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the application of names. Some ingenious because one or two distinct articulations writers on this subject have observed cer- would usually answer every purpose ; imtain letters applied to depote a certain probable, because articulation is difficult. class of ideas, which have some common If we extend the principle of imitation features of resemblance, and have inferred farther, and suppose the cries of animals that those letters were significant of that imitated by man in order to express feeling common feature; e.g. that c denotes hollow. merely, his cries would surely be undeserv. ness. This particular coincidence arises ing the name of words, and at any rate probably from the circumstance, that the would throw no light on our inquiries. The original word denoting hollowness, which theory of long words appears to derive has entered variously modified into the confirmation from the vocabularies of the words in question, was c with some vocal North American Indians. For instance, of sound. This appears to be the extent of three which are given by Mackenzie, two the inferrence which may be justly drawn; appear to be composed of words of from that it was so applied, but not that the two to seven syllables, with scarcely any sound was significant of the idea. We are words of one syllable. The third, however, accustomed to use sounds in particular is composed principally of words of one or connections with such regularity and con- two syllables. With respect to the former, štancy, that they appear to have a significa even where the words actually denote sention of themselves considered; but this in- sible objects, our inference that they are ference arises from inattention to the mat- uncompounded should be cautiously drawn. ter of fact. Frequently from our acquaint. The moon is expressed by two words, tibiscaance with the sense, we read a combination pesim, night-sun; and several others apof words as the sense dictates, and suppose pear to be circumlocutions. The catholic the imitation in the words, which really savages on the river St. Lawrence call the exists only in our mode of enunciation; but priest, the master of life's man; and it is these instances, however just, afford no very probable that, in uncultivated nations, ground for argument in the present dis
esent dis. names of new objects would, where possicussion, which refers only to single words: ble, be formed rather by significant comand with respect to them we cannot but binations of words in use, than by the forconfine the resemblance of their sound to mation of new words. Thus we learn from their sense, to cases in which they denote Mr. Parke, that the Mandingo nation use sound or motion usually accompanied with the following (among many) circumlocusound.
tions : fruit is eree-ding, child of the tree; 13. The chief importance of the inquiry finger, boullakon ding, child of the hand or whether the original words of language arm; noon teeleekoniata, the sun over head : were long, is principally confined to that brother, ba ding kea, mother's male child: language in whicb the transition took place proud, telingabalid, straight-bodied; angry from hieroglyphics to letters. This is usually jusu bota, the heart comes out: we think it supposed to have been the Egyptian; but almost unnecessary to remark, bow much as of this language only a few words are the last two instances countenance the posi. preserved in the Coptic, (of which however tions before laid down, respecting the a large proportion are monosyllables) we transference of names from external to in. may make the inquiry more general. Lord ternal things. Monboddo surposes, that the first articulate 14. The words which Lord Monboddo sounds were imitations of the cries of ani. adduces in proof of his opinion are, wonnamals, and that consequently they were of weucktuckluit, much, and mikkeuawkrook, great length, “ for such cries of almost all little, from the Esquimaux; and poellaranimals have a certain tract or extension: rarorincourac, three, among some South and that we may not think man an excep- American Indians. The above examples tion to this rule, we need only attend to lead us to class the two former among the the dumb persons among us, who atter in- descriptive circumlocutions with which all articulate cries, sometimes very loud, but languages are filled. With respect to the always of considerable length.” Leaving last, we may observe that the names of the latter argument, which surely is nothing numbers were probably originally signiti. to the purpose, we may observe, that if the cant in all languages; and that the length cries of animals were imitated to denote of those names would depend upon the those animals, great length of words was length of the original words, and the manvonecessary and improbable : unnecessary, ner of combining them : thus, six is among
the Kamschatkans expressed by innen- mil- cause of the length of their words is prochin, that is, five and one. Numbers are so bably the deficiency of consonants, which familiar to us, and so distinctly arranged in renders a combination of sounds necessary groups, that perbaps in no case are our for distinctness. After all, we may admit ideas more clear; but this clearness entirely that the langnages of the American Indians depends upon the distinctness of the signs, favour the hypothesis of long words withand of the manner of using them. We out any injury, for among then alphabetical speak of ten and twenty, &c. and all seems writing never existed; and we should have very clear; but it is evident if we attempt enlarged less on this point, if it had not led to form a conception of ten or twenty us to notice some curious procedures of lanthings, we must pass over every one singly, guage: but it seems reasonable to admit, and endeavour to combine them by pro as an inference, that the original or rather cesses which will be varied by the habits the secondary words in language miglit be of the individual. If we give a fresh name long, though not to the degree that Monto every group of objects, and then con- boddo supposes. When, however, we adsider those groups as units, and so on, we vance further, and inquire of what kind the are capable of extending our ideas of mim- original words of man really were, we see ber indefinitely, and of speaking and think. sufficient reason to conclude them to be ing of them with accuracy: but if the small short. Language was first used in the east, extent of intellect, or the circumstances of and there too writing was invented. Besituation, prevents this grouping, and our sides the evidence to be derived from the attentiou be confined to individuals, our ancient Egyptian (613), we may cite the arithmetic must be very confined. Those following. The Chinese, which as far as nations which reckon only by comparison oral language is concerned, appears to have with their fingers without grouping num- undergone very little alteration, and to be bers, carry their ideas of number no farther nearly an original language, is composed than ten; those who take in the toes, go as entirely of what are at present monofar as twenty. The Kamschatkans can syllables. The original words of the Hecount no farther; and when they have ad- brew, Greek, &c. (that is, those which have vanced to this limit, they say, “ where shall not been varied by the addition of other we go now?” It is difficult to conceive what words) are short, frequently only of one circumstances could bound the arithmetic syllable, seldom of more than two. And of Lord Monboddo's Indians to three, or to conclude, of the various vocabularies rather what should induce them to choose which we have had an opportunity of conso troublesome a mode of procedure; but sulting, of the uncivilized nations of the it appears highly probable that they joined east, the words are generally monosyllabic, together the names of three different men or dissyllabic. or other animals, and if they had proceeded "16. Vur last object is to consider the further (which however Condamine informs position, that, in the early languages, conus they did not) they would have joined sonant sounds were at least generally ac• four together, &c. Perhaps their tribe companied by vowel sounds : but though originally consisted of three only; and then this is a material point in tracing the tranin order to speak of three they might use sition from hieroglyphics to alphabetical the three names combined together, which writing, it will not be necessary to enlarge combination, losing its primary application, much upon it. We think this position would become a general denotement of proved by the following, in some measure three.
unconnected, considerations. 1. Vowel15. If Lord Monbóddo had looked into sounds are by far the most easy; and conthe vocabulary of the Mexicans, he would sequently they constitute the earliest vocal have thought that his theory derived great sounds of children, and a large proportion confirmation from their words. Clavizego in. of the vocal sounds of uncivilized nations. forms is, that they had words of fifteen or Several words among the South Sea islandsixteen syllables: but he expressiy says ers are composed entirely of vowel sounds; they are compounds. He gives one as a and so great is the difficulty which these specimen of their combinations, riz. not people find in pronouncing consonants tolazomahuitzteopixcatalzin: this signifies my gether, that they called Sir Joseph Banks, very worthy father or revered priest, and is Opuno. From this consideration we may compounded of seven words. The language fairly infer, that vowel sounds would be of the Mexicans is very copious; and one freqnent in the original words of the early languages, which were formed before arti. a complete consonant sound at the end of a culation was become easy. Yet 2, as the word, without emitting a vowel sound. 7. shades of distinction between them, when That.the Hebrew, wliich is to be consider. employed alone or together, are too nice to ed as a representative of all the cognate furnishi, at least to the unpractised ear, eastern languages, never sounded a consomany obviously different words; and as nant without a vowel, may be inferred from man was not at first in that low state of this circumstance, that those who invented intellect in which he has sometimes ap- denotements of vowel sounds, while at peared, a vocabulary formed of such sounds least the leading features of the pronunciawould be very inadequate to his wants; tion remained, thought it necessary to add, and therefore we must suppose that in the or suppose understood, a vowel sound after early languages there would be very few every consonant. words without consonant sounds. 3. Some Respecting the Chinese language our of the first articulations of man were, with readers will find many particulars in the out doubt, employed in naming those of the article before referred to, viz. WRITING, inferior animals with which he was concern- origin of, alphabetical. ed. Now their names would almost cer. LANIARD, a short piece of rope or line tainly be given from their distinguishing fastened to several machines in a ship, and cries; and the cries of such animals consist serving to secure them in a particular place, of consonant sounds, each followed by a - or to manage them more conveniently ; vowel sound. 4. As articulation would at such are the laniards of the gun-ports, the first be nearly as difficult as we now per- laniard of the buoy, the laniard of the catceive it to be in children, the first words hook, &c. would be composed of simple articulations, The principal laniards used in a ship are that is, of consonant sounds following each those employed to extend the shrouds and by a vowel; and new words would be stays of the masts by their communication formed by the combination of such words: with the dead-eyes and hearts, so as to 80 that in the early languages all com. form a sort of mechanical power, resempounds would be formed by the combina. bling that of a tackle tion of simple articulations. 5. The greater LANIUS, the shrike, in natural bistory, a part of consonant sounds cannot be sound- genus of birds of the order Picæ. Generic ed singly without vowels, nor together, character: bill straighitish, with a tooth or without vowels intervening. In many cases -notch near the end of the upper mandible; this is evident to the ear; and where it is the tongue jagged at the end; outer toe mut perceived, it often is the fact, though connected with the middle one so far as the the acquired rapidity of utterance may first joint. These birds are ranked by render it very little perceptible. 6. Some Gmelin with the Accipitres, and have been languages do not admit of any two conso- by others placed in the order Passeres ; nant sounds together. The Tartar lan, according to Kramer, Scopoli, and Pennant, guage always requires a vowel between two however, they most appropriately attach to consonants. The Russian, we believe, does the Picæ. There are, according to Gmelin, the same. The Chinese never join two fifty-six species. Latham enumerates fortyconsonants, unless we must except ng ; but nine, of which it will be sufficient to notice this appears to be only a simple sound, the following: L. excubitor, the great thongh represented by two of our letters. shrike, is about the length of ten inches, and With respect to the Chinese the point is of found in France in great numbers, but rare consequence; becanse there is great reason in England. It subsists on insects and to believe that they came from the stock of small birds, seizing the last by the throat the Egyptians, before there had been any and strangling them, and then fixing them considerable addition to their vocabulary on a thorn, from which it tears them pieceby combinations of sounds, and before the meal and devours them. To decoy them transition had been made from hierogly within its reach it imitates the songs of phical to alphabetical writing. It is true many birds, which approach, delighted by inany of the Chinese words end in conso. the sounds, and unsuspicious of the danger. nants, which seems to render improbable It is a favourite bird with husbandmen, as the position advanced : but it is to be ob- it is considered by them a mortal enemy to served that in such cases the words should rats, mice, and other species of vermin. It. be considered as of two syllables ; for it is however, prefers mountainous and secluded impossible, in continued speaking, to utter situations to the neighbourhood of mankind.
It appears contented in confinement, but is play, or pass from the benefit of the game; completely silent in it with respect to any and here it is to be observed that the cards song. It may often be perceived to hang have the same values as in honours. You its food, before devouring it, on the wires may play upon every card what sum you of its cage. See Aves, Plate VIII. fig. 4. please, from a penny to a pound; and if
L. colluris, or the red-backed shrike, is looed, that is, win never a trick, you must much more frequently to be 'met with in lay down to the stock so much for your five this country than the last species. It is cards, as you played upon every one of particularly fond of grasshoppers and bee them. Every deal rub off a score, and for ties, which, as indeed various other articles every trick you win set up a score, till the of its food, it will stick upon a thorn. The first scores are out; then counting your manners of this species and the last are, in scores, or the numbers of the tricks you fact, extremely similar. It imitates the have won, you are to take from the stock in sounds of other birds to decoy them to proportion to the value. A flush, or five destruction. During incubation, the female cards of a suit, looes all the other hands, discovers herself to any person approaching and sweeps the board ; and if there be two her nest by violent clamours of alarm. In flushes, the eldest in hand hath the advanSt. Domingo there is a species of these tage : the knave of clubs, called paam, has birds daring in the extreme, particularly in this privilege, that he makes a suit with any the breeding season, in which they will other cards, and saves the person who has attack every bird that approaches, without him from being looed. hesitation or distinction. In Carolina there T he other way is this : the dealer lays is another species equally intrepid and fero- down so much for every card as the comcious. They will assail the crow, and even pany please to play for; and the cards bethe eagle if it attempts to intrude upon ing dealt, all must play ; if any be looed, their premises, collecting in considerable they must each lay down so much as the numbers against the aggressor, and seldom cards are valued at, for their loo; and if the failing to make him repent of his temerity person next dealing be looed, he must lay These are denominated the tyrants of down double the said sum, viz. one for Carolina.
dealing, and the other for his loo. In case LANTANA, in botany, a genus of the of a loo, the gamesters are asked whether Didynamia Angiospermia class and order. they will play or not, beginning at the eldest Natural order of Personatæ. Vitices, Jus- hand; but if there is no loo they must all sieu. Essential character: calyx obscurely, play as at first ; and this necessity they four-toothed; stigma hook, refracted; drupe justly call force. with a two-celled nucleus. There are nine. If there be never a loo the money may be teen species. These are mostly shrubs, divided by the gamesters, according to the very few being herbaceous. The branches number of their tricks, or left till one be are quadrangular; the leaves opposite, in looed, as they shall judge proper. pairs, except in a few cases, where there LANTERN, mugic, an optic machine, are three or four together, ovate and wrin. whereby little painted images are repre. kled; flowers aggregate, in axillary and sented so much magnified as to be accountpeduncled heads, each flower bracted. ed the effect of magic by the ignorant. See
LANTERLOO, or Loo, a game at Optics. cards, played several ways, whereof we The contrivance is briefly this : ABCD shall only mention two.
(Plate VIII. Miscel. fig. 1.) is a tin lantern, The first way is this: lift for dealing, and from whose side there proceeds a square the best pnt carries it: as many may play tube b n kl mc, consisting of two parts; the as the cards will permit; five being dealt to outermost of which, n klm, slides over the each, and then turning up trump. Now, other so as that the whole tube may be. if three, four, five, or six play, they may lengthened or shortened by that means. In lay out the threes, fours, fives, sixes, and the end of the arm, nklm, is fixed a consevens, to the intent they may not be quick vex glass, kl; about de there is a contrily looed; or if they would have the loos vance for admitting and placing an object, come fast about, then they are to play with de, painted in dilute and transparent cothe whole pack.
lours, on a plane thin glass ; which object Having dealt, set up five scores, or is there to be placed inverted. This is chalks. Then ask every one, beginning usually some ludicrous or frightful reprewith the eldest in hand, whether they will sentation, the more to divert the spectators;
chc is a deep convex glass placed in the seous and fetid, and is said to cause the other end of the prominent tube, the only hair to fall off from the hands of those who use of which is to cast the light of the touch it. flame, a, strongly on the picture, de, painted. L. fasciata, black; the edges of the memon the plain thin glass. Hence, if the object, branaceous covering, and of the feelers de, be placed further from the glass, kl, scarlet ; it inhabits the shores of Barbary, than its fociis, it is manifest that the distinct among rocks; when touched it discharges image of the object will be projected by the a black and red sanies, which, however, is glass, kl, on the opposite white wall, FH, neither fetid nor depilatory like the last. It at fg; and that in an erect posture : so is frequently to be met with off Anglesea. that, in effect, this appearance of the magic LAPPAGO, in botany, a genus of the lautern is the same with that of the camera Triandria Digynia class and order. Natuobscura, or darkened room; since here the ral order of Gramina. There is but one chamber, EFGH, is supposed quite dark, species. excepting the light in the lantern ABCD. LAPSANA, in botany, a genus of the And here we may observe, that if the tube Syngenesia Polygamia Æqualis class and bnklmc, be contracted, and thereby the order. Natural order of Compositæ, Seglass, kl, brought nearer the object, de, the miflosculosi. Cichoraceæ, Jussieu. Essen. representation, fg, will be projected so tial character: calyx calycled ; each of the much the larger, and so much the more dis. inner scales channelled ; receptacle naked. tant from the glass kel; so that the smallest There are five species, of which L, com. picture at de may be projected at fg in any munis, common nipple-wort, is very abungreater proportion required, within due dant all over Europe in hedges, shady, and limits : whence it is, that this lantern got waste places and cultivated ground; flowthe name of lanterna megalographica. On ering in the summer months. Nature has the other hand, protracting the tube will amply supplied the want of that down to the diminish the object.
seed with which most of this class are furInstead of the convex glass to heighten nished, by the great abundance which every the light, some prefer a concave speculum, plant produces. its focus being nearer than that of a lens; LAPSED legacy, is where the legatee and in this focus they place the candle. dies before the testator, or where a legacy
LAPIDARY style denotes the style pro- is given upon a future contingency, and per for monumental or other inscriptions ; the legatee dies before the contingency hapbeing a sort of medium between prose and pens. As if a legacy is given to a person verse. The jejune and brilliant are here when he attains the age of twenty-one equally to be avoided. Cicero has pre- years, and the legatee dies before that age; scribed the rules of this style. “Accedat, in this case, the legacy is a lost or lapsed oportet oratio varia, vehemens, plena spi- legacy, and shall siok into the residuum of ritûs. Omnium sententiarum gravitate, the personal estate, omninm verborum ponderibus, est uten- LARCENY is the felonious and fraududum.” The lapidary style, which was lost lent taking away of the personal goods of with the ancient monuments, is now used in another, against his will, with intent to various ways, at the beginning of books ; steal them. If the goods are above the vaand even epistles dedicatory are composed lue of 12d., it is called grand larceny; if of in it, whereof we have no example among that value, or under, it is petit larceny: the ancients.
which two species are distinguished in their LAPIS lazuli. See LAZURSTEIN.
punishment, but not otherwise. The mind, LAPIS infernalis. See LUNAR caustic. or intention, of the act alone makes the
LAPLISIA, in natural history, sea-hare, taking of another's goods felony, or a bare a genus of the Vermes Mollusca class and trespass only; but as the variety of circumorder. Body creeping, covered with re. stances is so great, and the complications flected membranes, with a membranaceous' thereof are so mingled, it is impossible to shield on the back, covering the lungs ; prescribe all the circumstances evidencing aperture placed on the right side, vent above a felonious intent, or the contrary. the extremity of the back; four feelers, re- As all felony includes trespass, every insembling ears. There are two species, viz. dictment must have the words feloniously L. depilans; body pale-lead colour, imma. took, as well as carried away; whence it culate, it inhabits the European seas ; from follows, that if the party be guilty of no two to five inches long; is extremely nau. trespass in taking the goods, lie cannot be