An End to Poverty?: A Historical Debate
Columbia University Press, 2005 - 278 стор.
In the 1790s, for the first time, reformers proposed bringing poverty to an end. Inspired by scientific progress, the promise of an international economy, and the revolutions in France and the United States, political thinkers such as Thomas Paine and Antoine-Nicolas Condorcet argued that all citizens could be protected against the hazards of economic insecurity. In An End to Poverty? Gareth Stedman Jones revisits this founding moment in the history of social democracy and examines how it was derailed by conservative as well as leftist thinkers. By tracing the historical evolution of debates concerning poverty, Stedman Jones revives an important, but forgotten strain of progressive thought. He also demonstrates that current discussions about economic issues -- downsizing, globalization, and financial regulation -- were shaped by the ideological conflicts of the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries.
Paine and Condorcet believed that republicanism combined with universal pensions, grants to support education, and other social programs could alleviate poverty. In tracing the inspiration for their beliefs, Stedman Jones locates an unlikely source-Adam Smith. Paine and Condorcet believed that Smith's vision of a dynamic commercial society laid the groundwork for creating economic security and a more equal society.
But these early visions of social democracy were deemed too threatening to a Europe still reeling from the traumatic aftermath of the French Revolution and increasingly anxious about a changing global economy. Paine and Condorcet were demonized by Christian and conservative thinkers such as Burke and Malthus, who used Smith's ideas to support a harsher vision of society based on individualism and laissez-faire economics. Meanwhile, as the nineteenth century wore on, thinkers on the left developed more firmly anticapitalist views and criticized Paine and Condorcet for being too "bourgeois" in their thinking. Stedman Jones however, argues that contemporary social democracy should take up the mantle of these earlier thinkers, and he suggests that the elimination of poverty need not be a utopian dream but may once again be profitably made the subject of practical, political, and social-policy debates.
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24 See N. F. R. Crafts , ' British Economic Growth , 1700-1831 : A Review of the
Evidence , Economic History Review 36 ( 1983 ) , pp . 177-99 ; Crafts , ' The New
Economic History and the Industrial Revolution , in P. Mathias & J. A. Davis ( eds
1889 ) , p . 167. See also J. Thompson , ' A nearly related people : German views
of the British Labour Market , 1870– 1900 , in D. Winch and P. K. O'Brien , The
Political Economy of British Historical Experience , 1688-1914 ( Oxford 2002 ) .
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... Sir John : The history of the ( public ] revenue ( of the British Empire ) 23
Sismondi , J. C. L. Simonde de 152 , 187 ; Blanqui and 186–7 ; Carlyle and 191 ;
Histoire des républiques italiennes du moyen âge 152–3 , and glutting of markets
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AN END TO POVERTY?: A Historical DebateРецензія користувача - Kirkus
Up-close examination of how Adam Smith and industrial advancement sparked furious debates on the future of the impoverished.Jones (History/Cambridge Univ.) examines the rise of political economy in ... Читати огляд повністю
LibraryThing ReviewРецензія користувача - bruchu - LibraryThing
The Roots of Social Democracy Long before Marx, debates about improving the human condition and elimination of poverty were carried out through enlightened thinkers such as Thomas Paine and Antoine ... Читати огляд повністю
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