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The depth and rankling nature of this sore upon the men, who had the mark of the Beast, appeared in the attempts made by the Pope and the German emperor to crush the Smalkalde league. However long Charles had dissembled his designs, and however long his wars abroad had prevented his being able to use violent means to crush the reformation; he still carried the pur. pose in his heart, if other means should prove ineffectual. And, as he found a cessation of his wars abroad,

a about the year 1547, he made his arrangements to carry his purpose into effect. But his designs being perceived by the vigilant Protestants, they with incredible celerity made their arrangements to nieet him. And notwithstanding Charles, by his fair protestations of having no design against the Protestant religion, but only to crush a political faction, had caused many Protestant cities to remain neutral, and some even to join with him; he in a short time found 70,000 foot, and 15,000 horse, in arms against him; with 120 cannon, 8,000 beasts of burden, and 6,000 pioneers. The em. peror was astonished at their numbers and force! But for want of experie.:ced generals, and through the treachery of Maurice, to whom the elector of Saxony had committed the care of his doininions in his absence, as well as through the superior generalship of Charles, this army of the reformers was soon dispersed. And Charles for a time thought he was going to effect his purposes, both of crushing the reformation, and of de. stroying the liberties of Germany. But such were the numbers and zeal of the reformers, and such their view of the abomination of Popery, that his attempts proved vain. Maurice, who had deserted the Protestants, How became alarmed for the liberties of Germany; and in a plan of deep policy he out-generaled Charles;-rescued both the cause of the Protestants, and the liberties of Germany, out of his hands;—and brought about the peace of Passau, in 1552, which was confirmed in the diet of Augsburg, in 1555; and which formed the basis of the religious peace in Germany. The following are chief articles of this recess: "That such princes and cities, as have declared their approba'ion of the confession of Augsburg, shall be permitted to profess the doctrines, and exercise the worship, which it author. izes, without interruption or molestation from the emperor, or the king of the Romans, or any power or person whatsoever: That the Protestant powers, on their part, shall give no disquiet to the princes and states, who adhere to the tenets and rites of the church of Rome: That for the future no attempt shall be made toward terminating religious differences, but by the gentle and pacific methods of persuasion and conferences: That the Popish ecclesiastics shall claim no spiritual jurisdiction in such states, as receive the confession of Augsburg: That such as had seized the benefices or revenues of the church, previous to the treaty of Passau, shall retain possession of them, and be liable to no prosecution in the Imperial chamber on that account: 'i'hat the supreme civil power in every state shall have right to establish what form of doctrine and worship it shall deem proper; and if any of its subjects refuse to conform to these, the governinent shall permit them to remove, with all their effects, whithersoever they shall please: That if any prelate or eccle. siastic shall hereafter abandon the Romish religion, be shall instantly relinquish his diocese or benefice; and it shall be lawful for those, in whoin the right of nomina. tion is vested, to proceed immediately to an election, as if the office were vacant by death or translation, and to appoint a successor of undoubted attachment to the ancient system."'* If there be defects in this instru. inent, in point of religious liberty; when we consider when, where, by whom, and in favor of whom it was confirmed, we see in it the death wound of the Papal Beast, and a discovery of the rottenness of the Romish system, which must have issued in its ruin. The above articles extended only to those of the reformers, who enibraced the confession of Augsburg. Consequently the followers of Zuinglius, and of Calvin, who viewed that confession as too soft toward tie Catholic interest, remamed without any legal protection from the rigor of the law against heretics, till the treaty of Westphalia; nearly a century after that of Augsburg. And in France, and other Papal countries, that compact afforded no protection to the Protestants.

* Hist. Ch. V, vol. iii, p. 181.

But the reformation spread into other countries with amazing rapidity. The Pope himself now felt the fatal nature of his wound; and he languished under it. Of the council of Bologna, called to deliberate on their wretched affairs; after a broken, unavailing session, Dr. Robertson remarks; "The Pope had no choice, but to dissolve an assembly, which had become the object of contempt; and exhibited to all Christendom á most glaring proof of the impotence of the Roinish see.”* The emperor Charles himself took an occasion from the above incident to stigmatize the Pope, and to endeavor to render him odious, even to all zealous Catholics. And various things occurred, which did in fact render him odious to the Papal, as well as Protestant world; particularly the following incident. Pope Julian bestowed the cardinal's 'hat (the most sacred official gift in his power) on one Innocent, an obscure youth of about 16 years of age, known by the name of the ape; because he took the care of an ape in his master's family. Upon this strange occurrence a writer observes, “In an enlightened age, when by the progress of knowledge and philosophy, the ob. ligations of duty, and decency were better understood, when a blind veneration for the Pontifical character was every where abated, and one half of Christendom in open rebeilion against the Papal see, this action was viewed with horror." Libels filled even Rome itself, satirizing the Pope upon this conduct; and imputing it to a nameless, horrible passion, which the Pope was supposed to have indulged toward this youth.

Pope Julius IH brought indelible disgrace on the Pontifical chair. While his nuncio Morono was la. boring by his direction at the diet of Augsburg, to set aside the peace of Passau, which has been noted

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* Hist. Ch. V, vol. iii, p. 457.

as in favor of the Protestants; the Pope was at the same time wallowing in licentiousness in his capital at Rome. Through excessive indulgence he had become averse to all serious business. An application which required attention to business was made to him, which he wished to avoid; for which purpose he feigned himself sick. And to give plausibility to his pretence, he retired, and altered his diet. This course was in fact followed by sickness, of which in a few days he

а died! Thus while the Protestants were treinbling at the intrigues of his nuncio, in the diet of Augsburg, the Pope was suddenly snatched out of time by his own mean artifice: Upon which bis nuncio left the diet, and hastened to Rome, to be present at the election of a new Pope; and the peace of Passau was confirmed. What an esposure of the deadly corruption of that sys. tem! No wonder indeed, that hundreds of thousands hastened to flee out of it, as from a house infected with the plague! For the exposures of this Papal corruption, few like liglituing over Europe; and suddenly broke the enchantments of superstition, in which millions had been miserably enslaved. Upon this, a historian remarks; “The charm, which had bound mankind for so many ages, was broken at once. The human mind, which had continued long as taroe and passive, as if it had been formed to believe whatever was taught, and to bear whatever was imposed, roused of a sudden, and became inquisitive, mutinous, and disdainful of the yoke, to which it had hitherto submitted. The wonderful ferment and agitation of inind (which at this distance of time appears unaccountable, or is condemned as extravagant) was so general, that it must have been excited by causes, which were natural, and of power. ful efficacy. The kingdoms of Denmark, Sweden, England, Scotland, and almost one half of Germany, threw off their allegiance to the Pope; abolished his jurisdiction within their territories; and gave the sanction of law to modes of discipline and systems of doc. trine, which were not only independent of Papal pow. er, but hostile to it. Nor was this spirit of innovation confined to those countries, which openly revolted from

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the Pope. It spread through all Europe, and broke out in every part of it with various degrees of violence. It penetrated early into France, and made quick progress there. In that kingdom the number of converts to the opinions of the reformers, was so great, their zeal so enterprising, and the abilities of their leaders so distinguished, that they soon ventured to contend for superiority with the established church; and were sometimes on the point of obtaining it. In all the provinces of Germany, which continued to acknowledge the Papal supremacy, as well as in the low countries, the Protestant doctrines were secretly taught; and had gained so many proselytes, that they were ripe for re. volt, and were restrained merely by the dread of their rulers from imitating the examples of their neighbors, and asserting their independence. Even in Spain and in Italy symptoms of the same disposition to shake off the yoke, appeared. The pretensions of the Pope to infallible knowledge and supreme power, were treated by many persons of eminent learning and abilities, with such scorn, or attacked with such vehemence, that the most vigilant attention of the civil magistrate, the highest strain of Pontifical authority, and all the rigor of inquisitorial jurisdiction, were requisite to check and extinguish it.”

Who then can doubt but this fatal wound given to the Papal power, this sudden and most astonishing exhibition of the filthy abomination of the Papal see, fulfilled a vial of the wrath of God on that corrupt sys. tem? And who can doubt but this was the first vial, which was to operate as a noisonie, grievous sore upon the men who had the mark of the Beast, and who worshipped his image? With such a rankling, deadly sore they indeed did languish, under the development of the abominations of their system, and under the progress of the doctrines of the reformation, The Lamb now appeared on mount Zion; (Rev. xiv, 1;) or Christ appeared in his Church, for the salvation of his cause; and for the confusion of bis enemies. This his appearance marked the commencement of a new era of judgments upon the wicked. And they have never

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