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tions highly favourable for observa- viation from that colour is regarded as tion and inquiry, he employed him, a striking singularity. This race is self in collecting the materials, which found throughout the whole extent of he has embodied in the volumes on the Archipelago, but abounds chiefly our table, and which he has entitled in Sumatra, Java, and indeed wherea the History of the Indian Archipela- ever civilization has made some progo. It is not, however, a chronologi- gress. Their notions of beauty are cal arrangement of events, or a series nearly the same as among ourselves. of disquisitions on the politics of these “ The man that is considered handislands, that constitute the sole, or, some, and the woman that is pointed indeed, the chief subjects, which that out as beautiful by an European, are title includes. On the contrary, the the same that are allowed to be so "character of the Indian islanders," by their own countrymen." the arts and sciences they practise or " The East Insular negro" (the other cultivate, together with their lan- race) is a distinct variety of the human spe. guage and religion, are treated of un- cies, and evidently a very inferior one. der distinct heads, as well as what is Their puny statures, and feeble frames, more properly termed their history cannot be ascribed to the poverty of their and political institutions. On all food, or the hardships of their condition, of these, and some other topics, a for the lank-haired races, living under cir: great deal of valuable information is cumstances equally precarious, have vigor. adduced, and in a sufficiently attrac- ous constitutions. Some islands they en.
the joy almost exclusively to themselves, yet tive form ; except that we think the
they have in no instance risen above the matter, in many instances, might have
most abject barbarism. Whenever they been advantageously condensed; and
are encountered by the fairer races, they that the author would have done well
are hunted down like the wild aniinals of to have avoided many of the specula the forest, and driven to the mountains or tions in which he has thought proper fastnesses incapable of resistance." Vol. I. to indulge.
pp. 25, 26. The Indian Archipelago contains The Indian islanders are defective three islands of the first rank in point in personal cleanliness, though they of size, namely, Borneo, New Guinea, are fond of bathing. In point of diet and Sumatra ;* of the second rank, they are temperate, and even absteJava, and the Malayan Peninsula; mis
1, Peninsula; mious. Rice, spiceries, and a small of the third rank, Celebes, Luzon, portion of animal food, frequently fish, and Mindanao ; and of a size still in
constitute their ordinary fare. Drunkferior upwards of sixteen. But the
enness is very uncommon among them, relative importance of these islands that
though at their feasts they occasiondoes not depenıl on their territorial
rial ally drink to inebriety.
liverinke to in magnitude, but on their situation, dustrious, or indolent, in proportion
They are inand productions. « The whole Ar
to their civilization or barbarity ; poschipelago is situated within the tro
sess a high degree of fortitude, and · pics.” The grouping of the islands
are generally superior to the fear of gives rise to numerous intricate straits dent. They rein
death. They are slow of comprehenand passages, which would be of dan- sion, but have ears of remarkable degerous navigation, were it not for the
licacy for inusical sounds. They have pacific pature of the seas, and the
no capacity for intrigue, and have a uniformity of the winds and currents.
sacred regard for truth. In their exThese islands are inhabited by two
ternal deportment they are grave and distinct races of the human species
courteous. Though tenacious of their a brown complexioned race, and an
rights, they are neither litigious, avaaboriginal negro race. The first in
ricious, nor rapacious. Hospitality is person are short, squat, and robust. universal among them. These vir. The hair of their heads is long, lank, tues, however, are contaminated by harsh, and invariably black: the face their belief in dreams, omens, sorcery, round, the mouth wide, the cheek charms, philtres, and relics. Revenge bones high, the nose, though never is one of the most common of their * prominent, is never flat, and the eyes vices: a blow will not for a moment are so uniformly black, that any de- be tolerated: the kris is at hand ready
to avenge the insult. “The exercise • New Holland is excluded, being re of the right of private revenge, and garded as a Continent.
the law which acknowledges it, de
mand life for life, but both accept a and the handle. Betel boxes are also pecuniary commutation; so that every curiously carved. Their shipping conman's life has its price, and that too sists of vessels, from small canoes hole not a very high one."
lowed out of the trunk of a tree, to The husband invariably pays a price those of 50 tons burden, but as they for his wife among all the tribes. increase in size, they become unsafe. Women are not immured, but asso- The materials of ship-building are ciate with the men on terms of equa- abundant. lity; and in the island of Celebes Most of the savage tribes of the women are eligible, and are sometimes Archipelago go in a state of perfect raised to the sovereign authority. In nakedness, with the exception of a Java the women are secluded among slight covering suggested by modesty. the better classes, but not very rigid- Children of both sexes go entirely ly. Polygamy and concubinage are naked till the age of six or seven years. tolerated, but looked upon as a vici- The habit of those who are clothed is ous luxury of the great. No man a sort of medium between the tight will give his daughter for a second or dress of the Europeans, and the flowthird wife to a person of his own rank. ing robe of the continental Asiatics. Parental authority is exercised to the It is nearly the same in both sexes. latest periods of life, and filial duty The Sarung', or envelope, used in the willingly returned. Fraternal affec- manner of a Scots Highlander's plaid, tion, particularly between children of is universal : below this many wear the same mother, is warm and active. drawers, or pantaloons, and both are The Javanese have a strong attachment fastened by a zone, generally of silk. to the place of their birth, and no- The second general piece of dress is thing will induce them to quit the the coat made in various forms, but tombs of their fathers. Yet the au- which, in the greatest proportion of thor tells us they have not a word in cases, may be described as a frock any of their languages to express with sleeves. The legs and feet are friendship.
bare, and a slight species of turban is The houses in some of the islands wrapped round the head. Flowers, are raised on posts, and are construct- ornaments of gold, and of diamonds, ed chiefly of bamboo, rattan, palmetto are worn on festive occasions. The leaf, and wild grass. Houses are ge- kris, or dagger, the betel box, and the nerally grouped into villages, and a umbrella, are constant appendages of town is merely an aggregation of vil- the dress. With the view of improve lages, distinguished by the size of the ing the beauty of their persons, it is public mosque, and the palace of the customary to file and blacken their Prince. The inhabitants sit, and eat teeth, an operation which is performon the ground; their food is served ed about the age of puberty. A coon trays of wood or brass ; and their loured cosmetic to improve the combeds are benches of bamboo, furnish- plexion is also in use among the civic ed with a mat and pillow. In cook- lized tribes. On festive occasions, ing they use shallow pans, or pots im- many portions of the dress are laid ported from China. There is not a aside, “and we may truly say of the bridge in the whole island of Java, Javanese, that when in full dress they no sluice of durable materials, no ar- are almost naked.” From the age of tificial canals or wells, and no tanks puberty to death, every man is armed or other public works of irrigation. to protect himself, so that these islandThe art of turning an arch is not un- ers are strictly an armed population. derstood at present, though it is dis. Besides the kris, the weapons of war covered in the ruins of every ancient used by them are the club, the bow temple. Their manufactures of the and arrow, the tube for discharging loom are of a coarse texture, which arrows (which are sometimes poisoned they dye blue or red. The raw ma- with vegetable juice) and fire-arms. terials of their silk stuffs are brought We must content ourselves with from China. They work well in me- referring our readers to what is said tals, and the filagree of the Sumatrans by Mr Crawfurd on the Arithmetic is highly curious. The kris is fábri- the Calendar- the Navigation and cated into a great variety of shapes, Geography--the Medicine and the and a great deal of ornament is occa- Music of these islanders, that we sionally lavished both on the blade · may leave ourselves room to be some
what particular on the subject of their Two descriptions of rice are cultiagriculture, which we regard as high- vated throughout the islands, the ly curious and important. The rainy plants of the one of which require imseason of the year may be denominat- mersion in water, the other not. The ed the spring, and the dry season the latter kind is sown in the middle of autuinn, of these tropical countries. the dry season by dibbling or broadThe diversified character of the sur- cast; that which requires submersion face affords abundance of land of a iş sown when the season permits. low and marshy, and of an elevated When the land is watered by artifiand dry, quality. The perennial cial means, it is sown at the pleasure streams, which pour down the sides of the cultivator, so that, « in one of the high mountains, charged with little field, or rather compartment, the the debris of rocks and the decay of husbandman is ploughing or harrowvegetation, shed a fertilizing influence ing; in a second he is sowing; in a throughout the whole extent of their fourth the grain is beginning to course. The alluvial soils of the val- flower; in a fifth it is yellow; and leys are from ten to fifty feet in thick- in a sixth, the women, children, and ness, and are too rich to need the aid old men, are busy reaping.” The raof manure. The degree and the va- pid growth of the grain has enabled riety of the temperature are circum- the Javanese husbandman, in a few stances, in like manner, highly fa- happy situations, to urge the culture vourable for the most valuable as well to the amount of six crops in two as the most luxuriant vegetation. A years and a half. fugitive crop of rice is sometimes ta- The stubble is burned, after the ken from patches cleared in the fo- ground has been a short time pastura rests; this land pays no rent. The ed with cattle. In some places rice uplands constantly under culture pay, is grown during the wet season; and, as rent, a third part of the produce. in the dry half of the year, some speThe lands which are flooded in the cies of pulse, farinaceous root, or ancourse of the periodical rains, and nual cotton, is cultivated. But the those which can be watered by artifi- richer lands are scourged by the evercial irrigation, yield two crops in the lasting succession of a double harvest year, and pay a rent in proportion to of rice. their value. The buffalo and the ox After rice, maize, which seems an are the cattle commonly employed in indigenous plant, is most extensively the labours of agriculture. A plough, cultivated, and, as an article of food, & harrow, a hoe, a large knife, and a has in the islauds the same relation sickle, are almost the whole stock of to rice that oats and barley have to implements that is required. The wheat in Europe. It is a sure crop, brooks are dammed to cause them to as it grows well in every clime of the overflow the fields; the slopes of the Archipelago; it is also very producmountains are formed into terraces to tive, four or five hundred' fold not intercept and retain the beneficial being an unfrequent return. Millet, moisture ; and valleys are rendered and other sinall grains, are not raised almost impassable, from the frequency in great quantities; but pulses form of the water courses.
an important article of husbandry in
the western islands of the Archipela« Not an accessible spot is to be seen in go: they are cultivated chiefly as the season that is not covered with a rieh green crops after rice. The pulse harvest; and if we take into account—the whence soy is manufactured is raised brilliant tints of an equatorial sky,—the to a considerable extent, and requires vicinity of mountains of ten thousand feet skill in the culture. Nutritive roots, high, the more elevated portions of which such as the yam, sweet potatoe, Java are covered with forests of perpetual ver
potatoe, arrow-root, and the common dure,-valleys thickly strewed with groves
potatoe, are also extensively cultivatof fruit trees, hiding the cottages of the
ed. The varieties of the yam are nupeasantry,—together with the peculiar
: merous, and it sometimes grows to richness of the rice crop itself, which far excels that of all the other Cereal gramina, the weight of forty or fifty pounds. we may imagine that rural industry can. The sweet potatoe follows rice as a
not well be contemplated, in any portion green crop, and grows to a large size. e of the globe, to greater advantage." The manioc of South America has
Vol. 1. pp. 352, 353. been introduced, and may be seen growing wild in the hedges. The largest of the palm tribe. The fruit Dutch have also introduced the Ame- is in great abundance, and grows from rican potatoe, the common potatoe, shoots on strings about three feet in artichokes, cabbages, peas, and other length. The liquor or toddy flows European garden stuffs. Cucumbers from the shoots of fructification on the are cultivated, and consumed in large first appearance of the fruit, after they quantities. Thecocoa-nut, the ground have been beaten for three successive pestachio, the Palma Christi, and se- days with a small stick. This is fera samum, are raised for the oil which mented into a liquor possessing an inthey afford. The cocoa-nut grows best toxicating quality, is manufactured near the sea, and is seldom met with into sugar or into wine, and from the in the interior. The best edible oil wine the Batavian arrack is prepared. is obtained from a large hanlsome The gomuti palm thrives best in hot tree named Kanari, which yields a dry plains. The betel vine, which nut of an oblong shape, nearly as large yields the pepper of that name, is as a walnut. The sago-palm is an raised for its aromatic and pungent important article of the husbandry of leaves. These, with the nut of the this region. It is one of the hum. Areca palm, and other occasional inblest of the palm tribe, and has, in gredients, are used as a masticatory. the early period of its growth, the ap- The plant is cultivated in separate pearance of a bush with many shoots. gardens, near villages, where water is The stem contains an enormous vo- abundant. It is propagated by slips, lume of a spongy medullary matter, affords leaves fit for use in the second like that of the alder. This is the year, and continues to yield them for edible part, and from it the bread of more than thirty years. The juice the islanders is formed. A good sago called Gambis, an article of extensive plantation or forest is a bog knee deep. consumption and traffic, is obtained *o* When the pith is ascertained to be
nin from the leaves of a shrub. The ripe, the tree is cut down near the root. plant grows
plant grows in dry situations, and is and the trunk subdivided into portions of propagated from the seed.
f propagated from the seed. When the six or seven feet long, each of which is split seedlings are about nine inches high, into two parts. From these the medullary they are transplanted, and never rise matter is extracted, which, with an instru- above the height of five feet. The ment of bamboo or hard wood, is forth- juice is boiled in iron pots to the conwith reduced to a powder like saw-dust. sistence of a syrup, and, when cool, The process of separating the farina from becomes solid, and is cut into square the accompanying bran and filaments is cakes. It is used as a masticatory. simple and obvious, and consists merely and much of it is exported into China. in mixing the powdered medulla with
Tobacco is of universal consumption, water, and passing the water charged with the farina through a sieve at one end of a
y of and is, consequently, raised in large the trough in which the mixture is made. quantities, cheny on the lands waterThe water so charged is made to pass into ed by artificial irrigation. The leaf a second vessel, where the farina falls to is always shred when green, after havthe bottom, and, after two or more edul- ing been freed from the fibrous midcorations, is fit for use. This is the raw rib. The Banana, the Bread fruit, sago meal, which keeps, without further the Mangustin-the most exquisite preparation, a month. For further use, of Indian fruits,--the Durian, which ihis meal is made into cakes, which keep never cloys or palls on the appetite,a long time.” Vol. I. pp. 389, 390. the Juck, which grows to an enormous
Among the plants raised as articles size,—the Mango, a fruit of a delicate of native luxury is the Areca palm. flavour,-the orange and lemon tribe, It has a graceful stem about thirty or in great profusion,--the pine-apple, forty feet high, begins to bear fruit the Guava, the Papaya, the custarda when six years old, and to leave off apple, the cashew tree, the pomegrabearing and to die about the age of nate, the tamarind, with a great vatwenty-five. The fruit in the green riety of other fruits, both indigenous state is eaten, and the ripe nut is a and exotic, are cultivated in many of great object of commerce. The Sag- the islands, and are even found wild wire or Gomuti palm, which yields a in some of them. Flowering plants, saccharine liquor much used by the shrubs, and trees, are also abundant natives as a beverage, is also exten- and various, and the prevailing cosively cultivated. It is one of the lours are yellow and red. .
The common cotton of Java is culgrows on a hardy vine-like plant, with tivated as a green crop after rice, the dark-green, heart-shaped, and pointsubmersion the plant undergoes dur- ed leaves. It climbs to the height of ing the rains causing it then to pe- twenty-five feet, and the fruit anrish; in upland soils it becomes a pears in clusters on the short brittle perennial plant, continuing to bear branches like bunches of currants. for several years. “ The Indian is. The fruit is first green, then red, and lands produce a great number of plants finally black; and two crops are geyielding a filacious bark which affords nerally obtained in the course of the materials for cordage.” The rattan, year. This plant is supposed to have & prickly bush sending forth long been introduced into the Archipelago shoots, is of very extensive utility. from Malabar, where it grows wild. The bamboo and many of the palms It is, however, congenial to the soil furnish materials for many of the na- of the islands. It is sometimes traintive arts and manufactures. The fo- ed to dead poles, as in the culture of rests abound in excellent timber trees, hops; and sometimes it is gupported among which is the teak tree, and by the Areca and even the Cocoanut many others well fitted for economical palm. The vine is occasionally proand ornamental uses. Indigo and pagated by laying the young shoots. other colouring drugs are abundant, It usually yields fruit in the third among which are the Brazil wood. year, is in full bearing in the fifth, The Anchar, a large tree, and the and continues stationary for eight or Chetik, a creeping shrub, afford a sub- nine years. In reaping the pepper, tle and deleterious poison.
the reaper nips off the clusters when Our author next proceeds to the the first berries of each appear red, consideration of the culture of those though the rest be still green. White plants which are raised chiefly for the pepper, as is now well known, is black value set upon their produce by fo- pepper blanched. The culture of cofreigners. Among these the sugar- fee in Java is somewhat peculiar. It cane holds a conspicuous place. Of thrives best in vallies near high mounthis there are several varieties; but tains, under the shade of trees. For they are all cultivated in the same this end the Dădap is planted by cutmanner. Sugar-cane is never plant- tings at the same time with the cofed in the finest soils, and for the ma- fee plants. Coffee is now planted in nufacture of sugar, slips of the cane hedges, where it is found to produce are planted in the months of July and large crops of berries, in no measure August, and cut in those of May and interior to the more elaborate produce June.
of the regular gardens. Weeding and
hoeing are the principal cares of the « The process of manufacture is as fol. cultivator; no pruning is practised, lows: The rice is first boiled, and after
the plants being permitted to shoot in cooling a quantity of yest is added to it, wild luxuriance. The plants afford a and it is pressed into baskets, in which
small crop in the third year, and a condition it is placed over a tub, or tubs, for eight days, during which time a liquor
full one in the fourth ; and according flows abundantly from the mixture. At as they occupy a low or an elevated the end of that time, the liquor so distilled situation, they continue to bear from is taken out, and mixed with the molasses ten to twenty years. The culture and palm-wine, which had been previously of Cocoa has been introduced of late combined. The mixture remains in a years into Java and the Philippines, small vessel for one day only, when it is but has not hitherto been carried to removed into large fermenting vats, in any great extent. which it remains for seven. When, at the The Clove (Caryophulus aromatitermination of this period, the process of cus ) claims the first place among the fermentation is over, the liquor is finally finer spiceries. The tree on which removed into the stills, and, according to the number of distillations it undergoes,
it grows resembles the laurel, and becomes arrack of the first, second, or third som
ind sometimes the beech, and is in height quality in commerce.”
about the same as that of the cherry Vol. I. pp. 478, 479. tree. In the beginning of the wet
season it throws out a profusion of A valuable and almost an exclu- branches, at the extremities of which sive product of the Indian islands is the young cloves make their appearBlack Pepper, (Piper nigrum, which ance, and in four months the fruit is