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CLASS III. CACHEXIÆ.
16+. Splenalgia 166. Hysteralgia
165. Neplıralgia ORDER I. MACIES. 100. Tabes 103. Hæmatoporia
ORDER V. EXTERNARUM. 101. Phthisis 104. Aridura
167. Mastodynia 171. Proctalgia 102. Atrophia
168. Rachialgia 172. Pudendagra
169. Lumbago ORDER II. INTUMESCENTIÆ.
170. Lschias 105. Plethora
109. Phlegmatia 106. Polysarcia 110. Physconia
CLASS V. FLUXUS.
ORDER I. SANGUIFLUXUS.
174. Hæmorrhagia 178. Hæmaturia
175. Hæmoptysis 179. Metrorrhagia
176. Stomacace 112. Hydrocephalus 116. Hydrometra
180. Abortus 113. Physocephalus 117. Physometra
177. Hæmatemesis 114. Hydrorachitis 118. Tympanites
ORDER II. ALVIFLUXUS.
181. Hepatirrhea 183. Dysenteria
182. Hæmorrhois 184. Melana
ORDER III. ALVIFLUXUS.
Non Sanguinolenti. 126. Syphilis 129. Lepra
190. Cæliaca 127. Scorbutus 130. Scabies
186. Vomitus 191. Lienteria 128. Elephantiasis 131. Tinea
192. Tenesmus 188. Cholera
193. Proctorrhea ORDER VI. ICTERITIÆ.
189. Diarrhæa 132. Aurigo 134. Phænigmus
ORDER IV. 135. Chlorosis
SERIFLUXUS. 135. Melaficterus
194. Ephidrosis 201. Pyuria ORDER VII. ANOMALE.
195. Epiphora 202. Leucorrhæa 136. Phthiriasis 139. Elcosis
196. Coryza 203. Lochiorrhea 137. Trichoma 140. Gangræna 197. Ptyalismus 204. Gonorrhea 138. Alopecia 141. Necrosis
198. Anacatharsis 205. Galactirrhæa
199. Diabetes 206. Otorrhea CLASS IV. DOLORES.
200. Enuresis ORDER I. VAGI.
ORDER V. ÆRIFLUXUS. 142. Arthritis 147. Lassitudo
207. Flatulentia 209. Dysodia 143. Ostocopus 148. Stupor
208. Adopsophia 144. Rheumatismus 149. Pruritus 145. Catarrhus 150. Algor
CLASS VI. SUPPRESSIONES. 146. Anxietas
ORDER IV. 160. Cardialgia 161. Gastrodynia
216. Dysphagia 217. Angina
IMI VENTRIS. 218. Dysmenorrhoea 220. Dyshæmorrhois 219. Dystocia 221. Obstipatio.
162. Colica 163. Hepatalgia
CLASS VII. SPAPMI.
222. Strabismus 223. Trismns 224. Obstipitas
225. Contractura 226. Crampus 227. Priapismus
235. Convulsio 231. Carphologia 236. Tremor 232. Subsnltus 237. Palpitatio 233. Pandiculatio 238. Claudicatio 234. Apomystosis.
ORDER IV. CLONICI GENERALES. 239. Phricasmus 242. Hysteria 240. Eclampsia 243. Scelotyrbe 241. Epilepsia 244. Beriberia
CLASS VIII. ANHELATIONES.
CLASS IX. DEBILITATES.
268. Anorexia 269. Adipsia
271. Mutitas 272. Aphonia 273. Psellismus 274. Cacophonia
275. Paralysis 276. Hemiplegia' 277. Paraplexia
as it is to the tribe which is thus con334. Pica 340. Satyriasis
nectively arranged. $35. Bulimia 341. Nymphomania
Of Dr. Cullen's table it is obvions that its 336. Polydipsia 342. Tarantismus
chief features are due to himself alone-luis 337. Antipathia 343. Hydrophobia
classes are for the most part simple, and at 338. Nostalgia 344. Rabies
the same time comprehensive, his orders 339. Panophobia
are natural, and his genera ably disposed.
The most objectionable of his classes is the
last, or that entitled locales, which, like the 345. Paraphrusine S48. Dæmonomania cryptogamia of Linnæus's botanical system, 346. Amentia 349. Mania
is a mere appendix for the purpose of com. 347. Melancholia
prehending whatever could not conveni. ANOMALÆ.
ently be disposed under the previous heads. 350. Amnesia
There is also some confusion as to a few of 351. Agrypnia.
his orders, and we may here enumerate Our remarks apon these different ar
profluvia in Class I. compared with aporangements must be cursory. That of cenoses in Class IV. since the former is only Vogel's would appear at first sight to be the
a Latin, and the latter a Greek word of the fullest, as comprising not less than five hun. same meaning; and since the diseases in the dred and sixty distinct genera of diseases; former order are only distinct genera of the and that of Cullen's the least complete, as
latter in many instances; there is also some extending to not more than a hundred and doubt as to the situation of several of his fifty; but when it is reflected upon, that genera. Nevertheless, it is upon the whole, nearly five parts out of six of the distinct the best division that has hitherto apgenera of Vogel are regarded as mere peared ; it is far more generally studied species of other genera by Cullen, and ar
and lectured from than any other ; and ranged accordingly; the latter must at once
under this division therefore we shall probe allowed to be equally full, and to possess ceed to notice cursorily the different genera a high advantage in point of simplicity, according to this classification, and to deSagar's is the most numerous next to Vogel's; scribe the character and mode of cure of the and like Vogel's it is numerous, not from the
more common or more prominent. possession of additional matter, but from
· PRAXIS. extending to distinct genera, diseases of the same genus, and which ought to rank
This is the last division comprised under merely as separate species, or even va
this article ; and, from the explanation we rieties. In the general arrangement of have just given of it, it is obvious that it is these nosologists, we perceive a consider the most important. able resemblance to that of Sauvage : their
CLASS I. classes, though differently disposed, are
PYREXIÆ. nearly alike as well in name as in 'number; yet Sauvage's is the most simple, at the horror; increased heat; disturbed functions ;
Frequent pulse, succeeded by shivering or same time that it is the most comprehen
prostration of strength. sive. The arrangement of Linnæus is like all his arrangements, neat and classical,
ORDER I. Febris. FEVER. perhaps the most classical of the whole of Pyrexy independent of local affection as those now before us. His system is in a great its cause ; languor, lassitude, and other signs measure his own : he has however more of debility. classes, and genera, but fewer orders than This order is divided into two sections, Sauvage ; and it is not always that the an intermittent, including tertians, quar. terms of his classes are sufficiently charac tans, and quotidians, with the different vateristic of the diseases that rank under rieties of these distinct genera ; and contithem. Many of those that are disposed pued, which include the genera of synocha, under the class quietales, for example, are or simple inflammatory fever; typhus, puas much diseases of the mind, as several trid, or jail-fever; and synochus, a mixed that are placed immediately under the fever commencing like the first and termiclass mentales; and we are afraid that the nating like the second. The intermittent term dolorosi peculiarly applied to Class family are defined as follows: Fevers IV. is just as applicable to a great multitude arising from the miasm of marslay grounds of diseases distributed under other classes, with an evident remission, the returning
fits being alınost always ushered in by hor. ther with the constriction of the skin, now por or trembling. One paroxysm only in disappear, and are succeeded by a general the day. The continued family are defined redness and turgescenee; the tongne is thus : fevers without intermission, not oc. white and dry, the thirst is considerable, casioned by marsh miasm, attended with the skin continues parched, the head-ach, it exacerbations and remissions, though not it was absent in the first stage, now comes very perceptible.
on, is accompanied with throbbing of the The remote causes of fever are not always temporal arteries, and frequently rises to to be easily or accurately distinguished, and delirium, and the urine is high coloured ; of the proximate causes we may fairly be as the hot stage advances, the nausea and said to know nothing, since so many dif- vomiting abate, and on the appearance of ferent conjectures, orien in direct hostility moisture upon the skin, they generally cease to each other bave been offered, by writers altogether. The hot stage is at length terof the first reputation, and the system of minated by a profuse sweat, which breaks yesterday has so frequently fallen before out, first about the face and breast ; it grathat of to day. Without entering therefore dually extends over the whole body, and into this controverted subject, we shall pro- terminates the paroxysm; most of the ceed to an account of the general symptoms functions are restored to their natural state, and mode of treatment.
the respiration becomes free, the urine deIntermittents.--Symptoms. A regular pa. posits a lateritions sediment, the sweat graroxysm of this fever is divided into three dually ceases, and with it the febrile sympstages the cold, hot, and sweating stage. toms; the patient is, however, left in a
The first stage commences with yawning weak and wearied state : between the pa. and stretching ; there is at the same time roxysms, the patient is more easily fatigued an uneasy sense of weariness or inaptitude than usual, complains of want of appetite, to motion, accompanied with some degree and the skin is parched, or he is more of debility ; paleness and shrinking of the liable to profuse perspiration than in health. features and extremities are also observ. The cold fit of this species is longer than able; at this period some coldness of the that of the quotidian, but shorter than that extremities may be felt by another person, of the quartan, and the whole paroxysm is although the patient takes little or no no- shorter than that of the quotidian, but longer tice of it; the skin, however, becomes than that of the quartan. rough, as is the case in cold weather, and is The predisposing causes of intermittents less sensible than usual ; a sepsation of are, whatever tends to debilitate the body, coldness is now felt by the patient himself, a warm moist, or cold damp atmosphere, which is at first referred to the back, and particular seasons, as spring and antumn : gradually spreads over the whole body, the occasional or exciting causes are, marsh producing an universal shaking : after miasm, contagion, and perbaps lunar inthis has lasted for some time, the patient's fuence. sensation of cold still contiming, the Prognosis. Mildness and regularity of the warmth of his skin, to the feeling of paroxysm, a general cutaneous eruption, or another person, or measured by the ther- an eruption about the mouth and behind the mometer, gradually increases ; there is ears, accompanied with a swelling of the nausea, and frequently vomiting of a bilions upper lip, when the paroxysm is going off ; a matter; pains of the back, limbs, loins, and free hemorrhage from the nose during the pahead-ach, or more commonly drowsiness, roxysm, and the urine depositing a lateritistupor, or a considerable degree of coma at- ous sedimentin the last stage, are favourable tend this stage ; the respiration is frequent symptoms. Coma, delirium, great anxiety, and anxious ; the pulse is small, frequent, difficult respiration, attended with biccup, sometimes irregular, and often scarcely per. swelling of the tonsils, the abdomen tumid, ceptible; the urine is almost colourless, and hard, and painful to the touch, accompanied without cloud or sediment.
with obstinate costiveness, tension and pain As the cold and shivering, after alternating in the epigastric and hypochondric regions for some time with warm flushings, gra- during the paroxysm; listlessness, nausea, or dually abate, the bot stage is ushered in by debility, attended with vertigo in the intera preternatural beat, the pulse becomes full, missions, or a few drops of blood falling strong, and hard, the respiration is more from the nose in the paroxysm, are unfa. free, but still frequent and anxious, the vourable symptoms. Intermittents are frepaleness and shrinking of the features, toge. quently followed by, or attended with, ob. VOL. IV.
structions in the different viscera, particu- in its usnal dose : the oxide of arsenic larly in the liver and spleen ; dropsy, dy. combined with opiates, either in solution or sentery, jaundice, and various species of in- in the form of pills
, will frequently succeed, flammation.
when bark and other remedies have been Treatment. In the paroxysms we are to tried without effect. If the disease should endeavour to shorten the different stages, and prove obstinate, and any pain can be perthus to obtain a final solution of the disease. ceived by the patient upon pressing the In the intermissions we are to prevent the right hypochondrium, small doses of the carecurrence of the paroxysms, and endeavour lomel, or friction with the unguentum bye to obviate certain circumstances, which may drargyri, continued uirtil a slight soreness prevent the fulfilling of either of the two of the mouth is induced, will, in general, be first indications.
attended with the most beneficial effects, as The first indication will be accomplished its continuance is most commonly the conby the administration of an emetic at the sequence of obstructed viscera. commencement of the paroxysm, or during The circumstances which prevent our fulthe cold stage; for which purpose tartar filling the two first indications are, inflammaemetic is the best; it should be given in di- tory diathesis, accumulation of bile in the vided, but pretty large doses, the patient stomach, and of that and fæces in the inshould at the same time be put to bed, kept testinal canal. The first circumstance will in warm blankets, and allowed warm di. be removed by blood-letting; and if, during luent, but not stimulating liquors, except the paroxysm, any urgent symptoms indithere is a considerable degree of debility ; cate the presence of that diathesis, it will be and immediately the hot stage is formed, a attended with the greatest prospect of sucgentle diaphoresis will be excited, and a cess, if the operation is performed during final solution of the paroxysm procured, by the hot stage, when the excitement is most the exhibition of opiates, assisted by mo- considerable : the latter causes will be rederate draughts of tepid, or, if the heat be moved by the administration of emetics and preternaturally great, of cold liquids, and cathartics: if there be a great degree of deby the neutral salts. In the intermissions, bility, the system must be strengthened by the bark should be administered in doses of a generous diet, the moderate use of wine, a drachm or more, every one, two, or three gentle exercise, the cold bath, and change hours, so that an ounce, or an ounce and a of air. As in this disease relapses very frehalf may be taken during the intermission ; quently occur, it will not only be advisable, when the apyrexy is long, as in the tertian, but necessary, to continue the use of the its exhibition may be delayed till within six bark in doses of a drachm four times a day, or eight hours of the time when the next pa. for two or three weeks, at the same time roxysm is expected, which will frequently the patieut must most studiously avoid all more effectually prevent its return than the exciting causes, and every irregularity when given in small doses during a long in. in diet. Vernal are less liable than autum. termission ; but if there be a great degree nal intermittents, to become continued fe of debility, or where the intermissions vers, and are rarely attended with alarming are short, as in the quotidian, the bark symptoms, or followed by dangerous obshould be employed immediately after the structions. The taste of the bark will be termination of the paroxysm, at longer or concealed in a great measure, by exhibiting shorter intervals, until the return of the next it in milk, butter-milk, or infusion of liquofit, in such doses as the stomach will bear, rice ; and if the stomach should possess a and the urgency of the case may require : considerable degree of irritability, opium when this invalnable medicine purges, a few administered either by itself or combined drops of the tincture of opium may be with camphor, will, in general, succeed in added; and if on the other hand, it induce enabling that organ to retain the bark. costiveness, a few grains of rhubarb will The paroxysm may be generally prevented obviate it, and at the same time give tone by adnfinistering a full dose of the tincture to the stomach and bowels; it is sometimes of opium, in mulled wine or hot diluted of service to add about a scruple of snake. spirits, about an hour previous to its exroot to each dose of the bark; where the pected return. stomach is habitually weak, it will be ad- Continued Fevet. This is either inflam visable to combine aromatics or bitters with matory (synocha); putrid or gaol (typhus) ; the bark, as calamus, or canella alba, &c. or mixed (synochus.) The sulphate of copper way be employed Symptoms of Synochu. This fever, wbich,