« НазадПродовжити »
the bar B B, through each of the branches, screw is loosened the whole rest can be formed by the opening in the bottom mor- moved along the bar B, the piece L can be tices, are cut as is well seen in fig. 3; these slid backwards and forwards upon the receive the end of a short piece of iron, m, pieces, s s, or it can be turned round upon having a screw tapped into it; it is by the button of the piece, r, as a centre, at screwing this screw tight up against the un. the convenience of the workmen ; and all derside of the bar, that the puppet is fas- these motions are firmly clamped by the tened upon it; a small piece of iron plate is screw beneath the bar. The piece L bas at put between the end of the screw and the one end a short iron tube fixed to it, in this underside of the bar, to defend it from an iron pin is fitted, to hold at its upper end bruises by the latter ; the upper end of the the cross bar, V, on wbich the tool is laid, a puppets are perforated with cylindrical screw is fixed in the tube, and a nnt upon it holes, to receive truly turned pins, nn, presses a piece of iron, w, upon the ends of and which are fixed at any place by screws, two short pins going through the tube, the 00, these holes must be exactly in a line other ends take against the large iron pin of with each other, when the puppets are set the rest, V; when the nut is unscrewed the at any place upon the bar, and it is to ac. rest can be set higher or lower, or turned complish this, that too much care cannot be round obliquely, and fixed by turning the taken in forming the bar perfectly straight nut; the bar, o, of the rest, is fixed on by a and true in the first instance, and of suf. screw, so that it can be easily changed for ficient strength to preserve its figure. F is another when worn, or for different work another puppet, fixed on the bar, in the there should be two or three of different same manner as D and E; it has a conical sizes with the lathe. The mandrill, G, of hole through its upper end, whose centre is the lathe should be of iron, and at the part exactly in the same line with the holes where it turns in the collar, F, it should bave through the other two puppets D and E, a piece of good steel welded round it, and this conical hole is the socket for the man- turned very true in a lathe, and also the drill, G, to turn in, being conical at that point at the end should be of steel; a small part, and fitting the socket with the great. hole is drilled down from the top of the est accuracy; the other end is pointed, and puppet, F, into the collar to supply it occa. turns in a hole made in the pin, n, of the sionally with oil. The end of the mandrill, puppet, D, and which besides the screw, o, beyond the collar, is formed into a male has another at its end tapped into a cock, screw, whereon to fix the work to be screwed to the puppet, to keep it up to its turned. The manner of holding the work work; the mandrill has a pulley fixed on it, varies in almost every instance, and is ex, with three grooves of different sizes, to re- plained under the article TURNING ; in geceive a band of catgut which goes over it, neral, it is held in pieces of wood called aud round the great iron wheel, A A; it is cheeks, screwed to the mandrill, they are by this that the mandrill is turned. I is the turned hollow like a dish, and the work is rest, composed of three principal pieces, driven into the cavity, as shown in tig. 1. shown separate in fig. 5, one of these pieces, LATHRÆA, in botany, a genus of the r, is filed to an angle withinside, and fur. Didynamia Angiosperinia class and order. nished with a screw similar to the puppets, Natural order of Personatæ. Pediculares, whereby it can be fastened to the bar ; on Jussieu. Essential character : calyx foureach side of this, pieces of iron, s s, are laid cleft ; gland depressed at the base of the on the bar, and are fastened together by suture of the germ ; capsule one.celled. two short bars, tt, to which they are both There are four species, of which L. squama. screwed, the main piece, r, being cut away ria, great tooth-wort, has a headed root, to make room for them. L is the bottom branched and surrounded with white succupart of the rest, supported on the two lent scales; it is parasitical, and generally pieces, ss, it has a dove-tailed groove along attached to the roots of elns, hasels, or the underside, a button, with a bead like a some other trees, in a shady situation ; or, it screw, is fastened to the top of the main has usually a naked stem; flowers in a spike piece, r, and is received into the groove; from one side of the stem in a double row; when the screw of the piece, r, is turned, it calyx hairy ; segments cqual; corolla pale draws the button down towards the bar, purple, or flesh-coloured, except the lower and as its head takes its bearing on the in- lips, which is white. Native of most parts side of the groove, it must hold the piece L of Europe. fast down upon the pieces, ss; when the LATHYRUS, in botany, a genus of the Diadelphia Decandria class and order. Na only a mathematical point, and no ways to tural order of Papilionaceæ or Leguminosæ. be observed by our senses, its height cannot Essential character : calyx two, upper seg- be determined in the same manner as that ments shorter ; style flat, villose above, of the sun and stars, &c.; for which reason broader at the end. There are twenty- another manner has been contrived. A me. three species, among which is the L. odora. ridian line is first drawn, on which is placed tus, sweet lathyrus, or sweet pea, as it is a quadrant, so that its plane may be in the commonly called, is an annual plant, about plane of the meridian; then some star near three feet in height, attaching itself to the the pole is taken; for example, the pole nearest plant, by means of its long claspers star, (which never sets) and observation is or tendrile, the flower stalks come out at the made of both its greatest and least altitude. joints, which are about six inches long, sus. The latitude may also be found by having taining two large flowers, possessing a the sun or a star's declination and meridian strong odour ; these are succeeded by ob. altitude, taken with a quadrant or astrolong hairy pods, having four or five roundish labe. The method is this: observe the me. seeds in each. There are many varieties, ridian and distance of the sun from the veraccording to Linnæus the common dark tex or zenith, which is always the complesort is a native of Sicily, and the painted ment of his meridian altitude; correct for lady of Ceylon.
the dip of the horizon, refraction, and add LATITAT, in law, a writ, wbich in per- to this the sun's declination, when the sun sonal actions is the commeucement of a suit and the place are on the same side of the in the King's Bench, where the party is to equator; and subtract the declination when be arrested in any other county than Mid. they are of different sides; the sum, in the dlesex.
former casc, and the difference in the lat. LATITUDE, the distance of a place ter, will be the latitude required. But from the equator, or an arc of the meridian when the declination of the sun is greater intercepted between the zenith of the place than the latitude of the place, which is and the equator. Hence latitude is either known from the sun's being nearer to the northern or southern, according as the elevated pole than the vertex of the place place, whose latitude is spoken of, is on is, as it frequently happens in the torrid this or that side of the equator. Thus Lon- zone, then the difference between the sun's don is said to be in fifty-one degrees thirty declination and his zenith distance, is the two minutes north latitude. Circles paral- latitude of the place. If the sún or star lel to the equator, are called parallels of la. have no declination, but move in the equi. titude, because they shew the latitudes of noctial that day, then the elevation of the places by their intersection with the meri. equator will be equal to his meridian altidian. If through the poles of the world we tude, and consequently his meridian alticonceive innumerable great circles drawn, tude is the complement of the latitude to these are called secondaries of the equator, ninety. and by their help, the position of every LATITUDE, in astronomy, the distance of point, either on earth or in the heavens, a star or planet from the ecliptic, in dewith regard to the equinoctial ; that is, the grees, minutes, and seconds, measured on a latitude of any point is determined. One circle of latitude drawn through that star of the secondaries, passing through any or planet, being either north or south, as place on the earth's surface, is called the the object is situated either on the north or meridian of that place, and on it the lati. south side of the ecliptic. The ecliptic betude of that place is measured. The lati. ing drawn on the common celestial globes, tude of a place, and the elevation of the we may see what constellations it passes pole of that place above the horizon, are through: there are usually six circles of laterms used indifferently for each other, be- titude, which, by their mutual intersections, cause the latitude and elevation of the pole show the poles of the ecliptic, as well as diare always equal. The knowledge of the vide it into twelve equal parts, answerable latitude of a place is of the utmost conse to the number of months in a year. quence in navigation; and the methods of LATTEN, denotes iron plates tinned determining it, both at sea and land, are over, of which tea-canisters are made. generally the same. As the altitude of the Plates of iron being prepared of a proper pole is always equal to the latitude, the la. thinness, are smoothed by rusting them in titude is consequently best found by ob- an acid liquor, as common water made easerving the pole's height; but as the pole is ger with rye: with this liquor they fill cer
. tain tronghs, and then put in the plates, degree of heat, they might try with small wlrich they turn once or twice a day, that pieces of iron ; but in general, use teaches they may be equally rusted over; after this them to know the degree, and they put in they are taken out, and well scowered with the iron when the tin is at a different sand, and, to prevent their rasting again, standard of heat, according as they would are immediately plunged into pure water, give it a thicker or thinner coat. Some. in which they are to be left till the instant times also they give the plates a double they are to be tinned or blanched, the man- layer, as they would have them very thickly ner of doing which is this : they fux the tin covered. This they do by dipping them in a large iron crucible, which has the figure into the tin, when very hot, the first time; of an oblong pyramid with four faces, of and when less hot, the second. The tin which two opposite ones are less than the which is to give the second coat, must be two others. The crucible is heated only fresh covered with suet, and that with the from below, its upper part being luted with common suet, not the prepared. the furnace all round. The crucible is LATUS rectum, in conic sections, the always deeper than the plates, which are to same with parameter. See PARAMETER. be tinned, are long; they always put them LATUs transversum, in the hyperbola, in downright, and the tin ought to swim that part of the transverse diameter, interover them; to this purpose artificers of dif- cepted between the vertices of the two op. ferent trades prepare plates of different posite sections. See HYPERBOLA. shapes; though M. Reaumar thinks them L AVA, the production of Etna, Vesu. all exceptionable. But the Germans use vius, Hecla, and other volcanoes, is of a no sort of preparation of the iron, to make greyish colour passing to green: it is spotit receive the tin, more than the keeping it ted externally, and occurs porous, carious, always steeped in water, till the time; only or vesicular. Its lustre is vitreous, more or when the tin is melted in the crucible, they less glistering. It is moderately hard, brit. cover it with a layer of a sort of suet, which tle, easily frangible, and light. It generally is usually two inches thick, and the plate attracts strongly the magnetic needle. It must pass through this before it can come is easily fusible into a black, compact glass. to the melted tin. The first use of this co. It frequently encloses other fossiis, espe. vering is to keep the tin from burning ; for cially crystals of felspar, augite, hornblende, if any part sijould take fire, the suet would and leucite. See VOLCANIC formutions. soon moisten it, and reduce it to its primi LAVANDULA, in botany, lavender, a tive state again. The blanchers say, this genus of the Didynamia Gymnospermia suet is a compounded matter; it is indeed class and order. Natural order of Vertiof a black colour, but M. Reaumur sap- cillatæ. Labiatæ, Jussien. Essential chaposed that to be only an artifice, to make racter: calyx ovate, obscurely toothed, it a secret, and that it is only coloured with supported by a bracte ; corolla re-supine; soot or the smoke of a chimney; but he stamina within the tube. There are seven found it true so far, that the common in- species, of which L. spica, common lavenprepared suet was not sufficient; for after der, has a shrubby stem much branched, several attempts, there was always some frequently, five or six feet high, with numething wanting to render the success of the rous hoary leaves, the upper ones sessile, operation certain. The whole secret of the lower petioled; the flowers are problanching, therefore, was found to lie in the duced in terminating spikes from the young preparation of this suet; and this, at length, shoots, on long peduncles; the spikes are he discovered to consist only in the first composed of interrupted whorls, in which frying and burning it. This simple opera the flowers are from six to ten, the lower tion not only gives it the colour, but puts it whorls moie remote; each flower upright, into a condition to give the iron a disposi. on a short pedicel ; the usual colour of the tion to be tinned, which it does surprisingly. corolla is blue, sometimes varying with The melted tin must also have a certain de- white flowers; the whole plant is covered gree of heat, for if it is not hot enough, it with a down, composed of forked hairs. It will not stick to the iron; and if it is too is a native of the south of Europe, and has hot, it will cover it with too thin'a coat, long been celebrated for its virtues in ner. and the plates will have several colours, as vous disorders; the officinal preparations red, blue, and purple, and upon the whole of lavender, are the essential oil, a simple will have a cast of yellow. To prevent spirit, and a compound tincture. this, by knowiug when the fire has a proper LAVATERA, in botany, so named from
Lavater, a physician at Zurich; a genus of twenty to thirty feet in height; it bas large the Monadelphia Polyandria class and or- evergreen leaves, of a firm texture, with an der. Natural order of Columniferæ. Mal- agreeable smell, and an aromatic, bitteriska vaceæ, Jussieu. Essential character: calyx taste ; flowers dioecious, or male and fea double, outer trifid ; arils very many, one male on different trees, in racemes shorter seeded. There are nine species, of which than the leaves, of an herbaceous colour; L. arborea, lavatera or mallow-tree, rises corollas four-petalled in the male flowers ; in gardens, with a strong, thick stalk, fre. stamens frona eight to twelve ; berry supequently to the height of eight or ten feet; rior, of a dark parple colour, almost black. in its wild state, not more than four or tive; It is a native of the southern parts of Euleaves alternate, cordate, roundish, seven- rope and Asia. L. persea, alligator, or avoangled, the angles blunt, but soft as velvet, cado pear, of the West Indies, is about sliorter than the petioles ; flowers mostly in thirty feet in height; the bark is smooth, pairs, sometimes three together, on upright and of an ash colour; the branches have peduncles, an inch and half in length; co- large, smooth leaves, like those of laurel; rolla purplish red, spreading, bell-shaped, the flowers are mostly produced towards like that of the common mallow, an inch or the extremities of the branches; the fruit more in diameter; petals broader at top is the size of one of our biggest pears, inthan at the base, so that the calyx appears closing a large seed with two lobes. This between the claws. The ring or whorl of fruit is held in great esteem in the West fruits is seven or eight-capsuled; common Indies; the pulp is of a pretty firm conreceptacle awl-shaped, with a conoid glo- sistence, and has a delicate, rich flavour; it bule at top, and small crescent-shaped la. gains upon the palate of most persons, and mellæ at the base, and the interstices of the soon becomes agreeable even to those who capsules. Native of Italy, the Levant, and cannot like it at first; it is very rich and Britain.
mild, so that most people make use of some LAVENIA, in botany, a genus of the spice or pungent substance to give it a Syngenesia Polygamia Equalis class and poignancy. order. Natural order of Compositæ Dis- LAW, (Sax. log. Lat. lex, from lego, or coideæ. Essential character: calyx pearly legendo, choosing, or rather a ligando, from regular, style bifid ; down three-awned, binding), the rule and bond of men's acglandular at the tip. There are two spe- tions: or it is a rule for the well governing cies, viz. L. decumbens, and L. erecta, the of civil society, to give to every man that former is a native of Jamaica, and the latter which doth belong to bim. of the East Indies and the Society Isles. Law, in its most general and compre
LAUGERIA, in botany, so called from hensive sense, is defined by Blackstone, Robert Laugier, professor of chemistry and in the Commentaries, ' a rule of acbotany at Vienna; a genus of the Pentan- tion,' and is applied indiscriminately to all dria Monogynia class and order. Natural kinds of action, whether animate or inani. order of Rubiaceæ, Jussieu. Essential cha- mate, rational or irrational. And it is that racter: corolla five-cleft; drupe with a rule of action which is prescribed by some five-celled nut. There are three species, superior, and which the inferior is bound to natives of America, West Indies, and Santa obey. Cruz.
Laws in their more confined sense, and LAURUS, in botany, bay-tree, a genus in which it is the business of works of this of the Enneandria Monogynia class and or- nature to consider them, denote the rules, der. Natural order of Holoraceæ. Lauri, not of action in general, but of buman acJussieu. Essential character: calyx none; tion or conduct. And this perhaps (it has corolla calycine, six-parted; nectary of been acutely observed) is the only sense three two-bristled glands, surrounding the in which the word law can be strictly used; germ ; filaments inner, glanduliferous ; drupe for in all cases where it is not applied to one-seeded. There are thirty-two species. human conduct, it may be considered as a This genus consists of trees or shrubs; metaphor, and in every instance a more leaves mostly entire, in a few nearly oppo- appropriate term (as quality or property) site, commonly perennial, as in most trees may be found. When law is applied to of the torrid zone. L. nobilis, common any other object than man, it ceases to sweet-bay, has been celebrated in all ages; contain two of its essential ingredients, diswith us it appears as a skrub; but in the obedience and punishment. southern parts of Europe, it grows from Municipal law, is by the same great com. mentator defned to be “ a rule of civil fuctis, it is either common law or custom : conduct prescribed by the supreme power, if it is universal, it is common law; and if in a state ; commanding what is right, and particular to this or that place, then it is prohibiting what is wrong.” The latter custom. clause of this sentence seems to Mr. Chris The law in this land hath been variable; tian to be either superfluous or defective. the Roman laws, were in use anciently in If we attend to the learned judge's exposi- Britain, when the Romans had several tion, perhaps we may be inclined to use colonies here, each of which was governed the words “ establishing and ascertaining by the Roman laws : afterwards we had what is right or wrong;” and all cavil or the laws called Merchenlage, West Saxondifficulty will vanish.
lage, and Danelage; all reduced into a Every law may be said to consist of seve- body, and made one by King Edward the ral parts; declaratory, whereby the rights to Confessor. be observed, and the wrong, to be eschew. At present the laws of England are divided, are clearly defined and laid down: ed into three parts : 1. The common law, directory, whereby the subject of a state which is the most ancient and general law is instructed and enjoined to observe those of the realm, and common to the whole rights, and to abstain from the commission kingdom, being appropriate thereto, and of those wrongs: remedial, whereby a having no dependence upon any foreign method is pointed ont to recover a man's law, whatsoever. private rights or redress his private wrongs; 2. Statutes or acts of parliament, made vindicatory, which imposes the sanction and passed by the King, Lords, and Comwhereby it is signified what evil or penalty mons in Parliament; being a reserve for shall be incurred by such as commit any the government to provide against new public wrongs, and transgress or neglect mischiefs arising through the corruption of any duty.
the times. And by this the common law is Laws are arbitrary or positive, and na. amended where defective, for the supprestural; the last of which are essentially just sion of public evils; though where the com. and good, and bind every where and in all mon law and statute law concur or interfere, places where they are observed : arbitrary the common law shall be preferred. laws are either concerning such matter as 3. Particular customs. These must be is in itself morally indifferent, in which case particular, for a general custom is part of both the law and the matter, and subject the common law of the land. of it, are likewise indifferent, or concerning Blackstone divides the municipal law of the natural law itself, and the regulating England into two kinds, lex non scripta, the thereof; and all arbitrary laws are founded unwritten or common law; and the let in convenience, and depend upon the au- scripta, the written, that is, the statute law. thority of the legislative power which ap. The lex non scripta, or unwritten law, points and makes them, and are for main. includes not only general customs, or the taining public order; those which are na- common law properly so called ; but also taral laws are from Gord; but those which the particular customs of certain parts of are arbitrary, are properly human and posi- the kingdom; and likewise those particular tive institutions.
laws, that are by custom observed only in The laws of any country began, when certain courts and jurisdictions. there first began to be a state in the land; There is another division of our laws; and we may consider the world as one uni. nore large and particular; as into the preversal society, and then that law by which rogalive or crown law, the law and cusnations where governed, is called jus gen- tom of parliament, the common law, the tium; if we consider the world as made up statute law, reasonable customs, the law of of particular nations, the law which regu- arms, war, and chivalry, ecclesiastical or lates the public order and right of them, is canon law, civil law, in certain courts and termed Jus publicum; and that law which cases, forest law, the law of marque and determines the private rights of men, is reprisal, the law of merchants, the law and called jus civile.
privilege of the standaries, &c. But this No law can oblige a people without their large division may be reduced to the comconsent, this consent is either rerlis or factis, mon division; and all is founded on the i. e. it is expressed by writing, or implied law of nature and reason, and the revealed by deeds and actions; and where a law is law of God, as all other laws ought to be. groupded on an implied assent, rebus et The law of nature is that which God, at