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89. Theseus and the Minotaur.. (Wall painting: H. and P.].......

90. The Sleeping Ariadne. [Vatican: Roscher 4 : 545.)............

91. Head of Bacchus. [In Leyden : Roscher 7: 1128.]............

92. Bacchus finding Ariadne. (Wall painting: Müller.]. ..........

93. Venus bringing together Paris and Helen. (Relief in Naples :

Roscher 12 : 1938.]....

......... 284

94. Achilles taken from Scyros by Ulysses and Diomedes. (Pompeian

wall painting: Roscher 1 : 27.].......

.......... 286

95. The Surrender of Briseis. [Pomp. wall painting: koscher 5 : 820.) 291

96. Hector fighting before the Ships. [Gem: Roscher 12 : 1921.]... 292

97. Ransom of Hector's body. (Relief: De Clarac.]...
98. Ajax with Achilles' body. [Roscher 1 : 126.]........
99. Head of Paris. [Bust: Münchener Antiken von C. F. A. von Lüt-
sow.] ..................................

...........

100. Entry of the Wooden Horse; Women supplicating Pallas; Cas-

sandra raving. [Wall painting: H. and P.]................ 306

101. Orestes pursued by the Furies. (Vase picture: Roscher 8 : 1331.]. 311

102. Orestes taking refuge at Delphi: Fury, Apollo, Orestes, Tripod,

Pallas. (Vase picture: Millin.) .........

.............. 311

103. Sirens and Ulysses. [Gem: Millin.]........ .......... 321

104. Head of Minerva. (Copy of Pallas of the Parthenon.) [Statue :
Hirt.] ........

.....

105. Penelope at the loom. [Vase picture: Baumeister.]. ..........

106. Ulysses and Euryclea. [Relief: Roscher 9 : 1423.].............

107. Æneas, Anchises, and lulus. [Gem: Mus. Flor.) ..............

108. Scylla. (Carved end of table: Chefs d' (Eurres de l'Art Antique,

Paris, 1867.)........

....... 341

109. Charon receiving a passenger and his fare. (Relief: Sepolcri.].. 346

110. Amazon. [Guhl & Koner.].........

LIST OF MAPS.

NO.
1. GREECE AND THE GREEK COLONIES ........

.......

2. GREECE IN THE FIFTH CENTURY

3. GREECE BELOW THERMOPYLÆ ..............

4. ORBIS TERRARUM EX SENTENTIA HOMERI ..................

5. Troas ET HELLESPONTUS.........

6. GLADSTONE'S MAP OF THE OUTER GEOGRAPHY OF THE ODYSSEY.. 313

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LIST OF FULL-PAGE ENGRAVINGS.

No.

1. MARS (Tuesday). Raphael ............. 2. APOLLO BELVEDERE (in the Vatican)........ 3. DIANA. Correggio ...... 4. VENUS OF Melos (in the Louvre) ............ 5. The Flying MERCURY. Giov. di Bologna ..... 6. THE FATES. Michael Angelo .............. 7. The Force Of Vulcan. Velasquez ...... 8. THE PLEIADES. Vedder... 9. ATALANTA's Race. Poynter ........... 10. ORPHEUS AND EURYDICE, Sir Frederick Leighton ........ 1. AURORA. Guido Reni ..., 12. FAUN. Praxiteles ............................... 13. PERSEUS, Cellini .......................... 14. EdiPUS AND ANTIGONE. Teschendorff .................. 15. HECTOR'S FAREWELL TO ANDROMACHE AND ASTYANAX .... 16. Laocoon (in the Vatican).......

xxviii

.......................

INTRODUCTION.

THE STUDY OF MYTHOLOGY IN CONNECTION WITH ENGLISH

POETRY.

OUR American educational methods too frequently seek to produce the effect of polish upon a kind of sandstone information that will not stand polishing. With such fatuity many of our teachers in the secondary schools exercise their pupils in the study of English masterpieces and in the critical estimate of æsthetic qualities before acquainting them with the commonplace facts and fables that, transmitted through generations, are the material of much of our poetry because the material of daily converse, imagination, and thought. These commonplaces of tradition are to be found largely in the literature of mythology. Of course the evil would be neither so widespread nor so dangerous if more of the guardians and instructors of our youth were at home even among the Greek and Latin classics. But for various reasons, — some valid, as, for instance, the importance of increased attention to the modern languages and the natural sciences; others worthless, as the so-called utilitarian protest, against the cultivation of " dead” languages, — for various reasons the study of the Classics is at present considerably impaired. It is, therefore, incumbent upon our universities and schools, recognizing this fact and deploring it, to abate, so far as possible, the unfortunate consequences that proceed therefrom, until, by a readjustment of subjects of instruction and of the periods allotted them, the Greek and Latin classics shall be reinstated in their proper place as a means of discipline, a humanizing influence, the historic background against which our present appears. For, cut off from the intellectual and imaginative sources of Greece and Rome, the state and statesmanship, legislation and law, society and manners, philosophy, religion, literature, art, and even artistic appreciation, run readily shallow and soon dry.

Now, one evident means of tempering the consequence of this neglect of the Classics is the study of them through translations and summaries. Such second-hand study must, indeed, be ever a makeshift; for the literature of a people inheres in its language, and loses its seeming and often its characteristic when caparisoned in the trappings of another speech, - an utterance totally dissimilar, — the outcome of diverse conditions of physical environment, history, social and intellectual tradition. But in dealing with the purely imaginative products of antiquity, the difficulty of the translation may be moderated if those products be reproduced, so far as possible, not in the prosaic but in the poetic atmosphere, and in the imaginative garb of modern art. For though the phenomena of plastic art are not the same in one continent as in another, or from one century to the next, and though the fashion of poetry itself varies from age to age and from clime to clime, the genesis of imagination is universal, its products are akin, and its process is continuous. For this reason the study of the imaginative thought of the ancients through the artistic creations of the moderns is commended to students and readers as feasible and profitable.

The benefits to be derived from such a study of the Classic Myths are general and specific.

1. In general, and in the first place, classic mythology has been for poetry a treasure-house replete with golden tales and glimmering thoughts, passions in the rough and smooth, and fancies rich bejewelled. Like Vergil's Shadows that Ait by the Lethean stream until at beck of Fate they revisit upper day and the evertranquil stars, these ghosts of "far-off things and battles long ago," peopling the murmurous glades of myth, await the poet who shall bestow on each his new and predetermined form, and restore them, purified and breathing of Elysian air, to the world of life and art and ever-young mankind.

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