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that resolution. It is true, the public was ' point where he irad left off. This he seems thereby a gainer; that book, which is in- to have done not so much by any extraor. deed no more thau a corollary of some pro- dinary strength of memory, as by the force positions in the tirst, being originally drawn of bis inventive faculty, to which every up in the popular way, with a design to thing opened itself again with ease, if nopublish it in that form ; whereas he was thing intervened to ruffie him. The readi. now convinced that it would be best, not ness of his invention made him not think of to let it go abroad without a strict demon- putting his memory mueh to the trial; but stration.
this was the offspring of a vigorous intense. In contemplating his genius, it presently ness of thonght, out of which he was but a becomes a doubt which of these endow- common man. He spent therefore the prime ments had the greatest share, sagacity, of luis age in those abstruse researches, penetration, strength, or diligence; and when his situation in a college gave him after all, the mark that seems most to dis leisure, and while study was his proper
tinguish it is, that he himself made the business. But as soon as he was removed justest estimation of it, declaring, that if to the Mint, he applied himself chiefly to he had done the world any service, it was the duties of that office; and so far quitted due to nothing but industry and patient mathematics and philosophy, as not to evthought; that he kept the subject of con- gage in any pursuits of either kind aftersideration constantly before him, and wait- wards. ed till the first dawning opened gradually, Dr. Pemberton observes, that though his by little and little, into a full and clear memory was much decayed, in the last light. It is said, that when he had any years of his life, yet he perfectly noderstood mathematical problems or solutions in his his own writings, contrary to what I had mind, he would never quit the subject on fornterly heard, says the Doctor, in discourse any account. And his servant bas said, from many persons. This opinion of theirs when he has been getting up in a morning might arise perhaps from his not being alhe has sometimes begun to dress, and with ways ready at speaking on tiiese subjects, one leg in his breeches sat down again on when it might be expected he should. But the best, where he bas remained for hours on this head it may be observed, that great before he has got his clothes on: and that geniuses are often liable to be absent, not dinner has been often three hours ready only in relation to common life, but with for him before he could be brought to regard to some of the parts of science that table. Upon this head several little anec. they are best informed of ; inventors seem dotes are related ; among which is the fol. to treasure up in their minds what they lowing. Dr. Stukely coming in accidentally have found out, after another manner than one day, when Newton's dinner was left those do the same things who have not this for him upon the table, covered up, as inventive faculty. The former, when they usual, to keep it warm till he could find it have occasion to prodnce their knowledge, convenient to come to table; the doctor, are in some measure obliged immediately to lifting the cover found under it a chicken, investigate part of what they want ; and which be presently ate, putting the bones for this they are not equally fit at all tmes; in the dish, and replacing the cover. Some from whence it has 'often happened, that time after Newton came into the room, such as retain things chiefly by means of a and after the usual compliments sat down very strong memory, hare appeared offto his dinner; but on taking up the cover band more expert than the discoverers and seeing only the bones of the fowl left, themselves. he observed with some little surprise, “I It was evidently owing to the same inthought I had not dined, but I now find ventive faculty that Newton, as this writer that I have."
fonnd, had read fewer of the modern ma. After all, notwithstanding his anxious thematicians than one could have excare to avoid every occasion of breaking pected ; his own prodigions invention 'rea. his intense application to study, he was at dily supplying him with what he might have a great distance from being steeped in phi- occasion for in the pursnit of any subject losophy. On the contrary, he could lay he undertook. However he often censured aside his thoughts, thongh engaged in the the handling of geometrical subjects of al. most intricate researches, when his other gebraic calculations ; and his book of Algeaffairs required his attention : and, as soon bra, he called by the name of Universal as he had leisure, resume the subject at the Arithmetic, in opposition to the injudicious title of Geometry, which Des Cartes had twenty-six years of age, resided, recollect given to the treatise in which he shews how ed that he had met with the same thing in the geometrician may assist his invention the writings of that young gentleman, and by such kind of computations. He fre- there not confined to the hyperbola ooly, quently praised Slusius, Barrow, and Huy- but extending, by general forms, to all gens, for not being influenced by the false sorts of curves, even such as are mechanical; taste which then began to prevail. He to their quadratures, their rectifications, used to commend the laudable attempt of and centres of gravity; to the solids formed Hugo d'Omerique to restore the ancient by their rotations, and to the superficies of analysis ; and very much esteemed Apolo. those solids, so that, when their determinanius's book De Sectione Rationis, for giving tions were possible, the series stopped at a as a clearer notion of that analysis than we certain point, or at least their sums were had before. Dr. Barrow may be esteemed given by stated rules; and if the absolute as baving shewn a compass of invention, determinations were impossible, they could equal, if not superior, to any of the moderns, yet be infinitely approximated ; which is the our author only excepted ; but Newton happiest and most refined method, says particularly recommended Huygens's style Fontenelle, of supplying the defects of hu. and manner; he thought him the most ele- man knowledge, that man's imagination gant of any mathematical writer of modern could possibly invent. To be master of so times, and the truest imitator of the an- fruitful and general a theory was a mine of cients.
gold to a geometrician; but it was a greater Of their taste and mode of demonstration glory to have been the discoverer of so sur. our author always professed himself a great prising and ingenious a system. So that admirer; and even censured himself for not Newton, finding by Mercator's book, that following them yet more closely than he he was in the way to it, and that others did ; and spoke with regret of his mistake might follow in his track, should naturally at the beginning of his mathematical stu- have been forward to open his treasures, dies, in applying himself to the works of and secure the property which consisted in Des Cartes, and other algebraic writers, making the discovery ; but le contented before he had considered the Elements of himself with his treasure, which he had Euclid with that attention which so excel- found, without regarding the glory. What lent a writer deserves.
an idea does it give us of his unparalleled But if this was a fault, it is certain it was modesty, when we find him declaring, that a fault to which we owe, both his great in. he thought Mercator had entirely discoventions in speculative mathematics, and vered his secret, or that others would, bethe doctrine of fluxions and infinite series. fore he should become of a proper age for And perhaps this might be one reason why writing! His manuscript upon Infinite Series his particular reverence for the ancients is was communicated to none but Mr. John omitted by Fontenelle, who however cer. Collins, and Lord Brounker, then President tainly makes some amends by that just elo. of the Royal Society, who had also done gium which he makes of our author's ino- something in this way himself ; and even Jesty,which amiable quality he represents as that had not been complied with, but for standing foremost in the character of this Dr. Barrow, who would not suffer him to great man's mind and manners. It was indulge his modesty so much as he de. in reality greater than can be easily imagin- sired. ed, or will be readily believed ; yet it al. It is further observed, concerning this ways continued so without any alteration, part of his character, that he never talked though the whole world, says Fontenelle, either of himself or others, nor ever behaved conspired against it ; let us add, though he in such a manner as to give the most maliwas thereby robbed of his invention of cious censurers the least occasion even to Fluxions. Nicholas Mercator publishing suspect him of vanity. He was candid and his Logarithmotechnia in 1668, where he affable, and always put himself upon a level gave the quadrature of the hyperbola by an with his company. He never thought either infinite series, which was the first appear. his merit or his reputation sufficient to ex. ance in the learned world of a series of this cuse him froin any of the common offices of sort drawn from the particular nature of the social life. No singularities, either natural curve, and that in a manner very new and or affected, distinguished him from other abstracted. Dr. Barrow, at that time at men. Though he was firmly attached to the Cambridge, where Mr. Newton, then about Church of England, he was averse from the
persecution of the nonconformists. He those upon the same subject were pub-
2. Optics, or a Treatise of the Reflec. greatest application was the Bible, at least tions, Refractions, and Inflections, and the in the latter years of his life ; and he under. Colours of Light, 1704, 4to. A Latin Transstood the nature and force of moral certainty, lation, by Dr. Clarke, 1706, 410.; and a as well as he did that of a strict demonstra- French Translation, by P. Caste, Amst. tion. Sir Isaac did not neglect the opportunities lish editions in 8vo.
1729, 2 vols. 12.no. Besides several Eng. of doing good, when the revenues of his pa
3. Optical Lectures, 1728, 8vo. ; also in
4. Lectiones Opticæ, 1729, 4to.
5. Naturalis Philosophiæ Principia Maand the other to his niece Barton, upon thematica, 1687, 4to. A second edition in whom he settled an annuity of 1001. per 1713, with a Preface by Roger Cotes. annum. When decency upon any occasion
The third edition in 1726, under the direcrequired expense and shew, he was magni. tion of Dr. Pemberton. An English Transficent without grudging it, and with a very lation by Motte, 1729, 2 vols. 8vo. printed good grace ; at all other times, that pomp
in several editions of his works, in different which seems great to low minds only, was nations, particularly an edition, with a large utterly retrenched, and the expense reserv.
Commentary by the two learned Jesuits, ed for better uses.
Le Seur and Jacquier, in 4 vols. 4to. in Newton never married; and it has been 1739, 1740, and 1742. said, that “perhaps he never had leisure to
6. A System of the World, translated think of it; that, being immersed in pro. from the Latin original, 1727, 8vo. This, found studies during the prime of his age,
as has been already observed, was at first and afterwards engaged in an employment intended to make the third book of bis of great importance, and even quite taken Principia. An English Translation, by up with the company which his merit drew Motte, 1729, 8vo. to bim, he was not sensible of any vacancy
7. Several Letters to Mr. Flamsteed, in life, nor the want of a companion at
Dr. Halley, and Mr. Oldenburg. home.” These however do not appear to 8. A Paper concerning the Longitude, be any sufficient reasons for his never mar- drawn up by order of the House of Com. rying, if he had had an inclination so to do. It is much more likely that he had a consti- 9. Abregé de Chronologie, &c. 1726, tutional indifference to the state, and even under the direction of the Abbé Conti, to the sex in general.
together with some Observations upon it. He left at his death, it seems, 32,0001., but 10. Remarks upon the Observations he made no will; which, Fontenelle tells us, made upon a Chronological Index of Sir was because he thought a legacy was no I. Newton, &c. Philosophical Transactions, gift. As to his works, besides what were vol. 33. See also the same, vols. 34 and published in his lifetime, there were found 35, by Dr. Halley. after his death, among his papers, several 11. The Chronology of Ancient Kingdiscourses upon the subjects of antiquity, doms amended, &c. 1728, 4to. history, divinity, chemistry, and mathema- 12. Arithmetica Universalis, &c. under tics ; several of which were published at the inspection of Mr. Whiston, Cantab. different times, as appears from the follow. 1707, 8vo. Printed without the author's ing catalogue of all his works ; where they consent, and even against his will, an of are ranked in the order of time in which fence which, it seems, was never forgiven.
There are also English editions of the same, 19. Is. Newtoni Elementa Perspectiva
21. Corollaries, by Whiston.
25. Newton also published Barrow's Op14. Several Letters relating to his dis. tical Lectures, in 1699, 4to.; and Bern.
Varenii Geographia, &c. 1681, 8vo. pute with Leibnitz, upon his right to the
26. The Whole Works of Newton, pub. Invention of Fluxions ; printed in the Commerciam Epistolicum D. Johannis Collins lished by Dr. Horsley, 1779, 41o. in five
volumes. et Alioram, de Analysi Promota, jossa Societatis Regiæ editum, 1712, 8vo.
NEWTONIAN philosophy, the doctrine
of the Universe, and particularly of the 15. Postscript and Letter of M. Leib.
Heavenly bodies; their laws, affections, nitz to the Abbé Conti, with remarks, and a Letter of his own to that Abbé, 1717, The term Newtonian philosophy is applied
&c. as delivered by Sir Isaac Newton. 8vo. To which was added Raphson's His
very differently by different anthors. Some tory of Fluxions, as a Supplement.
under this philosophy include all the Cor16. The Method of Fluxions and Analy. puscular philosophy, considered as it now sis, by Infinite Series, translated into Eng. stands corrected and reformed by the dislish from the original Latin; to which is
coveries and improvements made in the added, a Perpetual Commentary by the
several parts thereof by Sir Isaac Newton. Translator, Mr. John Colson, 1736, 4to.
In this sense it is that 's Gravesande calls 17. Several Miscellaneous Pieces and his Elements of Physics, an Introduction Letters, as follows: 1. A Letter to Mr. to the Newtonian philosophy; and in this Boyle upon the Subject of the Philosopher's sense, the Newtonian is the same with the Stone ; inserted in the General Dictionary new philosophy, in opposition to the Carteunder the article Boyle. 2. A Letter to sian, the Peripatetie, and the ancient CorMr. Aston, containing Directions for his puscular philosophy. Others, by Newto. Travels; ibid, under our Author's article. nian philosophy, mean the method or order 3. An English Translation of a Latin Dis- which Sir Isaac observes in philosophizing, sertation upon the Sacred Cubit of the riz. the reasoning and drawing of concinJews; inserted among the Miscellaneous sions directly from phenomena, exclusive of Works of Mr. Jobu Greaves, vol. 2, pub. all previous hypotheses; the beginning from lished hy Dr. Thomas Birch, in 1737, simple principles, deducing the first pow2 vols. 8vo. This Dissertation was found ers and laws of nature from a few select subjoined to a work of Sir Isaac's, not phenomena, and then applying those laws, finished, intitled Lexicon Propheticum. &e. to account for other things ; and in this 4.' Four Letters from Sir Isaac Newton to sepse the Newtonian is the same with Ex. Dr. Bentley, containing some Arguments périmental philosophy. Others again, by in Proof of a Deity, 1756, 8vo. 5. Two Newtonian philosophy, mean that wherein Letters to Mr. Clarke, &r.
physical bodies are considered mathema13.' Observations on the Prophecies of tically, and where geometry and mechanics Daniel, and the Apocalypse of St. Jolm, are applied to the solution of phenomena; 1733, 4to.
in which sense the Newtonian is the same
with the mechanical and mathematical phi. as had first considered the principles; not losophy. Others again, by Newtonian phi that it is necessary a man should master losophy, understand that part of physical them all, many of them, even the first rate knowledge which Sir Isaac Newton has mathematicians, would find a difficulty in handled, improved, and demonstrated in getting over. It is enough to have read his Principia. And, lastly, some by New- the definitions, laws of motion, and the tonian philosophy, mean the new principles three first sections of the first book; after which Sir Isaac has bronght into philosophy, which, the author himself directs us to pass the new system founded thereon, and the on to the book De Systemate Mundi. new solutions of phenomena thence de- The great principle on which the whole duced; or that which characterizes and dis- philosophy is founded, is the power of gratinguishes his philosophy from all others : vity : this principle is not new; Kepler, and this is the sense, in which we shall long ago, hinted at it in his Introduct. ad chiefly consider it.
Mot. Martis. He even discovered some of the As to the history of this philosophy, we properties thereof, and their effects in the have but little to say: it was first made motions of the primary planets ; but the public in 1686, by the author, then a fellow glory of bringing it to a physical demonof Trinity College, Cambridge ; and in the stration, was reserved to the English year 1713, republished with considerable philosopher. See GRAVITATION. improvements. Several other authors have proof of this principle from phenomena, since attempted to make it plainer, hy set together with the application of the same ting aside many of the more sublime mathe. principle to the various other appearances matical researches, and substituting either of nature, or the deducing those appear. more obvions reasonings or experiments in ances from that principle, constitute the lien thereof; particularly Mr. Whiston, in Newtonian system; which, drawn in miniahis Prelect. Phys. Mathem. 's Gravesande, ture, will stand thus : in bis Elem. and Inst, and the learned Com- 1. The phenomena are, 1. That the sa. ment of Le Seur and Jacquier upon Sir tellites of Jupiter do, by radii drawn to Isaac's Principia.
the centre of the planet, describe areas proThe philosophy itself is laid down chiefly portional to the times ; and that their periin the third book of the Principia ; the odical times are in a sesquiplicate ratio of two preceding books being taken up in their distances from its centre; in which preparing the way, and demonstrating such the observations of all astronomers agree. principles of mathematics as have the most 2. The same phenomenon holds of the relation to philosophy: such are the laws satellites of Saturn, with regard to Saand conditions of powers; and these, to
turn; and of the Moon, with regard to the render them less dry and geometrical, the
Earth. 3. The periodical times of the priauthor illustrates by scholia in philosophy, mary planets about the Sun, are in a sesquirelating chiefly to the density and resistance plicate ratio of their mean distances from of bodies, the motion of light and sounds, the Sun. But, 4. The primary planets do a vacuum, &c. In the third boak he pro. not describe areas any way proportional to ceeds to the philosophy itself; and from their periodical times about the Earth; the same principles deduces the structure as being sometimes seen stationary, and of the universe, and the powers of gravity, sometimes retrograde, with regard thereto. whereby bodies tend towards the Sun and II. The powers whereby the satellites planets; and, from these powers, the mo. of Jupiter are constantly drawn out of tions of the planets and comets, the theory their rectilinear course, and retained in of the Moon and the tides. This book, their orbits, respect the centre of Jupiter, which he calls De Mændi Systemate, be and are reciprocally as the squares of their tells us, was first written in the popular way; distances from the same centre. The same but considering, that such as are unac- holds of the satellites of Saturn, with re. quainted with the said principles, wonld' gard to Saturn; of the Moon, with regard not conceive the force of the consequences, to the Earth ; and of the primary planets, por be induced to lay aside their ancient with regard to the Sun. See CENTRAL prejudices ; for this reason, and to prevent FORCES. the thing from being in continual dispute, III. The Moon gravitates towards the he digested the sum of that book into pro: Earth, and by the power of that gravity is positions, in the mathematical manner, so retained in her orbit: and the same holds of as it might only come to be read by sach the other satellites with respect to their