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guilty of felony in carrying them away. house or its out-houses, although the same With respect to what shall be considered a be not broken, and whether any person be sufficient carrying away, to constitute the therein or not, unless by apprentices under offence of larceny, it seems that any, the fifteen against their masters. least removing of the thing taken, from the Every person who shall be convicted of place where it was before, is sufficient for the feloniously taking away in the day-time this purpose, though it be not quite carried any money or goods of the value of 58., in off; but there must be a removal from the any dwelling house or out-house thereunto place, though it is put back again : and belonging, and used to and with the same, where a pack in a waggon was not actually though no person be therein, shall be guilty moved away, but only turned up an end, of felony, without benefit of clergy. 39 Eli. in order to be carried off, it was held no zabeth, c. 15. felony.
Receiving stolen goods. Any person who As grand larceny is a felonious and frau shall buy or receive any stolen goods, knowdulent taking of the mere personal goods ing them to be stolen; or shall receive, harof another above the value of 12d., so it is bour, or conceal any felons or thieves, petit larceny, where the thing stolen is but knowing them to be so, shall be deemed of the value of 12d., or under. In the se- accessary to the felony; and being converal other particulars above mentioned, victed on the testimony of one witness, petit larceny agrees with grand larceny; shall suffer death as a felon convict; but he but in a petit larceny there can be no ac- shall be entitled to his clergy, 5 Anne, c. 31. cessaries either before or after.
Any person convicted of receiving or buyLarceny from the person. If larceny from the ing stolen goods, knowing them to be person be done privily without one's know stolen, may be transported for fourteen jedge, by picking of pockets or otherwise, years, 4 George I. c. 11. Where the prinit is excluded from the benefit of clergy, by cipal felon is found guilty to the valne of 8 Elizabeth, c. 4, provided the thing stolen 10d., that is, of petit larceny only, the rebe above the value of 12d. ; but if doneceiver, knowing the goods to liave been openly and avowedly before one's face, it is stolen, cannot be transported for fourteen within the benefit of clergy.
years, and ought not to be put upon his Larceny from the house. By the com- trial. For the acts which make receivers of mon law this was not punished other stolen goods, knowingly, accessaries to the wise than as a simple larceny, except in felony, must be understood to make them the case of burglary, which is a break. accessaries in such cases only, where, by ing into a house in the night-time, with law, an accessary may be; and there can intent to steal, and punished capitally ; be no accessary to petit larceny. but now, by several statutes, stealing in a Every person who shall apprehend any one house is deprived of the benefit of clergy guilty of breaking open houses in a felonious in almost every instance. As, first, in lar. manner, or of privately and feloniously steal. ceny above 12d., in a church or chapel, ing goods, wares, or merchandizes, of the withont violence or breaking the same. value of 58., in any shop, warehouse, coach. Secondly, in a booth or tent, in a fair or house, or stable, though it be not broken market, by day or night, by violence or open, and though no person be therein to breaking the same, the owner or some per- be put in fear, and shall prosecute him to son of his family being therein. Thirdly, conviction, shall have a certificate without by robbing, which implies breaking into, a fee, under the hand of the judge, certidwelling-house in the day time, no person fying such conviction, and within what being therein. Fourthly, in the same, by parish and place the felony was commit. day or night, without breaking, any person ted, and also that such felon was discobeing therein, and put in fear. Secondly, in vered and taken, by the person so dis. larcenies to the value of 58., committed, covering or apprehending him; and if any first, by breaking any dwelling.house, or dispute arise between several persons so out-house, shop, or warehouse, no person discovering or apprehending, the judge being therein in the day time. Secondly, shall appoint the certificate into so many by privately stealing in a shop, warebouse, shares, to be divided among the persons cvach-house, or stable, by day or night, concerned, as to bim shall seem just and though the same be not broken open, and reasonable. This certificate is commonly no person being therein. Lastly, in larce- called a Tyburn ticket, and exempts the nies to the value of 40s., from a dwelling. person from all parish and ward offices in
the parish where the robbery was com- or real change of one animal into another ; mitted.
but this is by no means the case. The egg With respect to the offence of larceny, it of a butterfly produces a butterfly, with all is difficult in so short a compass to define the lineaments of its parent; only these are the particular distinctions which have been not disclosed at first, but for the greater made; but it may be useful to mention some part of the animal's life they are covered general particulars.
with a sort of case or muscular coat, in To constitute a larceny there must be a which are legs for walking: these only suit taking the goods without the consent of the it in this state, but its mouth takes in nou. owner; so that a fair loan, borrowing, or rishment, which is conveyed to the included receipt of goods upon trust, which are af- animal; and after a proper time this coverterwards converted, with intention to steal, ing is thrown off, and the butterfly, which to the use of the borrower, does not con- all the while might be discovered in it by stitute a larceny or theft ; but there are an accurate observer with the help of a cases in which servants who have goods de microscope, appears in its proper form. livered to them, also apprentices, bankers The care of all the butterfly tribe to lodge clerks, and others, may be, guilty of lar- their eggs in safety is surprising. Those ceny; and there are others where the deli- whose eggs are to be hatched in a few very of goods having been obtained by weeks, and who are to live in the caterpillar fraud, for the purpose of stealing them, a state during part of the remaining summer, theft is held to be committed. A man may always lay them on the leaves of such plants also be guilty of this offence, though the as will afford a proper nourishment, but, goods are his own, as where he steals goods on the contrary, those whose eggs are to from a pawnbroker, or other person who remain unhatched till the following spring, has a property in them for a particular pur- always lay them on the branches of trees pose and limited time, with intent to charge and shrubs, and usually are careful to select him with the loss.
such places as are least exposed to the The felonious taking must also be from rigour of the ensuing season, and frequently the possession of the owner ; that is, either cover them from it in an artful manner. constructively or actually his possession; Some make a general coat of a hairy matter which may be where the thief has the ac- over them, taking the hairs from their own tual possession, as a watch delivered for the bodies for that purpose; others bide them. purpose of being pawned. And the goods selves in hollow places in trees, and in other must be personal chattels, not such as sa sheltered cells, and there live in a kind of vour of the realty, such as standing corn; torpid state during the whole winter, that but corn cut, or trees felled, are personal they may deposit their eggs in the succeed. chattels, and may be the subject of larceny; ing springs at a time when there will be no and there are many statutes which make severities of weather for them to combat. stealing certain articles, as lead, iron, and The day-butterflies only do this, and of other things specified, affixed to the honse these hut a very few species : but the night or freehold, larceny. Bonds and bills were ones, or phalenæ, all, without exception, not such property as could be said to be lay their eggs as soon as they have been in stoleo at common law, but they are made copulation with the male, and die imme. so by the statute law. And thongh it can- diately afterwards. not be committed of vile animals which Nothing is more surprising in insects than are wild by nature, yet the stealing of do their industry; and in this the caterpillars mesticated and tame animals is larceny, yield to no kind, not to mention their silk, such as dogs, horses, fowls, and even hawks. the spinning of which is one great proof of
LARIX, in botany, the larch-tree, a spe. it. The sheaths and cases which some of cies of Pinus. See the article Pinus. these insects build for passing their transLARK. See ALAUDA.
formations under, are by some made with LARVA, in natural history. The larva - their own hair, mixed with pieces of bark, state of insects, in general, denotes caterpil. leaves, and other parts of trees, with paper, lars of all kinds. The caterpillar state is that and other materials; and the structure of throngh which every butterfly must pass be- these is well worthy our attention. Yec fore it arrives at its perfection and beauty. there are others whose workmanship in this
The change from caterpillar to butterfly article, far exceeds these. There is one was long esteemed a sort of metamorphosis, which builds in wood, and is able to give its
case a hardness greater than that of the manner 'roll up the leaves of plants, there wood itself in its natural state. This is the are other species which only bend them strange horned caterpillar of the willow, once, and others, which by means of thin which is one of those that eat their exuviæ. threads, connect many leaves together to This creature has extremely sharp teeth, make them a case. All this is a very surand with these it cuts the wood into a pum- prising work, but much inferior to this ber of small fragments; these fragments it method of rolling. afterwards uvites together into a case, of The different species of caterpillars have what shape it pleases, hy means of a pecu- different inclinations, not only in their spinliar silk, which is no other than a tough and ning and their choice of food, but even in viscous juice, which hardens as it dries, and their manners and behaviour one to another. is a strong and firm cement. The solidity Some never part company from the time of of the case being thus provided for, we are their being hatched to their last change, to consider, that the caterpillar inclosed in but live and feed together, and undergo toit is to become a butterfly, and the wonder gether their change into the chrysalis state. is, in what manner a creature of this help. Others separate one from another as soon less kind, which has neither legs to dig, nor as able to crawl about, and each seeks its teeth to gnaw with, is to make its way out fortune single; and there are others which of so firm and strong a lodgment as this in regularly live to a certain time of their lives which it is hatched. The buttertly, as soon in community, and then separate, each to as hatched, discharges a liquor wliich sof. shift for itself, and never to meet again in tens the viscous matter that holds the case that state. See ENTOMOLOGY, INSECTS, &c. together; and so its several fragments fall- LARUS, the gull, in natural history, a ing to pieces, the way out lies open. Reau- genus of birds of the order Anseres. Gemur judged, from the effects, that this neric character : bill strong, straight, sharp liquor must be of a singular nature, and edged, bending down somewhat at the tip; very different from the generality of animal lower mandible exhibiting an angular profluids; and in dissecting this creature in the minence; nostrils in the middle of the bill, caterpillar state, there will always be found body light; wings long; legs small, and near the mouth, and under the @sophagus, naked above the knee; back toe small. a bladder of the size of a small pea, full of a They inhabit principally the northern clilimpid liquor, of a very quick and pene- mates, subsisting on carrion, and on fishes. trating smell, and which, upon trial, proves They are reported, when greatly alarmed, to be a very powerful acid ; and among almost universally to throw up from their other properties, which it has in common stomach the food they have recently swalwith other acids, it sensibly softens the glue lowed. Gmelin reckons fifteen species, of the case, on a common application. It and Latham nineteen. L. marinus, is is evident that this liquor, besides its use to twenty-nine inches in length, and of the the caterpillar, remains with it in the chry- weight of five pounds. It is found in vasalis state, and is what gives it a power of rious parts of England, and on most of the dissolving the structure of the case, and northern coasts of Europe. It breeds in the making its way through in a proper manner most elevated cliffs, laying its eggs on heaps at the necessary time.
of dung deposited by various birds. It Boerhaave adopted the opinion that there feeds principally on fishes, but sometimes are no true acids in animals, except in the attacks birds, and is said to bear a particu. stomach or intestines; but this familiar in- lar enmity to the cider-duck. See Aves, stance proves the contrary. Another very Plate IX. fig. 2. curious and mysterious artifice is that by L. fuscus, or the herring gull, is somewhich some species of caterpillars, when the what less than the former, frequents the time of their changing into the chrysalis state same situations, and subsists, like that, is coming on, make themselves lodgments in chiefly upon fish. In the herring season it the leaves of the trees, by rolling them up is seen watching the nets of the fishermen, in such a inanner as to make themselves a and is daring enough frequently to seize its sort of hollow cylindric case, proportioned prey from the boats and nets. to the thickness of their body, well defend- L. canus, or the common gull, is sixteen ed against the injuries of the air, and care- inches long, and about a pound in weight. fully secured for their state of tranquillity. It breeds on the rocks and cliffs on the BriBesides these caterpillars, which in this tislı coasts, and on the banks of the Thames, near its union with the sea, may be seen in same instant are intercepted by this rapaimmense numbers picking up the worms cious intruder. Even the albatross, when and small fishes deposited by the tide. It on the wing, though so much larger than this will also follow the course of the plough bird, is by no means a match for it in over the fields, and delights in the insects strength and courage, and finds its effectual and worms which are thrown up by it. The resource only in alighting upon the water, cockchafer in its larva state, is a particular which it does with all possible rapidity, favourite with this bird. See Aves, Plate when the skua immediately ceases to annoy IX. fig. 1.
it. During the season of incubation, the L. ridibundus, the black-cap, or pewit skua gull will attack every creature ap. gull, breeds in the fens of Lincolnshire and proaching its habitation, not excepting Cambridgeshire, and, after the season of the human species, several of whom have breeding is over, returns to the coasts. In been assailed by it in company, with some parts of Syria these birds are so fa. an energy and fury truly formidable. Ils miliar as to approach on being called, and feathers are in high estimation, and thought to catch pieces of bread in the air as they by many equal to those of the goose. It is are thrown up from the hands of the wo. in many places killed merely for these. men. The old birds of this species are L. tridactylus, or the tarrock, breeds in both rank and tough, but the young are Scotland, and is found so far north as eaten by many persons, and were for- Spitzbergen. It is an attendant on the merly much admired for the table, taken so progress of whales and other large fishes, young as to be unable to fly. The parti. which drive the smaller inhabitants of the cular islets in the tenny wastes of Lincoln- ocean into creeks and shallows, where the shire, which used to be preferred by these tarrocks suddenly dart on them, ensuring birds for breeding, were every year in always an easy and full repast. They are winter cleared of weeds, rushes, and other very clamorous, swim and fly well, are often impediments, in preparation for their re- seen on detached pieces of ice, are used by tarn in large flocks to breed in the spring, the inhabitants of Greenland for food, their and when the young lad attained the pre. eggs being highly valued for the same purcise growth, several men were employed pose, while their skins are converted into with long staves to bnrry them into nets materials for caps and garments. For the spread for their reception. This process black-toed gull, see Aves, Plate IX. fig. 3. eonstituted a favourite diversion, and the LARYNX, the thick upper part of the rich and fashionable assembled to be spec- aspera arteria, or wind-pipe. See Anatators of it from a considerable distance. TOMY. The birds were sold at the rate of five shil- LASERPITIUM, in botany, laseruort, lings per dozen, and in the details of royal a genus of the Pentandria Digynia class and noble feasts, will be found to have con- and order. Natural order of Umbellatæ or stituted an article of high and almost iudis- Umbelliferæ. Essential character : petals pensable importance.
bent in, emarginate, spreading ; fruit obL. catarractus, or the brown gull, weighs long, with eight membranaceous angles. about three pounds. It is more frequent There are fifteen species, natives of the in the cold than in the warmer latitudes, South of Europe. and is perhaps the most daring and fierce of LASIOSTOMA, in botany, a genus of all the species. In the Faro islands, lambs the Tetrandria Monogynia class and order. are stated to be often lorn to pieces by it, Natural order of Ap ocineæ, Jussieu. Es. and carried to its nest. On the island of sential character: calyx very short, five Foula, however, it is said to be highly va- petailed, with two acute scales ; corolla lued on account of its enmity to the eagle, funnel form, four-cleft ; capsule orbiculate, which it attacks, and follows with the most one-celled, two-seeded. There is only one animated hostility, in this instance becoming species, riz. L. rouhamon ; this is a shrub, the means of security to focks. It fre- seven or eight feet in heigbt, with a greyislı qnently makes prey of the smaller gulls and irregular bark, and a whitish wood; branches of other birds, and is often observed to and branchlets opposite, covered with a ruswatch the movements of birds on the wa. set down, spreading over the neighbouring ter, and as they are bearing off their prey in trees. The branchlets are knobbed, and at triomph and imagined security, to pounce each joint have a pair of leaves, ending in a upon them with amazing rapidity, obliging point; they are of a pale green colour, on them to drop their victims, which in the short petioles ; flowers in small axillary corymbs, on a small peduncle, which has tions of an apparatus to be attached to the two scales at the base ; corolla white; lathe for drilling holes ; fig. 5, is an elevacapsule yellow; this shrub is called by the tion of the rest ; and fig. 6, a face elevation Caribs rouhahamon; it is in flower and of one of the puppets. fruit during the months of October and The frame of the lathe is of wood, and November; it is found on the banks of the consists of two ground cells, ub, two upriver Sinemari, in Guiana, forty leagues from rights, dd, morticed into them, and cross its mouth.
pieces, ef, at top connecting them toge. LAST, in general, signifies the burden or ther; upon the uppermost of these pieces load of a ship.
the bench sustaining the lathe is fixed; g is It signifies also a certain measure of fish, another bench, supported by iron brackets, corn, wool, leather, &c. A last of cod. to receive a vice or other tools at the opfish, white herrings, meal, and ashes fortion of the workmen; between the two upsoap, is twelve barrels ; of corn or rape- rights, d d, the axis of the great foot wheel seed, ten quarters; of gun-powder, twenty- turns, it is pointed at the ends and turns in four barrels; of red-herrings, twenty small conical holes in pieces of hard steel cades ; of hides, twelve dozen ; of leather, let into the uprights, dd, one of these holes twenty dickers ; of pitch and tar, fourteen is in the end of a screw, by turning which, barrels; of wool, twelve sacks ; of stock the axis can be tightened up so as to turn fish, one thousand ; of flax or feathers, very freely without any shake; the axis is 1700lb.
made of wrought iron, and the points at the LATH, in building, a long, thin, and nar. end are of hard steel welded together, it is row slip of wood, nailed to the rafters of a bent in the middle to form a crank ; and h roof or ceiling, in order to sustain the co- is the connecting rod by which it is moved vering. These are distinguished into three from a treadle, i; the treadle is a piece of kinds, according to the different kinds of board, i, seen endways, in fig. 2, screwed wood of which they are made, viz. heart of to an axle, k, at one end, on which it turns, oak, sap-laths, and deal laths; of which the and at the other end is broader to receive two last are used for ceilings and partitions, the workman's foot; in the middle a staple and the first for tiling only. Laths are also is fixed, and the connecting rod, h, hooked distinguished according to their length, into to it; A is the great wheel of cast iron, five feet, four feet, and three feet laths, and of considerable weight in the rim, though the statute allows but of two lengths, wedged fast on the axis, and turns round those of five, and those of three feet, each with it ; it is by the momentum of this of which ought to be an inch and a half in wheel that it continues to turn, while the breadth, and half an inch in thickness, but crank and treadle are rising, and consethey are commonly less.
quently when the workman exerts no LATHS, of clearing. The lath-cleavers power upon them. When the crank has having cut their timbers into lengths, they passed the vertical position, and begins to cleave each piece with wedges, into eight, descend, he presses liis foot upon the treatwelve, or sixteen, according to the size of dle, to give the wheel a sufficient impetus, their timber; these pieces are called bolts; to continue its motion until it arrives at the this is done by the felt-grain, which is that same position again. grain which is seen to run round in rings at W e now come to describe the npper part the end of a piece of a tree. Thus they are of the machine, or lathe, the wheel and cut out for the breadth of the laths, and this treadle being only the first mover, it is work is called felting. Afterwards they shewn on a larger scale in fig. 3, and it is cleave the laths into their proper thickngsses to this figure we shall refer in describing it; with their chit, by the quarter-grain, which is BB is a strong triangular iron bar, firmly that which runs in a straight line towards supported by its ends, on two short pillars the pith. See GRAIN.
screwed at their lower ends to the bench; LATHE, in turning, is an engine used in this bar is perfectly straight and the sides turning wood, ivory, and other materials. fat; D Eare two iron standards, called pup
The lathe we are about to describe is pets, fitted upon the triangular bar, D, and made of iron in the best manner. See Plate fixed at any place by screws, they are both LATITE. Fig. 1, is an elevation of the whole alike, and one of them is shewn endways in machine frontwise ; fig. 2, an elevation side- fig. 6, it has an opening made in it at the ways; fig. 3, an elevation of the lathe only bottom, the inside of which is filed exon a larger scale; in fig. 4, are two eleva. tremely true to fit upon the upper angle of