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and it is now becoine usual for chemists, ders sometimes convex and crowded ; lips among their other experiments on minerals, thick and doubled; rays of the dorsal fin in to piention their habitudes with the blow. several species prolonged into soft propipe.
cesses; gill-covers unarnted and scaly. The fluxes which have obtained the ge. There are ninety-eight species enumerated neral sanction of chemists, on account of by Shaw, of which we shall notice merely the extensive use they have been applied to the following: L. scarus, is about the length by Bergman, are phosphoric acid in the dry of twelve inches, and is found in the Medi. or glassy state, soda, and borax or the na- terranean in immense shoals. It was well tive borate of soda.
known to the ancients, and highly admired by LABOUR, in general, denotes a close them, being considered as one of the most application to work or business. Among luxurious dainties. For a representation of seamen a ship is said to be in labour when the blue-finned Labrus, see Plate V. fig. 2.. she rolls and tumbles very much, either a LABYRINTH, in anatomy, the internal hull under sail, or at anchor. It is also cavity of the ear, so called from sinuosities spoke of a woman in travail, or child-birth. and windings. See EAR. See MIDWIFERY.
LABYRINTH, in gardening, a winding LABRADOR stone, in mineralogy, is of mazy walk between hedges, through a a grey colour, passing into a dark ash. It wood or wilderness. The chief aim is to exhibits, however, under certain circum- make the walks so perplexed and intricate stances, a great variety of colours, as blue, that a person may lose himself in them, green, yellow, red, and brown, in their dif- and meet with as great a number of disferent shades. It shows, likewise, spotted appointments as possible. They are rarely and striped delineations. Sometimes the to be met with except in great and noble same spot if held in different directions gardens, as Versailles, Hampton court, &c. changes its colour from blue to green, &c. There are two ways of making them; the The beautiful colours seldom extend over first is with single hedges ; this inethod has a whole piece; in general, they show them- been practised in England : and these may, selves only in large and smaller spots and indeed, be best, where there is but a small patches. Different colours are presented spot of ground allowed for making them ; according as the piece is held between the but where there is ground enough the light and the eye, or the eye and the light. double is most eligible. Those made with It occurs massive, in blunt edged and rolled double hedges, with a considerable thickpieces. Its principal fracture is shining, ness of wood between them, are approved passing into splendent. Specific gravity is as much better than single ones : this is the about 2.7. It runs into a white enamel, with manner of making them in France and addition before the blow-pipe. The con otler places; of all which that of Versailles stitutent parts are
is allowed to be the noblest of its kind in Silica ............................... 69.5
the world. It is an error to make them too
narrow; for that makes it necessary to Alumina .......................... 13.6
keep the hedges close clipped: but it, acSulphate of lime........ 19.0
cording to the foreign practice, they are Oxide of copper..
0.7 Oxide of iron.....................
made wide, they will not stand in need of
it. The walks are made with gravel usually 96.1 set with horn-beam: the pallisades ought to
be ten, twelve, or fourteen feet high : the It makes a part of certain kinds of green born-beam should be kept cut, and the stone, and is accompanied with mica and walks rolled. shorl, though seldom with iron pyrites. It LAC, gum, in chemistry, is a very singuwas originally discovered by the Moravians, lar compound, prepared by the female of a in the island of St. Paul, on the coast of very minute inscct, the coccus lacca, found Labrador, where it is still to be inet with in on some trees in the East Indies, particularplenty, also in some parts of Denmark and ly the banyan fig. The insect is nourished Norway, and near the romantic Lake of by the tree, fixing itself upon the twigs and Baikel in Siberia. It is used for many or extremities of the succulent branches, where namental purposes.
; it deposits its eggs, which it glues to the LABRUS, in natnral history, a genus of branch by a red liquid, the outside of which fishes of the order Thoracici. Generic chahardens by the air, and serves as a cell for racter: teeth strong and sharp; the grin- the parent insect. This increases in size,
and the young insects at first feed upon the as that of gold and silver. The pattern of enclosed liquid, and after this is expended the lace is fixed upon a large round pillow, they eat through the coat, leaving a hollow and pins being stuck into the holes or openred resinous bag which is “stick-lac." The ings in the pattern, the threads are interbest lac is procured from the province of woven by means of a number of bobbins Acham, but it is obtained in great plenty made of bone or ivory, each of which conon the uncoltivated mountains on each side - tains a small quantity of fine thread, in such of the Ganges. There are four kinds of lac, a manner as to make the lace exactly resiz, “ stick-lac," which is lac in its natural semble the pattern. There are several towns state, without any preparation; “ seed-lac," in England, and particularly in Buckinghamwhich is stick-lac broken into small lumps, sbire, that carry on this manufacture; but and granulated; "lump-lac,” which is seed- vast quantities of the finest laces have been lac liquified by fire; "shell-lac,” which is a imported from Flanders. preparation of the stick-lac. By a number LACERTA, the lizard, in natural histo. of very accurate experiments made by Mr. ry, a genus of Amphibia, of the order RepHatchett, it is found that lac consists of a tiles. Generic character : body fourcolouring extract, of resin, gluten, and footed, tailed, naked and long, having no se
sewax; all of them in intimate combinations: condary integument; legs equal. There the proportions of the stick-lac are as fol. are, according to Gmelin, eighty-one spe. low:
cies, of which the following are principally Resin........................
deserving of attention. L. crocodilus or Wax ......................... 6.0
the crocodile, is a native both of Africa and Gluten............
Asia, but is most frequently found in the Colouring extract......... 10.0 former, inhabiting its vast rivers, and partiExtraneous substances... 6.5
cularly the Niger and the Nile. It has oc
casionally been seen of the length of even 96.0
thirty feet, and instances of its attaining that
of twenty are by no means uncommon. It Lac is employed for a variety of purposes
principally subsists on fish, but such is its in the arts: the finer specimens are cut into
voracity, that it seizes almost every thing beads for necklaces. It enters largely into
within its reach. The upper part of its the composition of sealing-wax, and hard
body is covered with a species of armour, so japans or varnishes : and it is much used in
thick and firm, as to be scarcely penetrable dying.
by a musket ball, and the whole body exhiLAC sulphuris, in medicine, a sulphur bits the appearance of an elaborate cover. separated by acid from its alkaline solution. ing of carved work. It is an oviparous In this state it is thought to be milder and a animal, and its eggs scarcely exceed in size more efficacious medicine than in its crude
those of a goose. These eggs are regarded state, and is certainly less nauseous to the
as luxuries by the natives of some countries taste. See SULPHUR.
of Africa, who will also with great relish parLACCIC acid, in chemistry, a white or take of the flesh of the crocodile itself. yellowish production of insects, called white
When young, the small size and weak state lac. Some of this substance, brought from of the crocodile prevent its being injurious Madras, was aualyzed by Dr. Pearson, who to any animal of considerable bulk or found that it bore a considerable analogy strength, as those which have been brought
to bees-wax. A full account of Dr. Pear. living to England have by no means indi· son's experiments may be seen in the eighty- cated that ferocious and devouring charac.
fourth volume of Philos. Trans. The com- ter which they have been generally deponent parts of this acid are supposed to be scribed to possess, a circumstance, proba. carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen.
bly, owing to the change of climate, and the LACE, in commerce, a work composed reducing effect of continement. In its na. of many threads of gold, silver, or silk, in tive climate its power and propensity for terwoven the one with the other, and work- destruction are unquestionably great, and ed upon a pillow with spindles, according excites in the inhabitants of the territories to the pattern designed. The open-work near its baunts a high degree of terror. It being formed with pins, which are placed lies in wait near the banks of rivers, and and displaced as the spindles are moved, with a sudden spring, seizes any animal that
LACE, bone, a lace made of fine linen, approaches within its reach, swallowing it Uread, or silk, much in the same manner by an instantaneous effort, and then rushing
back into its watery recesses, till renewed resistance, and devour them with less inappetite stimulates the renewal of its insidi. ruption. By the close union of the verous exertions. These animals were occa- tebræ, this animal cau proceed with cele. sionally exhibited by the Romans among rity only in a straight forward direction, so their collections of the natural wonders of that the intended victims pursued by them, the provinces, and Scaurus and Augustus are enabled to elude this destination by la· are both recorded to have entertained the teral and cross movements. But though people with the sight of these new and for- the alligator is deficient in Alexibility, it supmidable objects. It is reported by some plies this defect in a great degree by sagatravellers, that crocodiles are capable of city or cunning, and appearing on the surbeing tamed, and are actually kept in a face of the water like the stock of a tree, he condition of harmless domestication at the, thus attracts various animals within its grounds and artificial lakes of some Afri- grasp. Fowls, fishes, and turtle, all are can princes, chiefly as appendages of royal drawn, whether by curiosity or for convesplendour and magnificence. A single negro nience, towards this object, supposed comwill often attack a crocodile, and by spear. pletely barmless, but from which the jaws of ing it between the scales of the belly, where destruction are instantly opened to devonr
it is easily penetrable, secure its destruc- them. Aligators are said to swallow stones ition. In some regions these animals are and various other substances incapable of af
hunted by dogs, which, however, are care fording nourishment, merely to prevent the fully disciplined to the exercise, and are contraction of their intestines, and thus allay armed with collars of iron spikes. Aristotle their hunger; and Catesby observes, that ou appears to have been the first who asserted opening a great number, he has seen nothat the under jaw of the crocodile was thing but clumps of light wood and pieces immovable, and from him the idea was of pine tree coal (in one instance a piece of transmitted and believed for a long succes- the weight of eight pounds) worn by attrision of ages. But the motion of the jaw in tion to a surface perfectly smooth, implying this animal is similar to that of all other that they had long remained in their bodies. quadrupeds. The ancients also thought it Their eggs are deposited on the banks of destitute of a tongue, an idea equally false, rivers, and sometimes in a nest composed of The tongue, however, is more fixed in this vegetables with considerable care, and are than in most animals to the sides of the hatched by the sun, and the yonng ones are mouth, and less capable therefore of being not only devoured by fishes and birds, but protruded. The eggs of the crocodile are become the victims often of their own vodeposited on the mud or sand of the banks racious species. In Carolina they seldom of rivers, and, immediately on being attack men or large cattle, but are formidahatched, the young move towards the water, ble enemies to hogs. From October to in their passage to which, however, vast March they continue in the sequestered ca. numbers are intercepted by ichineamons verns of the river banks in a state of torpor, and birds, which watch their progress. See re-appearing in the spring with the most Amphibia, Plate I. fig. 4.
violent and terrific noises. Some parts of L. alligator, the alligator, differs from the them are used by the Indians for food, and former species principally in being more the flesh is of an attractive whiteness, but has smooth on the upper part of the head, and a very strong flavour of musk. The growth on the snout being much wider and flatter, of this animal, and of the crocodile, is exand rounder at the end. It grows to the tremely slow, and both are imagined to be length of eighteen feet, and abounds parti. long lived. See Amphibia, Plate I. fig. 2. cularly in the torrid zone, but it is found so L. iguana, or the great American guana, far north as the river Neus in North Caro- is found in various parts of America and the lina. It is met with both in the fresh and salt West Indies. Its colour is generally green. parts of rivers, and amidst the reeds along Its back exhibits the appearance of a saw, the banks, Jurks in ambush for its prey, and it is distinguished by a pouch under the seizing upon dogs and cattle which ap- throat, which it is able to extend or conproach within the reach of its fatal bound. tract at pleasure, and which gives it occa. Alligators are equally formidable in their sionally an appearance truly formidable. It appearance, and ferocious in their disposi. is formidable, however, only in appearance, tions, seizing both man and beast with al. being in fact perfectly inoffensive. Its gemost indiscriminating voracity, and pulling neral length is from three to five feet; it inthem to the bottom to lessen their means of habits rocks and woods, and subsists ou ve. getable food and certain species of insects. mild in its manners and temper as it is ele. The guanas deposit their eggs (which have gant in its form. no testaceous covering, and are much va. L. agilis, or the green lizard, is abundant lued for food) in the earth where they may in all the warmer latitudes of Europe, somebe warmed by the beams of the sun, and times attaining the length of more than two leave them to be matured solely by its in- feet, but in general not exceeding one. Its fluence. The natives of the Bahamas train colouring is more beautiful than that of any dogs to the parsuit of these animals, and a of its tribe in this quarter of the world, well disciplined dog will take them alive, in About the southern walls of gardens, it is which case they are carried for sale to the particularly seen pursuing insects with markets of Carolina in the holds of vessels ; great alertness and dexterity, and both in those which are destroyed or lacerated by attack and escape its agility is truly adthe dogs, are salted and barrelled, and kept mirable. It may to a certain degree be for the home consumption. Their flesh is tamed and familiarised, and in this state is reporteil to be easily digestible, delicate, by many considered not only as a perand well favoured. They will keep underfectly harmless, but as a favourite animal. water for nearly an hour ; when they swim, L. chamæleon, the chameleon, is gene. their feet are kept close to their bodies, rally of the length of ten inches without the and they appear to produce and regulate tail, which is equally long. Its food contheir motions merely by their tails. What sists of insects, which it procures by proever they eat they swallow whole. They truding the tip of its tubular and lengthened have been kept without food a very consi tongue with inconceivable celerity, and derable time. Their colour is much af- never failing to retract with it the prey at fected by the state of the weather, or the which it was darted. In India and Africa, dampness or dryness of their habitation. and various other parts of the world, these They may be easily tamed if taken young. animals are found in great abundance. They
L. basiliscus, or the basilisk, is particu- are perfectly inoffensive, and can endure a larly distinguished by a broad wing-like long abstinence, from which latter circumprocess, elevated along the whole length of stance the idea of their living upon air its back, somewhat similar to the fins of alone, may not unnaturally have been de. fishes, and which is capable, at the pleasure rived. They occasionally retain the air in of the animal, of being extended or con- their lungs for a very considerable time, and tracted. It lives almost solely in trees, thus assume an appearance of fullness and feeding upon insects, and though somewhat fleshiness which is in perfect contrast to terrific in appearance, is as harmless as any that which they will suddenly exhibit, in of the lizard tribe. It is found most fre- consequence of the total expulsion of the quently in South America, generally about air from the lungs, during which they are a foot and a half long, swims with great collapsed and seemingly emaciated. A ease, and moving among the branches of the change of colour is sometimes observed in trees with extreme agility, sometimes ap- many of the lizard tribe, but particularly so parently with a short flight, which is aided in the chameleon; but the long prevailing by the remarkable process above menti. idea of the adaptation of its colour to that of oned, on its back. The basilisk of anti- any substance with which it is surrounded quity, whose bite was supposed to be more is totally groundless. Its varieties in this speedily mortal than that of any other respect appears to extend (in conseqnence creatnre, and whose look even carried de- principally, of varied health or temperastruction with it, is to be ranked with the ture) from its natural green-grey into very fabulous monsters, which in the prevailing pale yellow, with irregular patches of red. ignorance of nature that attended those When exposed to the sun, considerable times, were amply supplied by a poetic changes in the shading and patching of its imagination. Sec Amphibia, Plate I, fig. 3. colours are observable ; and when, after
L. monitor, or the black lizard, measures being wrapped in white linen by some frequently four and sometimes five feet, members of the French Academy it rebeing one of the largest as well as the most appeared within two or three minutes, it elegant of the tribe. It is found principally partook somewbat, but very far from com. in woody and moist situations in South Ame. pletely of the colour of it. On being folded rica, and is reported to give indications of up in substances of varions other different attachment and gratitude to those by whòm colours, it borrowed neither of them, and it has been fed, and familiarised to be as exhibited no interesting change. The
movements of the chameleon are extremely LACHENALIA, in botany, a genns of slow, and in passing from branch to branch the Hexandria Monogynia class and order. its tail is coiled for security round one Natural order of Coronariæ. Asphodeli, till its feet have been extended to the Jussieu. Essential character: corolla sixother.
parted; the three outer petals difform; L. salamandra, or the salamander, is of a capsule three-winged; cells many-seeded; deep brilliant black colour, varied with ir- seeds globular, affixed to the receptacle. regular patches of bright yellow. It is There are twelve species, all bulbous rooted found in various parts of France, Germany, plants, and natives of the Cape of Good and Italy, abounding particularly in moist Hope. and woody situations, and making its ap LACHES, in law, signifies slackness or pearance chiefly during rain. In winter it negligence; as when we say, “ there is a secludes itself in clefts, or hollow trees. It laches of entry," it means the same as to is about seven inches long, lives principally say, there is lack or neglect of entry. , upon insects and snails, can subsist by wa
LACHNÆA, in botany, a genns of the ter as well as land, is slow in its movements, Octandria Monogynia class and order. and lethargic in its habits. The idea of its
Natural order of Vepreculæ Thymelææ, being capable of enduring fire without in
Jussicu. Essential character: calyx none; jury, can be accounted for, merely from its
corolla four-cleft, with an unequal border; possessing a power of exuding in any state
seed one, like a berry. There are two of irritation a white and glutinous substance,
species, viz. L. eriocephala, woolly headed which must of course tend to render the
lachnæa; and L. conglomerata, clusterapplication of fire less immediately destruc
headed lachnæa; these are both shrubs, and tive to it than to some other animals, and
natives of the Cape of Good Hope. considering what trifling causes have led, in
LACHRYMAL, in anatomy, an appellainnumerable cases to important inferences, this fact may probably have given rise to the
tion given to several parts of the eye, from notion of the salamander being insuscepti
their serving to secrete the tears. The ble of destruction, and even of injury in the
lachrymal gland is situated in the orbit midst of fames. The idea of its poisoning
above the smaller angle, and its excretory · any large animal by its bite is equally ex
ducts under the upper eye-lid: these are ploded. The common lizard, however, is
much more easily demonstrated in the eye stated to have been poisoned in conse
of an ox than in a human one. quence of the bite of the salamander, from LACIS, in botany, a genus of the Poly: some particular Auid contained in the skin andria Digynia class and order. Essential of the latter. The salamander produces character: calyx none; corolla none; filaits voung living batched from internal ments winged on both sides below; recepeggs, and frequently upwards of thirty in
tacle girt, with twelve spines ; capsule number.
ovate, eight-streaked, one-celled, two-valL. aquatica, or the common water newt,
ved, many.seeded. There is but one species, is generally about three inches and a half
viz. L. fluviatilis ; this plant is called by the in length, and is found in this country in al.
natives mourerou ; it is a native of Guiana, most all its stagnant waters. Newts fre- and has been found only on the rocks of the quently cast their skins with the most com
great cascade of the river Sinemari; it is plete wholeness, even to the exquisitely de.
always under water, except the flowering licate and filmy coverings of the eye. In
branches ; it is attached to the rocks by the power of reproduction they resemble pac
packets of small fibres. the cancer genus. The loss of a leg is re.
LACISTEMA, in botany, a genus of the ported by Dr. Blumenbach to be easily re- Monandria Digynia class and order. Esservaired by renovation, and it is added that tial character : calyx scale of the ament; the same circumstance occurs with respect corolla four-parted; filaments bifid ; berry to the eyes. The tenaciousness of life exhi. pedicelled, one-seeded. There is but one bited by these animals is remarkable. They species, viz. L. myricoides, found in Surinam have often been found inclosed in large and Jamaica. masses of ice, in which they must have been LACTATES, combinations of earths and confined for days, weeks, or, even in some alkalies, &c. with the LACTIC ucid, whicla instances, for months; and, on being freed see. from their prison, have soon displayed all LACTEAL vessels, in anatomy, fine subthe ziertness and vigour of perfect heallli. de canals situated in the intestines and me.