Principles of Political Economy, Том 1

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Pragmatic or muddled? Mill sets out to explore economic principles but, ultimately, finds that there is no principle which doesn't have any amount of conceivable exceptions. You have to wonder why its ... Читати огляд повністю

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Effects of defraying government expenditure by loans
87
Fixed and Circulating Capital what
94
Combination and division of labor increase productiveness
101
Production on a large and production on a small scale
108
Countries of Europe
114
By what checks the increase of population is practically limited
115
Movement of Population Center westward
116
Motive for saving in the strength of the effective desire of accumula
122
Of the Law of the Increase of Production from Land
130
in railways
136
Receipts Expenses and Profits of all Railways in the State of New York
137
Miles of Railroad in Operation and Miles added each Year in the United States
138
Proportion of Miles of Railroad to the Square Mile in the United States and Europe face
140
in manufactures 188
141
PAOE
144
4 nor by emigration
150
Density of Foreignborn Population in the United States
152
BOOK XL
155
Of Competition and Custom
175
Examination of some popular opinions respecting wages
183
Due restriction of population the only safeguard of a laboringtclass
190
would require as a condition legal measures for repression of popu
196
Twofold means of elevating the habits of the laboringpeople by edu
202
different employments
205
4 Wages of women why lower than those of men
213
General tendency of profits to an equality
220
The rate of profit depends on the Cost of Labor
226
Of Bent
232
Opposing views to the law of rent
240
Definitions of Value in Use Exchange Value and Price
249
Miscellaneous cases falling under this law
257
Ultimate Analysis of Cost of Production
265
When profits vary from employment to employment or are spread
272
Such commodities when produced in circumstances more favorable
279
Resume of the laws of value of each of the three classes of commodi
285
Money a mere contrivance for facilitating exchanges which does
293
Of the Value of Money as dependent on Cost
302
Production of Gold and Silver
307
1 Objections to a double standard
312
Relative Values of Gold and Silver
318
Of Credit as a Substitute for Money
325
Promissory notes
331
Great extensions and contractions of credit Phenomena of a com
338
What determines the value of an inconvertible paper money?
344
The conclusion stated in the Equation of International Demand 898
402
Money imported in two modes as a commodity and as a medium
404
Exports and Imports of Specie from and into the United States
408
Of the Distribution of the Precious Metals through
418
The precious metals as money are of the same value and distribute
426
Effect of the increase of an inconvertible paper currency Real
437
Circumstances which determine the fluctuations
444
Market
450
Low wages enable a country to undersell another when peculiar
457
Cotton Crops under Free and Slave Labor
459
Low profits as affecting the carrying trade
463
2 In the law of rent
469
Influence of the Progress of Industry and Population
475
that tendency from time to time counteracted by improvements
484
Influence of the Progress of Industry and Population
490
The arts of production advancing capital and population stationary
491
Changes in the Rank of the States in respect of Population
495
Different theories as to the fall of profits
497
prevented from reaching it by commercial revulsions
504
Grain Crops of the United States
509
7 by the emigration of capital
510
In opulent countries the extension of machinery not detrimental
512
The possibility of improvement while laborers remain merely receivers
517
through small holdings by which the landlords gain is shared
522
Industrial Partnership
529
Four fundamental rules of taxation
537
The increase of the rent of land from natural causes a fit subject
546
on wages
553
Of Taxes on Commodities or Indirect Taxes
562
bow modified by the tendency of profits to a minimum
568
Effects produced on international exchange by duties on exports
574
Comparison between Direct and Indirect Taxation
583
Taxation systems of the United States and other countries
590
A resume of the general principles of taxation
594
In what cases desirable to maintain a surplus revenue for the redemp
602
Public Debt of the United States
602
Reduction of National Debts in Various Countries
604
Of an Interference of Government grounded on Erro
605
on the ground of encouraging young industries colonial policy
612
Occupations of People of the United States
619
on the ground of creating a diversity of industries
621
Appendix I
631
Appendix II
637
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Сторінка 516 - Hitherto it is questionable if all the mechanical inventions yet made have lightened the day's toil of any human being. They have enabled a greater population to live the same life of drudgery and imprisonment, and an increased number of manufacturers and others to make fortunes. They have increased the comforts of the middle classes. But they have not yet begun to effect those great changes in human destiny which it is in their nature and in their futurity to accomplish.
Сторінка 610 - The only case in which, on mere principles of political economy, protecting duties can be defensible, is when they are imposed temporarily (especially in a young and rising nation) in hopes of naturalizing a foreign industry, in itself perfectly suitable to the circumstances of the country.
Сторінка 104 - But if they had all wrought separately and independently, and without any of them having been educated to this particular business, they certainly could not each of them have made twenty, perhaps not one pin in a day...
Сторінка 590 - His whole property is then immediately taxed from 2 to 10 per cent. Besides the probate, large fees are demanded for burying him in the chancel ; his virtues are handed down to posterity on taxed marble; and he is then gathered to his fathers, to be taxed no more.
Сторінка 173 - sacredness of property" is talked of, it should always be remembered, that any such sacredness does not belong in the same degree to landed property. No man made the land. It is the original inheritance of the whole species. Its appropriation is wholly a question of general expediency. When private property in land is not expedient, it is unjust.
Сторінка 21 - M'CULLOCH. -A TREATISE ON THE PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICAL INFLUENCE of TAXATION and the FUNDING SYSTEM.
Сторінка 155 - The laws and conditions of the production of wealth, partake of the character of physical truths.
Сторінка 93 - Capital , which in this manner fulfils the whole of its office in the production in which it is engaged, by a single use, is called , Circulating Capital.
Сторінка 293 - There cannot, in short, be intrinsically a more insignificant thing, in the economy of society, than money; except in the character of a contrivance for sparing time and labour. It is a machine for doing quickly and commodiously, what would be done, though less quickly and commodiously, without it : and like many other kinds of machinery, it only exerts a distinct and independent influence of its own when it gets out of order.
Сторінка 538 - The subjects of every state ought to contribute towards the support of the government, as nearly as possible, in proportion to their respective abilities; that is, in proportion to the revenue which they respectively enjoy under the protection of the state.

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