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which closes with the close of the septenary of the trumpets, and that of the vials. These notable periods resulting from both the divisions appear to be fur. nished from plain facts; as will be seen by casting an eye upon the first chart. The first period commences with the seals, in the first century. ond, with the trumpets, in the fourth century. The third with the first woe, in the seventh century. The fourth, with the second woe, in the fourteenth century. The fifth, with the period of the vials, in the sixteenth century.

The sixth, with the rise of the Antichristian Beast from the bottomless pit, in the eighteenth century.

And the seventh with the battle of that great day of God Almighty. It has been our lot to behold the commencement of the sixth period, and fifth vial, in the rise of the Antichristian Beast from the bottomless pit, filling the Papal kingdom with dark


13. The following remarks are subjoined, relative to events, which occupied the long space of time be. tween the fifth and sixth trumpets, or the first and second woes; as six of the vials occupy the space between the sixth and seventh trumpets, or the second and third woes.

The reign of sin, under the Christian era, and before the Millennium, was to occupy about two thousand years. Among the various divisions and judgments of this long period, there were to be three signal ones called woes; as has been shewn, section i, chapter ii. The first was introduced about the close of the first third of the above long period; or about the year 666. The second woe was introduced about the close of the second third of the above two thousand years; or in the year 1332. What then does analogy suggest rela:ive to the time of the third woe? It suggests that it might naturally be expected to take place not long before the close of the two thousand years. According :o this analogy, it must be still future, and is to be at too late a period to comprise all the vials. It has been shown in section i, chapter ii, that the battle of the great day may probably take place at the end of the 1260 years added to A. D. 666; or A. D. 1925; 75 years (the sum inade by Daniel's two additional numbers) before the year 2000. Six of the vials must precede it, or occupy the space be. tween the sixth and the seventh trumpets. This appears rational and probable, both from the length of time between the sixth and seventh trumpets; and also from analogy, that a similar succession of events did in fact occupy a similar space of time, between the fifth and sixth trumpets. Let them here be noted.

1. The complete establishment, and the progress, of the Papal delusion. This fatal apostasy, this curse to the world, was indeed synchronical with that judg. ment called the first woe, but distinct from it. After the period of the first woe opened, this horrid event appeared; the Papal Beast arose. This event was as great, as was the full development of the abominations of Popery, after the second woe, in the reformation, or first vial.

2. The Wars of Charlemagne, tending to establish the Papal supremacy. “The life of that great prince (says Dr. Mosheim) was principally employed in the most zealous efforts to propagate and establish the religion of Christ among the Huns, Saxons and Frieslanders, and other unenlightened nations; but his piety was mixed with violence; his spiritual conquests were generally made by the force of arms; and this impure mixture tarnishes the lustre of his noble exploits.” The fact was, he propagated the Papal religion, with force and arms. He was crowned, by the Pope, king of the Romans, with a view to give a permanency to the Papal cause.

And he did as much toward confirming and extending the Papal delusion, as did Charles V, after the second woe, and under the second vial, toward executing divine judgments on the na. tions symbulized by the sea that was turned to blood.

3. The wars of succeeding princes in European nations. Those of Otho the great, in the tenth century, subduing the Danes, and others. Those of the Norman dukes, especially of William the conqueror.

4. The great readiness of the civil governments in Europe, and particularly in the Gerinan empire, to propagate the Papal religion, and to support the dogmas and im positions of Popery. Dr. Mosheiin, speaking of the idolatrous European nations, says, "the Christian kings and emperors left no means un. employed, to draw those infidels within the pale of the church. For this purpose, they proposed to their chiefs, alliances of marriage, offered them certain districts, and auxiliary troops-upon condition, that they would abandon the superstition of their ancestors,” and embrace the catholic religion. "These offers were attended with the desired success." Those chiefs were proselyted; and they obliged their subjects to follow their examples. (Mosheim Vol. ii, p. 192.) The Papal harlot thus "reigned over the kings of the earth.” Those civil governments did as much toward supporting her cause, as did the Protestant governments, in after days, or between the second and third woes, toward destroying it. See fourth vial.

5. The bitter and bloody contentions between the Popes and the emperors, relative to the right of investitures; and the prevalency of the Papacy in these contentions. These contentions, which drenched many provinces in blood, did much toward establishing the vast preponderancy of the Papal influence. Relative to this point then in contest, let it be remarked; the European emperors and princes made grants to the Papal clergy of certain territories, forests and castles. But they enacted, that, as a condition of holding those do. nations, those clergy men should take the oath of allegiance to their respective sovereigns, and receive from them a certain token, which should entitle them to the tenure of those respective grants. From this the em. perors and princes undertouk, in process of time, to assume to themselves the right of election of bishops and abbots, in their dominions, in violation of the cus. toms and laws of the church. They would dispose of a bishopric or abbey, (when it became vacant) to some of their favorites; or even to the highest bidder. They thus assumed the whole power of the ring and

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522 A concise view of the Revelation of St. John. crosier, (or seal and shepherd's staff) of those sacred offices. This usurpation the hierarchy violently opposed. Armies were raised. Much blood was shed. These contentions in the tenth and eleventh centuries, were violent. But the hierarchy in some instances, prevailed. The emperor Henry IV was obliged to cross the Alps, in Feb. 1877, to seek pardon of Gregory VII. He had to stand at the gate of his holiness, with bare head and feet, and only a coarse woollen cloth to cover him, three days. The Pope then admitted him into his presence; but granted only a small part of his petition, after all his humility.

6. The horrible and bloody crusades to the Holy land, to recover it from the infidels, or the Mohammedan powers. These may be considered as the finishing scenes, previous to the second woe; as the close of these took off the restraints from the four Turkish sultanies near the river Euphrates, and prepared the way for the second woe in the rise of the Ottoman empire.

These events between the first and second woes, which attended the rise and zenith of Popery, seem indeed to bear some analogy to the sixth first vials, between the second and third woes; which bring down the Papacy, and the Mohammedan delusion. The following analogy, at least seems manifest between thein; viz. The above series of events intervened between the first and second woes; and were distinct from the appropriate event of each. And in like manner the six first vials intervene between the second and third woes; and are distinct from the appropriate event of each.

The above considerations furnish an argument in fa. * for of the opinion that six of the vials precede the third woe; or that the third woe does not contain all the vials; but is the same with the seventh vial. In further confirmation of this opinion, 1. Read and compare Rev. xi, 15-19, with chap. xvi, 17—21., The same events, in the same figures, and in the same con. nexion with the Millennium, are described. Both finish the kingdom of darkness, and thus prepare the

way for that of Christ. 2. In Rev. x, 7, it is the beginning of the seventh trumpet to sound, that finishes the mystery of God. That mystery is not yet finish. ed. Hence the beginning of the seventh trumpet is still future? But can all seven of the vials be still future? Is not the Papal Beast already destroyed by some of the vials? The affirmative appears evident. Hence some of the vials do precede the third woe. And if some of them thus precede, then six of them may precede the third woe or seventh trumpet. 3. Compare Rev. x, 7, with xvi, 14; and we find the sev. enih trumpet and seventh vial are the same. In the former passage, the seventh trumpet is only “as God hath declared to his servants the prophets.” And in the latter passage, the seventh vial is called “the battle of THAT great day of God Almighty;" alluding to these very predictions in the prophets. 4. The 1260 years, of the witnesses' prophecying in mourning, expire, and the witnesses are slain, and rise again, and ascend up to heaven, and a vast earthquake follows, before the commencement of the third woe; Rev. xi, 3, 7-14. But the 1260 years are not yet expired. The Church is yet in the wilderness. Hence the commencement of the third woe must now be future.

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