Principles of Political Economy

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D.C. Heath & Company, 1903 - 705 стор.
 

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Зміст

The Doctrine of Solidarity
38
The Wants of
40
What is Wealth
46
What is Value
49
Utility
52
Labor
59
What is Price ? 23 28 32 35 38 40 46 49 52 59
64
PRODUCTION PART I THE FACTORS OF PRODUCTION
69
CHAPTER I LABOR I On the Part played by Labor in Production
71
How Labor Produces
73
The Evolution of Ideas concerning the Productivity of Labor
75
Pain as a Factor of Labor
80
Time as a Factor of Labor
83
CAPITAL
116
The Distinction between Wealth which is Capital and Wealth which is not Capital
120
What is meant by the Productivity of Capital
124
The Durability of Fixed and of Circulating Capital
127
How Capital is formed
129
THE METHODS OF PRODUCTION w CHAPTER 1 THE ORGANIZATION OF PRODUCTION
132
How Production is regulated
137
Crises
142
Overproduction and the Law of Markets
147
Competition 132 137 142 147
151
ASSOCIATION I The Successive Forms of Association
156
The Association of Capital
159
Largescale Production
161
Is the Tendency toward Largescale Production Inevitable and Desirable ? 156 159
166
71
171
The Successive Forms of the Division of Labor
173
73
175
The Conditions of the Division of Labor
176
The Advantages and Disadvantages of the Division of Labor 173 176
178
The Increase of Wages V The Hours of Labor
182
THE CIRCULATION OF WEALTH CHAPTER 1 EXCHANGE
183
The History of Exchange II Exchange Value
184
The Utility Theory
189
The Cost Theory
193
How Value is measured by Exchange
196
The Advantages of Exchange
197
The Means of facilitating Exchange
201
The Means of Transportation
206
The Division of Barter into Sale and Purchase
210
METALLIC MONEY 1 The History of Money
213
Is Money a Superior Kind of Wealth ?
219
Disturbances caused by Fluctuations in the Value of Money
223
Whether Metallic Money will continue to decline in Value
228
Trades Unions 1 Strikes 2 Arbitration and Conciliation
231
The Conditions which should be fulfilled by All Good Money
232
Greshams Law
237
The Necessity of employing Several Metals and the Difficulties which result therefrom
241
Why Bimetallist Countries really have but One Money
246
Whether it is Advisable to adopt the Monometallic System
250
PAPER MONEY I Whether Metallic Money can be replaced by Paper Money
258
Whether the Creation of Paper Money is equivalent to the Creation of Wealth
265
75
267
The Dangers resulting from the Use of Paper Money and the Way to prevent them
269
American Paper Money
273
How even Paper Money may be dispensed with
280
How Improvements in Exchange tend to bring us back to Barter
286
INTERNATIONAL TRADE I The Balance of Trade
291
80
292
How the Balance of Accounts is maintained
298
Some Moderate Forms of Protection
350
Commercial Treaties
353
Credit is only an Extension of Exchange
356
The History of Credit
359
Can Credit create Capital ?
363
The Function of Banks
367
Deposits
368
Discount
370
The Issue of Bank Notes
375
Differences between Bank Notes and Paper Money
378
The Rate of Exchange
380
A Rise in the Rate of Discount
388
Some Special Forms of Credit
393
Land
395
Peoples Banks
396
Building Associations
397
Free Banks
399
The Organization of Banks
402
DISTRIBUTION PART I THE VARIOUS SYSTEMS OF DISTRIBUTION CHAPTER I THE PRESENT SYSTEM 1 How the Distribution of Wealth i...
421
Why this System of Distribution does not seem Just
423
The Origin of the Right of Property
428
The Evolution of the Right of Property with Regard to its Object
430
Attributes
432
The Inequality of Wealth
437
The Right to be Idle
444
The Right to Relief
447
THE SOCIALISTIC SYSTEMS
454
Equal Sharing
455
Communism
459
SaintSimonism and Inheritance
464
Collectivism
467
Coöperation
478
Raw Materials
499
The Law of Diminishing Returns
513
89
515
92
517
INTEREST
553
The Legitimacy of Interest
556
History of Loans at Interest
563
The Laws of Interest
568
Does the Rate of Interest tend to fall ? 553 556 563 568
577
THE RENT OF LAND
582
The Unearned Increment of Land
590
The Legitimacy of the Rent of Land
593
The Evolution Property in Land V The Hire of Land
606
Plans for nationalizing the Land
614
The Subdivision of Property in Land 582 590 593 600 606 614
620
PROFITS
623
The Laws which determine Profits
627
IIL The Legitimacy of Profits
632
Profitsharing
642
Productive Coöperation
648
The Nature and Laws of Consumption
655
SPENDING
670
Consumers Associations
677
SAVING
688
The Social Utility of Saving
694
623
701
196
702
618
703
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Сторінка 579 - Corn is not high because a rent is paid, but a rent is paid because corn is high...
Сторінка 173 - Each person, therefore, making a tenth part of forty-eight thousand pins, might be considered as making four thousand eight hundred pins in a day. But if they had all wrought separately and independently, and without any of them having been educated to this peculiar business, they certainly could not each of them have made twenty, perhaps not one pin in a day...
Сторінка 271 - July 14, 1890, are legal tender for all debts, public and private, except where otherwise expressly stipulated in the contract. United States notes are legal tender for all debts, public and private, except duties on imports and interest on the public debt.
Сторінка 658 - ... the human species would increase as the numbers 1, 2, 4, 8, 16, 32, 64, 128, 256, and subsistence as 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9. In two centuries the population would be to the means of subsistence as 256 to 9; in three centuries as 4096 to 13, and in two thousand years the difference would be almost incalculable.
Сторінка 173 - ... could scarce, perhaps, with his utmost industry, make one pin in a day, and certainly could not make twenty. But in ' the way in which this business is now carried on, not only the whole work is a peculiar trade, but it is divided into a number of branches, of which...
Сторінка 322 - But it cannot be expected that individuals should, at their own risk, or rather to their certain loss, introduce a new manufacture, and bear the burden of carrying it on, until the producers have been educated up to the level of those with whom the processes are traditional.
Сторінка 490 - Wages depend, then, on the proportion between the number of the labouring population, and the capital or other funds devoted to the purchase of labour; we will say, for shortness, the capital. If wages are higher at one time or place than at another, if the subsistence and comfort of the class of hired labourers are more ample, it is, and can be, for no other reason, than because capital bears a greater proportion to population.
Сторінка 576 - ... their productive powers. At the same time, the rent of the first quality will rise, for that must always be above the rent of the second, by the difference between the produce which they yield with a given quantity of capital and labour. 'With every step in the progress of population...
Сторінка 490 - It is not the absolute amount of accumulation or of production that is of importance to the laboring class ; it is not the amount even of the funds destined for distribution among the laborers : it is the proportion between those funds and the numbers among whom they are shared. The condition of the class can be bettered in no other way than by altering that proportion to their advantage ; and every scheme for their benefit which does not proceed on this as its foundation is, for all permanent purposes,...
Сторінка 173 - I have seen a small manufactory of this kind where ten men only were employed, and where some of them consequently performed two or three distinct operations. But though they were very poor, and therefore but indifferently accommodated with the necessary machinery, they could, when they exerted themselves, make among them about twelve pounds of pins in a day.

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