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and sighing was out of the question. Weary at last of fruitless endeavors, he acted out his true character, seized the maiden and bore her off. Their children were Zetes and Calais, winged warriors, who accompanied the Argonautic expedition, and did good service in an encounter with those monstrous birds, the Harpies. Zephyrus was the lover of Flora (Chloris).
Here, too, may be mentioned ^Eolus, the king of the winds, although he is not a lesser divinity of Heaven. His palace was on the precipitous isle of ^Eolia, where, with his six sons and six daughters, he kept eternal carouse. The winds, which he confined in a cavern, he let loose as he saw fit, or as he was bidden by superior deities.
(10)^Helios, Selene, and Eos, children of the Titan, Hyperion. Helios and Selene were the/more ancient Greek divinities of Sun and Moon respectively.! Helios, the charioteer of the sun, is, as has been already said, frequently identified with his successor, Apollo. The attributes and adventures of Selene were merged in those of the more modern Diana. Eos, or, in Latin nomenclature, Aurora, the rosy-fingered goddess of the Morn, was mother of the stars and of the morning and evening breezes.
(n) Phosphor, the morning-starJ the star of Venus,'son of Aurora and the hunter Cephalus.! Hesper, the evening-star, was sometimes identified with Phosphor. He was king of the Western Land, and, say some, father of the Hesperides, who guarded the golden apples of the sunset. J (12) Various Other Personifica tions. — The constellation Orion, whose story will be narrated; Victoria (Nike), the goddess of Victory; Discors (Eris), the goddess of Strife; and Iris, goddess of the rainbow, who is represented frequently as a messenger of the gods.
THE GODS OF EARTH 1
§44. Conception of the World.-4 The Greek poets believed the earth to be flat and circular. / In their opinion, their own country occupied the middle of it, 1 and the central point was either Mount Olympus, the abode of the gods, or Delphi, famous for its oracle. The circular disk of the earth was crossed from west to east, and (divided into two equal parts by the Sea, as they called the Mediterranean and its continuation, the Euxine, the only seas with which they were acquainted. Around the earth flowed River Ocean,, horn south to north on the western side, in a contrary direction on the eastern. It flowed in a steady, equable current, unvexed by storm or tempest. The sea, and all the rivers on earth, received their waters from it.
The northern portion of the earth was inhabited by the Hyperboreans, dwelling in bliss and everlasting spring beyond the mountains whose caverns sent forth the piercing blasts of the north wind. Their country was inaccessible by land or sea. They lived exempt from disease or old age, from toils and warfare. "I come " sings one of them :2— 's 1 \ *. '- ^
"I yme from a land in the sun-bright deep,
On the south side of the earth, close to the stream of Ocean, dwelt the ^Ethiopians, whom the gods held in such favor that
1 For references to poetry and works of art, see Commentary.
they left at times the Olympian abodes to partake of the Ethiopian sacrifices and banquets. On the western margin of the earth, by the stream of Ocean, lay the Elysian Plain, where certain mortals enjoyed an immortality of bliss.
The Dawn, the Sun, and the Moon were supposed to rise out of Ocean on the eastern side, and to drive through the air, giving light to gods and men. The stars, also, except those forming the Wain or Bear, and others near them, rose out of and sank into the stream of Ocean. There the sun-god embarked in a winged boat, which conveyed him by the northern part of the earth back to his place of rising in the east. V §45. / Ceres | (Demeter), the
jgoddess of sowing and reaping,
(of harvest festivals, and of agriculture in general^ was sister of Jupiter,/and 'daughter of Cronus and Rnea.| She is connected through her daughter Proserpine, queen of Hades, with the holy ceremonies and rites of death and of the lower world. Of the institutions founded, or favored, by her the most important were the mysteries celebrated at Eleusis, concerning which we know that, in the presence of individuals initiated in the secret ritual, and perhaps with their cooperation, scenes were enacted which represented the alternation of death and life in nature, and, apparently, forecast the resurrection and immortality of man. \ Sacred to Ceres and to ProserpinejWere golden sheaves of corn and soporific poppies ;' while, among animals, cows, sheep, and pigs were acceptable to them.
§ 45</. Gaea, or Ge, the Mother Earth, wife of Uranus, belongs to the older order of gods; so also, another goddess of the earth, Rhea, the wife of Cronus and mother of Jupiter. In Phrygia, Rhea became identified with Cybele, whose worship, as mother of the gods, was, at a later period, introduced into Rome. The Greek mother, Rhea, was attended by the Curetes; the Phrygian mother by the Corybantes, who celebrated her orgies with enthusiastic din of trumpets, drums, and cymbals. Cybele presided over mountain fastnesses and fortified places.
§ 46. Bacchus, or Dionysus, the god of wine, ^vas the ^on of Jupiter and Semele.j daughter of Cadmus of Thebes. He was especially the god of animal life and vegetation. He represented not only the intoxicating power of wine, but its social and beneficent influences, and was looked upon as a promoter of civilization, I a. lawgiver and a lover of peace. His forehead was crowned with vine-leaves or ivy. He rode upon the tiger, the panther, or the lynx, or was drawn by them in a car. His worshippers were Bacchanals, or Bacchantes. He was attended by Satyrs and Sileni, and-by women called Maenads, who, as they danced and sang, waved in the air the thyrsus, a staff entwined with ivy and surmounted by a pine cone.
"The praise of Bacchus then the sweet musician sung,
Drinking joys did first ordain;
1 From Alexander's Feast, by Dryden.