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jurisdiction of the justice. If a justice of action shall be brought against any justice the peace will not, on complaint to him for any thing done in the execution of his made, execute his office, or if he shall mis- office, unless commenced within six months behave in his office, the party grieved may after the act committed. move the Court of King's Bench for an in- JUSTICIA, in botany, so named from forniation, and afterwards may apply to the James Justice, a genus of the Diandria MoCourt of Chancery to put him out of the nogypia class and order. Natural order of commission. But the most usual way of Personatæ. Acanthi, Jassicu. Essential compelling justices to execute their office, character: corolla ringent; capsule twoin any case, is by writ of mandamus out of celled, opening with an elastic claw; stathe Court of King's Bench.
mina with a single anther. There are eighty Where the plaintiff in an action against a species, mostly natives of the Cape of Good justice shall obtain a verdict, and the judge Hope and the East Indies. There are only shall in open conrt certify on the back of two commonly known in our English garthe record, that the injury for wbich such dens, viz. J. adhatodar, Malabar nut; and action was brought was wilfully and mali- J. hyssopifolia, snap tree. . ciously committed, the plaintiff shall liave J USTICIES is a writ directed to the double costs. And if a justice of peace act sheriff to do justice in a plea of trespass improperly, knowingly, information shall ri et armis, or of any som above 40s. in the be granted. No justice shall be liable to county court, of which he hath no cognibe punished both ways, that is, criminallyzance by ordinary power. It is in the na. and civilly; but before the court will grant an ture of a commission to the sheriff, and is information, they will require the party to not returnable. relinquish his civil action, if any such be I XIA, in botany, a genus of the Trian. commenced. And even in the case of an dria Monogynia class and order. Natural indictment, and though the indictment be order of Ensatæ. Irides, Jussieu. Essenactually found, the Attorney General, on tial character: corolla one.petalled, tubuapplication made to him, will grant a noli lar; tube straight, filiform ; border sixprosequi upon such indictment, if it appear parted, bell-shaped, regular; stigmas three to him that the prosecutor is determined to or six, simple. There are fifty four species. carry on a civil action at the same time. Ixia differs from antlolyza in having the seg.
If any action shall be brought against a ments of the corolla nearly equal; from justice for any thing done by virtue of his gladiolus, in the situation of the segments office, he may plead the general issue, and of the corolla, and in having the tube give the special matter in evidence ; and if straight. Almost all the species are natives he recover, he shall have double costs. of the Cape of Good Hope. Such action shall not be laid but in the IXORA, in botany, a genus of the Te. county where the fact was committed. And trandria Monogynia class and order. Na. no soit shall be commenced against a justice tural order of Stellatæ. Rubiaceæ, Jusof the peace till after one month's notice. sieu. Essential character: corolla oneAnd unless it is proved upon the trial that petalled, funnel-form, long, superior; stami. such notice was given, the justice shall have na above the mouth; berry four-seeded. a verdict and costs. And no action shall be There are nine species, of which I. Amebrought against any constable or other of ricana, American ixora, has a shrubby ficer, or any person acting by bis order and stalk, four or five feet high, sending out slenin his aid, for any thing done in obedience der opposite branches ; leaves nearly six to the warrant of a justice, till demand hath inches long, on short foot stalks. Flowers been made, or left at the usual place of his at the ends of the branches in a loose spike; abode, by the party or by his attorney, in they are white, and bave a scent like jas. writing, signed by the party demanding the mine, whence in Jamaica and other islands sanne, of the perusal and copy of such warrant of the West Indies, where it is a native, it and the same has been refused or neglected is called wild jasmine. for six days after such demand. And no
I Or k, the tenth letter, and seventh honey after it is deposited in the hive cells, N , consonant of our alphabet; being falls a victim to his repast. formed by the voice, by a guttural expres. Some very singolar cases in proof of this sion of the breath through the mouth, to assertion occurred at Philadelphia no longer gether with a depression of the lower jaw, ago than the year 1790, in the autumn and and opening of the teeth.
winter of which an extensive mortality was Its sound is much the same with that of produced amongst those who hail partaken the hard c, or qu; and it is used, for the of the honey that had been collected in inost part, only before e, i, and n, in the be- the neighbourhood of Philadelphia, or had ginning of words ; as, ken, kill, know, &c. feasted on the common American pheasant. It used formerly to be always joined with The attention of the American government c at the end of words, but is at present very was excited by the general distress, a miproperly omitted : thus, for publick, musick, nute examination into the cause of the mor&c. we say, public, music, &c. However, tality ensued, and it was satisfactorily asin monosyllables it is still retained, as jack, certained, that the honey had been chiefly block, mock, &c.
extracted from the flowers of kalmia latiThe letter k is derived from the Greek folia, and that the pheasants which had kappa, K or x; it being unknown to the Ro. proved thus poisonous had fed harmlessly mans, though we sometimes meet with ka- on its leaves: in consequence of which, a lendæ instead of calendæ.
public proclamation was issued, prohibiting As a numeral K denotes 250 ; and with the use of the pheasant, as a food, for that a line over it, k 250,000.
scason. See Good's Oration before the
Medical Society. KÆMPFERIA, in botany, so named
KAMSIN, the nanie of a hot sontherly froin Engelbert Kæmpfer, a celebrated traveller, a genus of the Monandria Mono
wind, common in Egypt. The wind is said gynia class and order. Natural order of to prevail more or less for fifty days, hence Scitamineæ. Cannæ, Jussieu. Essential
it is called “ the wind of fifty days.” Tra
vellers who have experienced the effect of character: corolla six-parted, three of the
it have described it as a poisonous wind. parts larger, spreading, one two-parted;
When it begins to blow, the atmosphere stigma two-plated. There are two species,
assumes an alarming appearance. The sky, riz. K. galanga, galangale; and K. rotunda. As these are both natives of the East
at other times so clear in this climate, be. Indies, they require a warm stove to pre
comes dark and heavy ; the sun loses its
splendour, and appears of a violet colour ; serve them through our winter.,
the air is not cloudy, but grey and thick, KALI. See ALKALI and Potash. and is filled with a dust so subtile, that it
KALMIA, in botany, a genus of the De- penetrates every where. candria Monogynia class and order. Natu. This wind, always light and rapid, is not ral order of Bicornes. Rhododendra, Jus. at tirst remarkably hot, but it increases in sien. Essential character: calyx tive-parted; heat in proportion as it continues. All anicorolla salver form, with the border five- muted bodies soon discover it by the change horned beneath; capsule five-celled. There it produces in them.' The lungs, which a are four species, of the K, latifolia, broad. too rarefied air no longer expands, are conleaved kalmia, we shall give some little ac. tracted, and become painful. Respiration count, taken from the fifth volume of the is short and difficult, the skin parched and American Philosophical Transactions. The dry, and the body consumed by an internal leaves of this shrub are feasted upon by the heat. In vain is recourse had to large deer and the round horned elk, but are draughts of water; nothing can restore permortally poisonous to sheep, to liorned cat- spiration. In vain is coolness sought for ; tle, to horses, and to man. The bee ex. all bodies, in which it is usual to find it, detracts honey, without injury, from its nec- ceive the hand that touches them. Marble, tary, but the man who partakes of that iron, water, notwithstanding the sun no
longer appears, are hot. The streets are KEDGING, in the sea-language, is when deserted, and the dead silence of night a ship is brought up or down a narrow rireigns every where. The inhabitants of ver by means of the tide, the wind being towns and villages shut themselves up in contrary. To do this, they use to set their their houses, and those of the desert in fore-course, or fore-top-sail and mizen, that their tents, or in wells dug in the earth, so they may flat her about; and if she hapwhere they wait the termination of this de- pen to come too near the shore, they let structive heat. It usually lasts three days, fall a kedge-anchor, with a hawser fastened but if it exceeds that time it becomes in- to it from the ship, in order to turn her head supportable. The danger is most imminent about; which work is called kedging. when it blows in squalls; for then the ra. KEEL, the lowest piece of timber in a pidity of the wind increases the beat to such ship, running her whole length from the à degree as to cause sudden death. This lower part of her stem to the lower part of death is a real suffocation. The lungs be her stern.post. Into it are all the lower ing empty are convulsed, the circulation is fattocks fastened ; and under part of it a disordered, and the whole mass of blood false keel is often used. driven by the heat towards the head and
By comparing the carcass of a ship to breast; whence the hæmorrhage at the nose
the skeleton of a human body, the keel apand mouth, which happens after death.
pears as the back bone, and the timbers as This wind is especially destructive to per
the ribs. Accordingly, the keel supports sons of a plethorie babit, and those in
and unites the whole fabric, since the stem whom fatigue has destroyed the tone of the
and stern-posts, which are elevated on its muscles and the vessels. The corpse re
ends, are, in some measure, a continuation mains a long time warm, sweils, turns
of the keel, and serve to connect and inblue, and soon becomes putrid. These ac
close the extremities of the sides by trancidents are to be avoided by stopping the
soms, as the keel forms and unites the bot. nose and niouth with handkerchiefs. An
tom by timbers. efficacious method, likewise, is that prac.
The keel is generally composed of several tised by the camels. On this occasion these
thick pieces placed lengthways, which, af.
thick pic animals bury their poses in the sand, and
ter being scarfed together, are bolted and keep them there till the squall is over. An
clinched upon the upper side. other quality of this wind is its extreme
KEEL huuling, a punishment iuflicted for aridity; which is such, that water sprinkled
various offences in the Dutch Dayy. It is on the floor evaporates in a few minutes.
performed by suspending the culprit by a By the extreme dryness it withers and strips
rope from one yard-arm, with a weight of all the plants; and by exhaling too suddenly
lead or iron upon his legs, and having anthe emanations from animal bodies, crisps
other rope fistened to him, leading under the skin, closes the pores, and causes that
the ship's bottom, and through a block at feverish heat which is the constant effect of
its opposite yard-arm; he is then repeatedly suppressed perspiration.
and suddenly let fall from the one yard-arm KAOLIN, in the arts, the name of an
into the sea, where, passing under the ship's earth used in the manufacture of oriental
bottom, he is hoisted upon the opposite side porcelain china. A specimen of this earth
of the vessel to the other. was brought from China, and examined by Reaumur, who found it to be infusible by
KEELERS, among seamen, are small fire. He thought it was a talcy earth ; but
tubs, which bold staff for the caulking of Mr. Macquer says, it is more probably of ships. an argillaceous nature, from its forming a KEELSON, a principal timber in a ship, tenacious paste, with the other ingredient fayed within-side cross all the floor timbers; called petanse, which has no tenacity. A and being adjusted to the keel with suitable French chemist, M. Bomaire, analized itscarfs, it serves to strengthen the bottom of and found it was a compound earth consist the ship. ing of clay, to which it owed ils tenacity; KEEP, in ancient military history, a of calcareous earth, which gave it a mealy kind of strong tower, which was built in the appearance; of sparkling crystals of mica; centre of a castle or fort, to which the beand of small gravel, or particles of quartz- sieged retreated, and made their last efforts crystals. He found a similar earth upon a of defence. stratum of granite, and conjectures it may of this description is the keep of Wind. be a decomposed granite.
· KEEPER of the great seal, is a lord by tity of water, and dried. The true kermes virtue of his office, and styled the Lord consists of Keeper of the Great Seal of England. He Sulphuretted hydrogen...... 20.30 is one of the King's Privy Council, through
Sulphnr ......................... 4.15 whose hands pass all charters, commissions, Protoxide of antimony .... 72.76 and grants of the King under the great seal; Water, and loss ............... 2.79 without which, all such instruments by law
100.00 are of no force, the King in this being a corporation, whose acts are evidenced by KETCH, a vessel equipped with two his seal. This Lord Keeper, by the statute masts, viz. the main-mast and the mizenof 5 Elizabeth, cap. 18, has the same place, mast, and usually from 100 to 250 tons anthority, pre-eminence, &c, as the Lord burthen. Ketches are principally used as Chancellor of England for the time being. yachts for conveying princes of the blood, He is constituted by the delivery of the ambassadors, or other great personages, great seal to him, taking bis oath.
from one place to another. Ketches are KEEPER of the privy seal, is a lord by likewise used as bomb-vessels, and are virtue of his office, through whose hands therefore furnished with all the apparatus pass all charters signed by the King before necessary for a vigorons bombardment. they come to the great seal. He is of the KETCHES, bomb, are built remarkably King's Privy Council, and was anciently strong, as being fitted with a greater numcalled Clerk of the Privy Seal.
ber of riders than any other vessel of war; KEEPING, in painting, signifies the re- and indeed this reinforcement is absolutely presentation of objects in the same manner necessary to sustain the violent shock prothat they appear to the eye at different dis- duced by the discharge of their mortars, tances from it, which is only to be done with which would otherwise in a very short time accuracy by attending to the rules of per- shatter them to pieces. spective.
Key, a well known instrument for openKELP, an impure alkali, obtained in the ing and shutting the locks of doors, chests, north of Scotland, from different kinds of &c. See LOCK. fuci, or sea-weed. The sea-weeds being Key, or key note, in music, a certain dried, are put in pits dug in the sand, or fandamental note or tone, to which the on the surface, surrounded with loose stone, whole of a movement has a certain relation formning what is called a kiln; fresh quanti. or bearing, to which all its modulations are ties being added, and the whole being fre- referred and accommodated, and in which quently stirred until it become semi-fluid, it both begins and ends. There are but two which, when cold, forms hard masses. species of keys: one of the major, and one
KELP, a fixed salt, or particular species of the minor mode: all the keys in which of a potash, procured by burning the weed we employ sharps or flats being deduced called kali.
from the natural keys of C major and A mi. · KERMES, in natural history, a species nor; of which they are mere transpositions., of the Coccus, which see.
Keys of an organ, those moveable, proKERMES mineral, in chemistry, an anti- jecting levers in the front of an organ, so monial compound of great celebrity as a placed as to conveniently receive the fingers medicine about the beginning of the seven- of the performer, and which, by a connectteenth century; in the new chemical ar- ed movement with the valves or pallets, rangement it is denominated hydro-sulphu. admit or exclude the wind from the pipes. ret of antimony.
When a single key of an organ is pressed The substance is prepared in the follow down, as many sounds are heard as all the ing manner: sixteen parts of sulpburet of stops which are then out furnish to that antimony, eight parts of potash, and one of key; in other words, all those pipes are sulphur, are triturated together in a mortar, heard which are permitted by those stops melted in a crucible, and the mass poured and that key to receive the wind. into an iron vessel. When cold it is pound- KEY stone of an arch, or vault, that placed, and boiled in a sufficient quantity of ed at the top or vertex of an arch, to bind water, and the solution is filtered while hot. the two sweeps together. This, in the On cooling, it deposits the kermes abun- Tuscan and Doric orders, is only a plain dantly in the state of a yellow powder, stone, projecting a little; in the Ionic it is which is edulcorated with a sufficient quan. cut and waved somewhat like consoles; and
in the Corinthian and Composite orders it is seeds. These fruits have grown to their a consoie, enriched with sculpture. Key. full size in the Chelsea garden; but the stones, made in the manner of consoles, and seeds have rarely come to maturity. placed projecting in the middle of arches KILDERKIN, a liquid measure, conand porticos, are particularly designed to taning two firkins, or eighteen gallons. , sustain the weight and pressure of the en- KING of England. The executive power tablature, where it happens to be very great in England is vested in a single person by between the columns; ' for which reason, immemorial usage, to whom the care of the they should be made so as to be a real sup-' people is entrusted, and to whom, thereport, and not stand for mere ornaments, as fore, allegiance is due. Formerly the suc. they too frequently do.
cession being interrupted, there was occaKIDNAPPING, is the forcibly taking sionally a distinction te.ween a rightful and carrying away a man, woman, or child, king, or king de jure, and a king in possesfrom their owil country, and sending them sion of the throne, or king de facto ; and to another. This is an offence at common in cases of treason, and also with respect to law, and punishable by fine, imprisonment, many acts done by kings de facto, which and pillory. By statute 11 and 12 William were necessary to be recognised by kings III. c. 7, if any captain of a merchant ves. de jure afterwards, this distinction was of sel shall, during his being abroad, force any great importance : but it seems now only person on shore, and wilfully leave him be necessary to consider the rightful power and bind, or refuse to bring home all sucb men authority of the King, lawfully and peaceas he carried out, if able and desirous to ably in possession of the throne. 'And in return, he shall suffer three months impri- this country the erown is by common law sonment. Exclusive of the above punish. hereditary in a peculiar manner, but not ment for this, as a criminal offence, the party de jure divino; and it may be changed in may recover upon an action for compensa- the limitation of its descent by the authotion in damages for the civil injury.
rity of the King, Lords, and Commons in KIGGELARIA, in botany, so named parliament assembled, but it is not elecfrom Francis Kiggelar of Holland, a genus tive. As to the mode of inheritance, it is of the Dioecia Decandria class and order. generally the same as other feodal descents, Natural order of Columniferæ. Euphorbiæ, but it differs in one or two particulars; for Jussieu. Essential character: male, calyx ir descends regularly to lineal descendants five-parted; corolla five-petalled; glands by right of primogenitere : but in case of five, three-lobed; anthers perforated at the no malè heir, it descends to the eldest tip: female, calyx and corolla as in the daughter only, and to her issue, and not in male; styles five; capsule one-celled, five. coparcenary to all the daughters. In failure valved, many-seeded. There is but one of lineal heirs it goes to collateral descenspecies, viz. K. africana. This plant grows dants, but there is no failure on account of naturally at the Cape of Good Hope, where half blood. Lands also purchased by the it rises to a tree of middling stature; the King descend with the crown. The inheribranches have a smooth bark, which is at tance is not indefeasable, but may be alfirst green, afterwards it changes to a pur- tered as above, and therefore the statutes plish colour: the leaves are about three have expressed “his Majesty, his heirs, and inches long and one broad, sawed on their successors.” But however limited or transedges, standing upon short foot-stalks alter- ferred, it still retains its hereditable quality nately. The flowers come out in clusters to the wearer of it; and hence the King from the side of the branches, hanging downnever dies, but his right vests ca instanti in wards : they are of an herbaceous white his heir ; so that Hall says, there can be no colour, appearing in May, at which time interregnum, and the death of the King is the plants are thinly garnished with leaves, called the demise of the crown, which ormost of the old ones dropping off just be. dinarily means only a transfer from one to fore the new leaves appear. The male another. If the throne becomes vacant, flowers fall away soon after their farina is whether by abdication, as in the time of shed; but the hermaphrodite, or female James II., or by failure of all heirs, the flowers are succeeded by globular fruit the two houses of parliament may, it is said size of common red cherries; the cover of by Blackstone, dispose of it, these is very rough, and of a thick con- The preamble to the bill of rights ex. sistence, opening in five valves at the top, pressly declares, that the lords spiritnal and having one cell filled with small angular temporal, and commons, assembled at