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others. The ceremony occurred every without exception or a possibility of denial, lustrum under the superintendence of the as many soldiers to be maintained by the eensors.
produce of the lands, as the lord proprietor When the Equites had accomplished the was disposed to think proper, this became terın for which their services were required the tenure of knights' service; but a single it was the established castom to lead their soldier derived as the service of a certain horses to the place where the two censors portion of land was termed a knights' fee, were seated in the Forum to whom they and an estate furnishing a number of men related the circumstances attending their trained for the field was said to contain an various campaigns, and under whom they equal pumber of knights' fees; this system, served; they were then discharged either extending in every direction, rendered each with honour or disgrace as their conduct nation acting under it formidable and danwas approved or considered disgraceful. gerous to the adjoining, as numerous armies
It is generally admitted that it is by no might be assenabled at a very short notice, means correct to suppose that all the Roman , and much blood spilt before reason had soldiers mounted on horses were knights. time to subdue sadden resentment, besides Sigonius, and others, made a distinction in the means of oppression it afforded to men the cavalry between those who served equo of large possessions. The armies thus aspublico, and those who served equo privato; sembled were commanded by the monarch, is the former” says Kennet, “ they allow to the nobles acted as officers, and all the have been of the order of knights, the latter varieties of vassals were considered and pot. They demonstrate from the course sorted as private soldiers. Exclusive of of history, that from the beginning of the the tyranny of exacting personal service, Roman state till the time of Marius, no the holders of knights' tenures were subject other borse entered the legions but the to all the ancient hardships of the old sys. true and proper knights, except in the midst tem, under the name of incidents, for chief of public confusion, when order and dis.. aid, escheat, wardship and marriage, and cipline were neglected."
they were compelled to bind themselves to Like all other institutions this order their oppressor by oaths of homage and began to degenerate, the life and soul of fealty. honour which supported it died and faded It is supposed that knights' service had away, leaving a mere shadow of its pristine been universally established in Europe by importance, indolence and avarice tempted the year 987; if so, there cannot be the individuals from the parsuit of military least doubt that it was introduced into fame to the more innocent, and, perhaps, England by William of Normandy obmore laudable occupations of agricultore, taining the absolute right of disposing of and to partake of the emoluments to be de. the territory of the conquered chiefs of this rived from places of trust under the govern- country; the obvious policy of the monarch ment; those who retained sufficient vigour was the distribution of it to those persons of mind to consider themselves as still be. who had adopted his fortunes ; and in what longing to the order, obtained commands, way could he more firmly bind them to his and the mass of the cavalry was at length future support than by compelling them to composed of foreign mercenaries. Fully furnish men by the prevailing tenure? sensible of the degraded state of the Pursuing this policy, the old tenants reEquites, who wished to receive the hu- ceived fresh grants, and were thus secured nours due to them when deserving of by the subtle king from attempting to honour, and a horse from their country, wrest his conquests from him; indeed it when that country no longer was remune- has been asserted, that the system was generated by their services, subsequent princes rally approved, as but few of the Anglodeprived them of the horse, but suffered Saxon fiefs were hereditary. The knights them to retain the golden ring.
were bound to appear completely armed KNIGHTS' service, this species of servitude with a lance, sword, shield and helmet, and was the consequence of the weakness and well mounted at the shortest notice from decay of the feodal system thoughout their superiors, and to remain in the field Europe, and was invented as a remedy. forty days at the expence of the chiefs of Fiefs, which had previously been held for their fees. At'length similar causes to those long terms of years, were made hereditary, which have been mentioned to have actuatand the holder was compelled to afford, ed the Roman equites, induced the English knights to commute their personal services been considered a proper method of re. for fines, and hence arose the system of warding persons who have rendered slight taxation.
services to the state, but the very frequent An act of parliament was passed in the opportunities afforded of conferring the reign of Edward II. which required all per lionour, has operated in producing the little sons possessed of 201. per annum to appear estimation in which it is held, and from and receive the honour of knighthood from which there is no present prospect of its the king. This cause and others operated recovering. The observatious just made to produce such numbers of knights throngh- "must rot at the same time be supposed to out Europe, that it became necessary to apply to the more honourable orders which invent different orders of knighthood, to have already been noticed under the article render some of the members at least of of Knights of the Bath, and Knights of the importance in the estimation of the com- Garter, exclusive of the 'numerous foreign munity.
orders, which have existed, and do still Charles I. strangely infatuated and mis- exist, in different parts of Europe. taken in his conduct, adopted the obsolete KNIGHTS' templars. This order has been practice of his ancient predecessors, and suppressed for many centuries, but as they issued a warrant to the sheriffs in 1626, were once considered a very powerful to summons all persons that had for three body, and had large possessions in England, years past held 401. per annum, or more, of which the extensive and valuable doof lands or revenues in their own hands, main, still known by the name of the Temor the hands of feoffees, and are not yet ple, in Londou, was a part, a slight sketch knights to come before his majesty by the of their history appears to be necessary. tuirty-first of January, to receive the order The order was instituted in the year of knighthood."
· 1118, for the actual defence of the places January 28, 1630, the king issued a com- rendered sacred by the residence and acts mission to the Lord Keeper, Lord High of Jesus Christ, in the city of Jerusalem Treasurer. &c. to compound with those and its neighbourhood; and the house which 'who had made themselves liable to for- they pccupied, being purposely situated feiture, by neglecting to receive knight near the temple there, they acquired the hood, according to act of parliament; al- name of Templars; and, from the same luding to the act of Edward II. This como cause, their principal mansions throughout mission, absurd and oppressive beyond mo- Europe were called temples. The Council dern conception or endurance, produced of Troyes confirmed and established them above one hundred thousand pounds to the in the rule of St. Bernard, in the year 1127, royal treasury, but did the king infinite and the brethren were divided into two injury in the opinion of his subjects, who classes, knights, and servitors. Saladine had long considered the statutum de Mili, having invaded and conquered the territotibus a nullity, and which was afterwards ries they had bound themselves to protect, repealed by parliament. Charles rather they were compelled to leave the Holy alarmed at the general expression of ab. Land, and to establish the order where horrence excited by his conduct, published they found a kind reception, which was al“ a proclamation for the ease of his sub. most in every part of the world then under jects, in making their compositions for not the influence of the Christiau religion, as receiving the order of knighthood accord. they had double claims on the pions, proing to law, dated in the preceding July;" ceeding from their peculiar profession and this however was nothing more than an sufferings for the cause of the Saviour. attempt to soften the displeasure of the During the period they depended upon the public, and failed of its effect. The ancient alms and bounty of the public, they were ceremony of making a knight consisted of distinguished for their mcek and meritogiving the party a blow on the ear, and rious conduct, which operated so greatly in striking him on the shoulder with a naked their favour, that gifts flowed into their sword, after which he had a sword girded treasuries from the sovereign to the pea. round' him, and spurs attached to his heels, sant, in every country where a house of and being otherwise completely armed as knights' templars existed. Matthew Paris a knight, he was conducted in solemn pro. asserts, the order possessed 9,000 rich con. cession to hear the offices of religion. vents; and other writers add, that they
Since the above period knighthood has had 16,000 Jordships, with subordinate
governors distributed in every part of Eu- and resolution; but he was deficient in that rope.
firin spirit which governed Henry VIII; Under these prosperous circumstances, this is proved by a circolar letter from him, they became inflated by pride, and inso directed to the Kings of Castille, Arragon, lence usurped the place of meekness : rely. Portugal, and Sicily, dated December 4th, ing upon their presumed consequence, they 1307 ; and another to the Pope, in each of did not attempt to conciliate where they which he expressed his disbelief of the ac. had offended; nor did they seem to sug- cusations against the Templars, and menpect the hatred they had generated, till it tioned a priest who had endeavoured to was too late to resist or retract; such is the confirm them to him, but ineffectually, as general tenor of the accounts given of the he was convinced the public agreed with conduct of the knights templars by histo- himself in approving their manners and rians; but althongh those may be founded conduct ; and yet, such is the weakness and in fact, it is not to be supposed, that pride instability of human nature, this very king alone caused the dissolution of the order; was prevailed upon to issue an order, ad. avarice, on the part of their oppressors, was dressed to the sheriffs, for the apprehending the grand agent, and the riches of the of every Templar in the kingdom, upon the kniylıts the temptation to plunder them. feast of the Epiphany, 1308. Some of the members resident in Paris, The Pope, fearful of the wavering dispo. were indiscreet or wicked enough to cause sition of the Monarch, sent another brief a riot in the streets of that city, Philip the into England, repeating all the old charges, Fair, then on the throne of France, seizing and producing others, which he addressed on this opportunity, determined to make to the Archbishop of Canterbury, and his use of it to accomplish the total ruin of the suffragans, at the same time, informing order; he therefore procured the evidence them, he had appointed three cardinals, of many infamous brethren, either by four English bishops, and several of the bribery or other means, who charged the French clergy, to manage the process to be knights generally with the most shocking instituted here against the unfortunate orenormities : acting upon this base testi. der. After the arrival of the commissioners mony, the king ordered the arrest of every alluded to, Edward had the good sense and templar in his dominions, abolished the or- precaution to command the invariable atder, and even caused fifty-seven of them to tendance of the British part of it on every be burned to death : the Pope, influenced day the business was prosecuted, by a let. by the same spirit of injustice, and proba. ter directed to the Bishop of Lincoln, hly invited to partake of the plunder, called dated September 13th, 1309: thus shewing, a general council at Vienna, by which the that had he dared to save the Templars he order was laid under an interdict. . would have done so without hesitation; but
Philip immediately communicated his the King and the nation were equally proceedings to onr monarch, Edward II., alarmed at the conseqnences of anathemas who returned an answer, dated October 30, and interdicts, and were compelled to ac. 1307, in which he expressed great astonish- quiesce in the dictates of the commissioners, ment at the accounts received of the abo- who sentenced the knights to eternal sepaminable heresy of the Templars, and de- ration, and the loss of all their territories in clared his intention of obtaining further in Great Britain. To the everlasting honour formation through the Seneschral of Agen. of Edward, he rejected the cruel example Clement directed a brief to Edward, dated of the King of France, and, instead of the soth of November following, explaining burning the knights, he merely confined the conduct of Philip, and asserting, that them in different monasteries, where they the Grand Master had confessed, that the resided, secure and comfortable, till their knights, at their admission into the order, deathe. The estates of the Knights Temdenied the divinity of Jesus Christ, spit plars having been confiscated, the King upon the crucifix, and worshipped an idol very naturally concluded that he was enin their chapters; adding other charges titled to them, and consequently proceeded which appear equally wicked and incredi- to sell and give them away; the Papal see, ble ; but calculated to exculpate Philip, however, thought otherwise, and a fresh whose example the holy father recommend- bull arrived, demanding them for the ed Edward to imitate in his own dominions. knights of the order of St. John of Jerusa. Edward seems to have acted, on this deli. lem in England; as the same causes existed cate occasion, with some degree of wisdom for compliance with this new mandate,
which induced the suppression, the pro- it to the arms of France, has been the perty in question was conveyed to the means of placing it in the possession of Eng.
KNIGHTS of St. John of Jerusalem. The land, and the order may be considered as order of St. John originated from the esta. almost extinct. blishment of an hospital at Jerusalem, in Jordan Brisset introduced the order into the year 1048, by certain Italian merchants, England, by founding the Priory of St. for the reception of pilgrims and travellers, John, at Clerkenwell, where it Aourished which they dedicated to the Baptist. The till the general dissolution of religious subsequent conquest of Jerusalem, by bouses by Henry VIII. It will be suffiGodfrey of Boulogne, who wrested it cient to add, from Malcolm's “ Londinium," from the Turks, was of infinite service to “Camden says, that the priors were held the Hospital, which flourished in the same equal in rank to the first barons of the proportion with the facility thus afforded realm; and their riches certainly enabled for visiting the holy city. Raymond, rec- them to support their splendour of living. tor of the brethren in its then state, being Such was their power and influence, that of an active and military turn, formed the
od military turn, formed the Edward III, thought it necessary, in the plan of converting thein into knights, cap- fortieth year of his reign, to appoint Richard tains, and servants; he marshalled them in- de Everton visitor of the hospitals of this to bands, invented banners, and led them order, in England and Ireland, to repress on against the Turks, as knights of the or their insoleuce, and to enforce propriety of der of St. John of Jerusalem; they fought conduct; which appointment was repeated with great bravery; but the inferiority of five years after by the same King." their numbers occasioned frequent defeats, KNIGHT originally signified a servant ; and they were at length compelled to give but there is now but one instance where it up their possessions to the conqueror Sala- is taken in that sense, and that is knight of dine : after a continued series of toils and a shire, who properly serves in parliament misfortunes, and a constancy in the cause for such a county ; but in all other instances of religion which did them great honour, it signifies one who bears arms; who for his they were finally expelled from the Holy virtue and martial prowess is by the King, Land, in the year 1292.
or one having his authority, exalted above The master and brethren fled to the the rank of gentleman, to an higher step of island of Cyprus, where they employed dignity. They were called milites, because their leisure in framing statutes for the go. they formed a part of the royal army, by vernment of the order; but recurring to virtue of their feudal tenures; one condi. . their former military pursuits, they attack. tion of which was, that every one who ed Rhodes in 1308, which, with seven other held a knight's fee, immediately under the islands, soon fell into their possession; they crown (which in the reign of Edward II. then assumed the addition of Rhodes to amonnted to 201. per annum,) was obliged their previous titles, there they flourished to be knighted. He was also to attend the for a very considerable length of time, and King in his wars, or fine for his non-com. resisted the Turks with equal bravery and pliance. The execution of this preroskill; but Sultan Solimau, baving deter. gative, as an expedient to raise money mined at all events to dislodge them, he as in the reign of Charles I., gave great sembled an army of 500,000 men, with offence, though then warranted by law, which he invaded the island, and, after six and the recent example of Queen Eliza. months incessant fatigue and excessive loss, beth: it was, therefore, abolished by 16 he succeeded in expelling them. The Em- Charles I. c. 20. Considerable fees accrued peror Charles V. gave them Malta at this to the King on the performance of the critical æra, to which island the knights re- ceremony. King Edward VI. and Queen tired in 1523. There they underwent re. Elizabeth had appointed commissioners to peated invasions from the Turks, and ob- compound with the persons who had lands tained the admiration of all nations for to the amount of 101. a year, and who detheir invincible courage and address, in re- clined the honour and expense of knightpelling their attacks. The Knights of Mal- hood. ta, as they were now called, might have re. KNIGHTS banneret. These knights are mained for centuries to come in quiet pog- only niade in the time of war. They are session of their island, had they not been ranked next after the barons; and their disturbed by a power they had little reason precedence before the younger sons of to dread till very lately: their surrender of viscounts was confirmed by James I. in the
tenth year of his reign. But to entitle them many pediclos; Aowers panicled, three or to this rank they must be created by the more on each pedicle. According to L'He. King in person in the field, under the royal ritier it is a polygamous tree, and a native banners, in time of open war; otherwise of China. they rank after baronets.
KOENIGIA, in botany, so named in KNIGHT service, a tennre, where several honour of John Gerard Koenig, M. D, of lands were held of the King, which draws Courland, who first found this plant in Ice. after it homage and service in war, escuage, land. It is a genus of the Triandria Trigyward, marriage, &c. but is taken away by nia class and order. Natural order of Hostatute 12 Charles II. c. 24.
loraceæ. Polygoneæ, Jussieu. Essential KNOT, means the divisions of the log- character: calyx three-leaved; corolla line used at sea. These are usually seven none; seed one, ovate, naked. There is fathoms, or forty-two feet; they ought to but one species, viz. K. islandica. be fifty feet, and then as many knots as the
s'as the KOS, in Jewish antiquity, a measure of log-line runs out in half a minute, so many
capacity, containing about four cubic miles does the ship sail in an hour, suppos.
shin sil in an hour. suppos. inches: this was the cup of blessing, out ing her to keep going at an equal rate.
of which they drank when they gave thanks
die KNOTS of a rope, among seamen, are dis
after solemn meals, like that of the passtinguished into three kinds, viz. whole
KRAMERIA, in botany, so named in knot, that made so with the lays of a rope
memory of John George, Henry, and Wilthat it cannot slip, serving for sheets, tacks,
liam Henry Kramer, botanists, a genus of and stoppers: bow-link knot, that so firmly
the Tetrandria Monogynia class and order. made, and fastened to the cringles of the
Essential character: calyx none; corolla sails, that they must break or the sail split before it slips: and sheep-shank-knot, that
four-petalled; nectary upper three-parted,
lower two-leaved; berry dry, echipated, made by shortening a rope without cutting
one-seeded. There is but one species, viz. it, which may be presently loosened, and
K. ixina, this is a shrub with lanceolate the rope not the worse for it.
leaves; Aowers alternate, in terminating KNOWLEDGE, is defined by Mr.
racemes. It was found in South America Locke, to be the perception of the con
by Loefling. nection and agreement, or disagreement
KUHNIA, in botany, so called from and repugnancy of our ideas. :?
Adam Kubnins, a genus of the Syngenesia KNOXIA, in botany, so called from Polygamia Æqualis class and order. NatuRobert Knox, a genus of the Tetrandria ral order of Compositæ Discoideæ. CoMonogynia class and order. Natural order rymbiferæ, Jussieu. Essential character: of Stellatæ. Rubiaceæ, Jussieu. Essen- flowers floscular; calyx imbricate, oblong, tial character: corolla one-petalled, funnel- cylindrical; down plumose; receptacle form ; seeds two, grooved; calyx one, naked; style deeply bifid; stigmas club. leaflet larger. There is only one species, shaped; anthers distinct. There is but viz. K. zeylanica, a native of Ceylon. one species, viz. K. eupatorioides, a native
KOELREUTERIA, in botany, so named of Pensylvania. . in honour of Joseph Gottlieb Koelreuter, a KURTUS, in natural history, a genus of genus of the Polygamia Monoecia class and fishes of the order Jugnlares. Generic chaorder. Natural order of Trihilatæ. Sa- racter: body carinated above and below, pindi, Jussieu. Essential character : calyx and broad; back highly elevated; gill mennfive-leaved; petals four; nectary double, brane, with two rays. This consists, as far four scalelets, and three glands; stamens as it is known, of only a single species. It eight, fixed to a column; germ three-sided, inhabits the seas of India, and is supposed fixed to the same column; capsule three- to live on insects, shell fish, and particucelled, with two cells in each cell. There larly young crabs. Its length is about ten is but one species, viz. K. paullinoides; this inches, and its breadth four. Its colour, is a tree, with an arboreous, upright, trunk, on the whole body, is that of silver foil, and about six feet in height; branches scat- its back is tinged with gold, and marked on tered, spreading, when young having dotted its ridge with several black spots. For a glands scattered over tliem; buds from the representation of the kurtus, see Pisces, axils of the leaves, resinous, cone-shaped Plate V. fig. 1. with imbricate scales; peduncles, termi. KYANITE, or Cyanite, in mineralogy, nating, scattered, spreading, branched into a species of the talc genus : its principal