, said the utmost exertion of 1000 men and the gross collections for the year will not stir him. In this case some ending 30th April 1815 was Sa. R*. stop is doubtless applied to one of the 1,35,667, (or L. 16,958.) This, howwheels, which may be done without eyer, is considerably more than ever its being obvious. When it occurs, was known to be realized, excepting one of the attendant priests throws in this year, and from the same auhimself on his back before the idol, thor, it appears that the number of and beats rapidly with the soles of pilgrims assembled at the same festi. his feet on the platform, the people vals in 1815 was only 5444. From shout, and for a second or two before the 1st May 1817 to the 30th April the enormous mass advances, every 1818 the total number was 66,605, of joint in it seems to creak. The crowd, which 32,831 were exempted from the clamour, and the enormity of the the tax, and in the subsequent year machine, are not without an effect the number paying the tax was somewhat imposing. The cars are 46,676. These two latter years were decorated with broad and other cloths both extremely unfavourable, owing of the most gaudy colours, and as is to sorne alarming disturbances in the not unusual in such shows, there is a neighbourhood of the Temple, but great mixture of meanness and finery. again at the two principal festivals the These are, perbaps, the only cars in number paying the tax have amounta the country on which are no indecent ed to 71,672, Upon the whole, per paintings, but the indecencies exhi- haps, the total number of pilgrims bited by the priests in front of the within the year fluctuates between idol, and before all the people, are in- 60,000 and 150,000, about two-thirds finitely more horrid than has ever of whom attend within two months, hitherto been stated. They are, in- viz. at the principal festivals of the deed, not of a nature even to be hinted Asnan and Ruth jattra, per at. The distance of the garden from The number of deaths within the the Temple is above a mile, and the town among the pilgrims in six weeks cars usually travel it in three or four from the 26th May, when 71,672 ata days.
tended, was. 315. Rice sold at the The number of pilgrims who visit same period at the moderate price of the Temple fluctuates extremely in 30 seers per rupee, or about one-half different years, as the great festivals penny per pound. happen at lucky or unlucky periods, Pilgrims come to this Temple from as the weather is fine or the reverse, the Dekkan, Guzerat, Cashmere, Nyand as the countries around are quiet pal, and Assam, and all the interven, or disturbed. During the first two ing country. There are several thouor three years of the English govern- sand priests attached to the Temple, ment no duty was exacted at the a considerable number of whom have Temple, and the number of pilgrims agents whom they dispatch to collect was greater than ever was known. pilgrims, and conduct them to the Since the imposition of the tax the Temple. Since the imposition of the number has much diminished, but it duty, some change is remarked in the may be doubted whether they ever class of pilgrims from those who freamounted to the million and more at quented the Temple under the prewhich, with a little Oriental exagge- ceding native government. More rich ration, they have been computed. On private persons now attend, but fewer asking a native who had some means of the petty chiefs and princes. These of knowing, to state how many pil latter, under the Mahratta govern, grims attended at the festival of the ment, could protect themselves and ruth juttra, he observed, that “where their attendants; now they dread the luks ( hundreds of thousands) of peo- strictness and inflexibility of the ple would not be missed, the number English police, which is felt, how, cannot be known.”
ever, as a protection by private tra It appears, however, from official vellers. accounts, * that the number of taxed At Jaganath, pilgrims of all casts
can eat together of the food which has Vide Harington's Analysis of the been offered to the idol, which, inBengal Regulations, Vol. III. p. 223. deed, forms their chief diet during
the short stay they usually make. In ree) contains 5200 houses, and is not all other respects the distinctions of otherwise remarkable. cast and sect are preserved. · It is now unusual for any person to throw himself under the wheels of ACCOUNT OF THE LATE MAJOR DAVIE; the car, unless he is otherwise tired of BY A GENTLEMAN RESIDENT IN life. At the last ruth jattra one indi CEYLON.** vidual, who had suffered severely for From the great degree of mystery two or three years from a pain in the which has hitherto prevailed, and the bowels, a disorder common in the
very confused and contradictory accountry, voluntarily sacrificed himself
himsell counts that were in circulation, not in this manner. In the preceding only in Britain, but throughout a year a similar instance occurred. The
great part of the world, relative to this natives not uncommonly hang them- lamented officer, the following partiselves from the same cause. Another culars may probably prove satisfactoperson expired while in the act of
ry: worshipping Jaganath.
In the month of June 1803, our Endless fables, in the usual style of
garrison at Kandy, the capital of the Hindoo legends, are current at this
natives, was greatly reduced by sickTemple. Here is a branch of a liv- ness; and General Macdowal having ing tree, of which another branch
been attacked by the prevailing fever, flourishes at Benares, 400 miles off, left the place in the command of Mac but where the root may be is not as- ior Davie, with a very inadequate garcertained. Here is a figure of a Gu- vison con's
GU- rison, consisting of only a part of the roor. (a fabulous bird,) which cures 2d Malay regiment, which was, howthe bite of a snake, if the person bit
ever, understood to be much attached ten can be brought in time. The to him ashe had f
to him, as he had formed and disciplined great car 'of Jaganath occasionally
that corps; and a detachment of the moves of itself, but nobody is forth- 19th regiment, of which there were coming who ever saw this miracle. only about twenty convalescent EuroThis is not the place, however, for a peans fit for duty,--the rest of this dedetail of these wonders.
tachment, to the number of 120 men, It is a curious subject of inquiry,
were lying sick in the hospital, incaphow far these absurdities are credited,
able of being moved. While our garbut it is difficult for foreign strangers rison was in this state, and very short and rulers, who are of necessity wide- of provisions, the rainy seas
of provisions, the rainy season comly separated from the people, to form
menced, and, by the overflowing of an opinion. No adequate reason oc
the rivers, enabled the Kandians to curs for the pilgrimages made, except
cut off all communication with Coing a belief in their efficacy. It is
lumbo, the capital of the British possufficiently obvious, however, that the
sessions. About four o'clock in the priests of the Temple, who constantly
morning of the 24th June, (1803,) begive out that the idol is asleep, or eat
fore day-break, the natives attacked ing, or writing a letter to another Kandy in very great force. The small idol, must laugh at the credulity of garrison kept up an incessant fire upon the multitude. Upon the whole, per- "them, till two o'clock P. M. when the haps, a few of the people disbelieve troops being much e
troops being much exhausted with fathe whole, some more disbelieve the
tigue, the European officers of the Braminical falsehoods now told, but Malay regiment represented to Major think the original institution was die Davie that, as the Kandians continuvine; another class strictly believe the ed to pour down in such numbers, whole, and the greater number, among the place could not be much longer whom are most of the lower class, care
tenable, for a torrent of the natives little about the matter, but are also had for sometime been pressing upon, disposed to credit all.
and were then attempting to force the The morals of the priests of the
palace. A council was then held of Temple are of the worst order. Rob- the whole furoneon
the whole European officers in the bery, drunkenness, and all manner of
garrison, fourteen in number; and, licentiousness, are constantly prac
after some consideration, a white flag tised within its walls. The number
was displayed, and a conference was of prostitutes retained in the immediate service of the idol is sixty-five. * See Scots Magazine, February 1804, The town of Pursottom Chutter (Poo- p. 150.
shortly afterwards held with the chief that he would receive and treat him Adigar, (the general of the natives, kindly. After consulting with his and their king's prime minister,) at officers, Major Davie informed the which articles of capitulation were ad- ambassadors, that he was fully deterjusted, written out upon olas,-sign- mined not to deliver up Mootto Saw. ed, and exchanged. By these it was my. Upon which the ambassadors stipulated, that the garrison should plainly told him, that he and his small march with their arms and ammuni- party were now completely hemmed tion towards Trincomalee, the nearest 'in by the river, and surrounded on British settlement, upwards of 100 all sides by the Kandian army, and miles distant;--that Prince Mootto that the only mode of saving the lives Sawmy, a member of the former reign- of his officers and troops, was to cause ing family, and who had best right to them to lay down their arms and march the crown, should be permitted to ac- back as prisoners of war to Kandy. A company them,-and that the Adigar council of officers was again held, and, should take care of the sick and after much deliberation, they came to wounded, and supply them with pro- be of opinion that, under all the cir. visions and medicines until they could cumstances in which they were placbe removed to Trincomalee. The ed, their want of provisions and ainAdigar then delivered to Major Davie munition, the thinness of their own a passport in the name of the King of ranks, from the desertion of a number Kandy,-that the garrison should pro- of the Malays during the night, the ceed without molestation. About five overwhelming force with which they o'clock P. M. the garrison, consisting were surrounded, and the impossibiof 14 European officers, 20 British lity, from the flooded state of the rivers, soldiers, 250 Malays, and 140 Gun- of cutting a passage for themselves in Lascars, marched out of Kandy, ac- any other direction but towards the companied by Prince Mootto Sawmy centre of the enemy's country, and his attendants. They reached there was no alternative left but to the banks of the Maha-villa-ganga, comply with the King's demand, and where they were obliged to halt for to return to Kandy unarmed. Early the night, only a few miles from Kan, in the morning of Sunday the 26th dy, as that river is not fordable, and June; the Kandian troops, attended there were neither boats nor rafts by by some Caffrees, marched upon our which they could cross it. It rained position in great force, accompanied very hard all night, and the party had by a mob of armed natives, for the nothing to protect them from the in- purpose of escorting Major Davie and clemency of the weather. Next morn- his small party to Kandy. When they ing (Saturday, 25th June) our troops had arrived within a mile of the capi. were employed in endeavouring to tal, the Kandian force was drawn up construct rafts, when the Kandians on each side of the road, and the Bri. appeared in force on both sides of the tish troops desired to march into the river, and at 7 A. M. four of the head centre of the lane, with the Malays in men waited upon Major Davie, with a front. The Europeans were then message from the King, that Major halted, and the men of the Malay reDavie should be supplied with boats giment ordered to march on. They and every assistance to enable him to all proceeded, except four native Maaccomplish the march of his troops to lay officers, and a few Malay servants, Trincomalee, provided he would de- attending on their masters, who reliver up Prince Mootto Sawmy. This fused to go on before the British of Major Davie peremptorily refused to ficers. A Kandian chief then asked comply with, and desired them to tell the Malays, who had marched for their King, that Major Davie would ward, if they were willing to enter innot permit, and much less make, any to the service of the King of Kandy. deviation from the articles of capitula- Those who refused were immediate tion. About two hours after this, ly bound, and committed to the charge another party of Kandian chiefs wait of the Caffrees. The rest of the Maed on Major Davie. They spoke to lays being then told that they must him in a very mild and conciliatory either suffer instant death or enter inmanner, and solemnly declared that to the Kandian service, they all anthe King was desirous to see and em. swered that they would serve the brace Mootto Sawmy as a relation, and King of Kandy, and were immediate
sly conducted towards the capital. So signs, and the perfidious cunning soon as they were out of sight of the which he uniformly exhibited in his Europeans, the English officers were endeavours to accomplish them. Pew :
separated from the private soldiers ; lime T'alawve was, in short, a com-and after this had been done, the plete personification of the Kandian whole, both officers and privates, were character, which, with a fawning adled out, two by two, to a distance dress, is marked by the deepest sharles from one another; when the Caffrees, of cruelty, treachery, and cunning. by order of the chief Adigar, perpe- Upon the death of the former King trated one of the most perfidious and in 1798, Pelime Talawve had the adbarbarous massacres which history re- dress to supplant Mootto Sawmy, the corils. The only Englishmen select- presumptive heir, and to place a young ed for preservation were Major Davie, Malabar of inferior extraction on the and Captain Rumley of the Malay throne. In his name the chief Adiregiment. Captain Humphreys of the gar now ruled with absolute sway. Bengal Artillery, with a Sub-assistant The Kandian territory being entirely Surgeon of the Malay regiment, who cut off from all communication with was a native of Columbo, contrived to the sea by the British possessions, his escape in the confusion which pre object in preserving Major Davie vailed during the perpetration of this was to obtain a sea-port as his ranmost atrocious act of treacherous as- som, but our government could not sassination ; the former was retaken, listen to this proposal. The Adigar and carried a prisoner to Kandy; the then attempted, by the falsest misrelatter concealed himself in the woods, presentations of the conduct of our but did not reach Columbo till the government, and their alleged neglect month of September following. The of Major Davie, and by holling out first accounts of this dreadful affair the most magnificent promises to him, were obtained from George Barnsley, to prevail with Major Davie to take a corporal of the 19th regiment, who, the command of the Kandian army. after being left for dead in the general It was regretted by some of his broslaughter, had revived, and found ther officers at Columbo, that he did means to make his escape. In his not, in appearance, do so, and avail turn, he had been led out with his himself of this proffered opportunity of companions, knocked down by the duping the treacherous Adigar, and of Caffrees with the butt end of their putting a stop to farther bloodshed, by muskets, and desperately wounded by bringing over the whole of the Kandian the blow of a sword across the neck; forces to the British. But Major but, finding himself revive, he crept Davie was incapable of duplicity, and into a thicket, where he lay till the he rejected the Adigar's proposals following night, when he swam across with the utmost disclain, although he the river, and reached Fort Afacılowall was made aware that the forfeiture on the 27th June.
of his liberty, if not life, was the 1. Major Davie and Captain Rumley consequence. were at first carried to Kandy, where, Both Captain Rumley and Captain they found that the perfidious pro Humphreys died from the effects of mise of the Kandians to take care of the climate, after they had been a the sick had been, in the first place, short time in captivity. It was when broken, and the whole of thein mur- he was thus left alone that the abovedered in cold blood. After Captain inentioned attempts began to be made Humphreys was brought in, the three on the allegiance of Major Davie ; and officers were carried to Hangaram the Adigar continued to practise them Kettee, and taken before the King, for a series of years, in the vain hore who ordered them to be confined that Major Davie's spirit would at there in separate apartments, but to be length be subdued by secluded inacwell treated. The King, who was tivity, and the imputed neglect-of-his distinguished for nothing but great own government. But in endeavour cruelty and weakness of intellect, is ing to accomplish this, all the devices supposed to have been prevailed upon of the calculating Adigar proved aborto save them by his chief Adigar, a tive, and British faith stood the test wily politician, of considerable talents, against even Kandian duplicity, a who had recommended himself to the It appears from the most authenKandians, by the deepness of his de- tic accounts that could be obtained, VOL. VII.