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that they had names for all of them; and Almost all the heroes of antiquity are that by invoking them according to the reported to have been physicians as well as part affected, the patient was cured. warriors. Most of them were taught physic

Of natural medicine we hear of none re* by the Centaur Chiron, from him Hercules commended by the father of Egyptian received instructions in the medicinal art, physic, except the herb moly, which he in which he is said to have been no less ex: gave to Ulysses in order to secure him from pert than in feats of arms. Several plants the enchantments of Circe; and the herb were called by his name; from whence mercury, of which he first discovered the some think it probable that he found out use. His successors employed venesec- their virtues, though others are of opinion tion, carthartics, emetics, and clysters; that they bore the name of this renowned there is no proof, however that this prac. hero, on account of their great efficacy in retice was established by Hermes; on the moving diseases. Aristæus, King of Arcadia, contrary, the Egyptians themselves pre- was also one of Chiron's scholars, and suptended, that the first hint of those remedies posed to have discovered the use of the was taken from some observations on brute drug called silpbium, by some thought to animals. Venesection was taught them by be asafætida. the Hippopotamus, which is said to perform Theseus, Telamon, Jason, Peleus, and this operation upon itself; on these occa. his son Achilles, were all renowned for their sions, he comes out of the river, and strikes knowledge in the art of physic, the last is his leg against a sharp pointed reed; as he said to have discovered the use of verdigris takes care to direct the stroke against a in cleansing foul ulcers. All of them, howvein, the consequence must be a consider. ever, seem to have been inferior in knows able effosion of blood; and this being suffer- ledge to Palamedes, who prevented the ed to run as long as the creature thinks plague from coming into the Grecian camp, proper, he at last stops up the orifice with after it bad ravaged most of the cities of mud. The hint of clysters was taken from Hellespont, and even Troy itself.

His the ibis, a bird which is said to give itself method was to contine his soldiers to a clysters with its bill, &c. they used vene- spare diet, and oblige them to use much section, however, but very little, probably exercise. on account of the warmth of the climate; The practice of these ancient Greek and the exhibition of the remedies above physicians, notwithstanding the praises bementioned, joined with abstinence, formed stowed upon them by their poets

, seems to most of their practice.

have been very limited, and in some cases The Greeks too had several persons even pernicions. All the external remedies to whom they attributed the invention applied to Homer's wounded heroes were of physic, particularly Prometheus, Apollo fomentations; while, inwardly, their phyor Pæan, and Æsculapius ; which last sicians gave them wine, sometimes mingled was the most celebrated of any; but with cheese scraped down; a great deal here we must observe, that as the Greeks of their physic also consisted in charms, were a very warlike people, their physic incantations, amulets, &c. of whicb, as they seems to be little else than what is now are common to all superstitious and ignocalled surgery, or the cure of wounds, rant nations, it is superfluous to take any fractures, &c.; hence Esculapius, and his further notice. In this way the art of pupils Chiron, Machaon, and Podalirius, medicine continued among the Greeks for are celebrated by Homer only for their many ages. As its first professors knew skill in caring these, without any mention nothing of the animal economy, and as of their attempting the cure of internal little of the theory of diseases, it is plain, diseases. We are not, however, to sup- that whatever they did must have been in pose that they confined themselves entirely consequence of mere random trials, or to surgery ; they no doubt would occasion. empiricism, in the most strict and proper ally prescribe for internal disorders, but as sense of the word. Indeed, it is evidently they were most frequently conversant with impossible that this, or almost any other wounds, we may naturally suppose the art, could originate from any other source greatest part of their skill to have consisted than trials of this kind : accordingly, we in knowing how to cure these. If we may , fiod, that some ancient nations were accus. believe the poets, indeed, the knowledge of tomed to expose their sick in temples, and medicine seems to bave been very general. by the sides of highways, that they might ly diffused.

receive the advice of every one who passed. VOL. IV.

Z

Among the Greeks, however, Æsculapius, the different parts of the body, produce a was reckoned the most eminent practi- great variety of disorders; some of these tioner of his time, and his name continued he accounted mortal, others dangerons, and to be revered after his death. He was the rest easily curable, according to the ranked amongst the gods ; and the principal cause from whence they spring, and the knowledge of the medicinal art remained parts on which they fall : in several places, with his family to the time of Hippocrates, also, he distinguishes diseases, from the time who reckoned biinself the seventeenth in a of their duration, into acute or short, and lineal descent from Æsculapius, and who chronical or long. He likewise distinwas truly the first who treated of medicine guishes diseases by the particular places in a regular and rational manner.

where they prevail whether ordinary or exHippocrates, who is supposed to have traordinary. The first, that is, those that lived four hundred years before the birth are frequent and familiar to certain places, of Christ, is the most ancient author whose he called endemic diseases; and the latter, writings have descended to the present which ravaged extraordinarily, sometimes day: and he is hence justly regarded as in one place, sometimes in another, which the father of medicine. Io his period, seized great numbers at certain times, he and indeed till a century or two ago, the called epidemic, that is, popular diseases; distinct branches of medicine and surgery and of this kind the most terrible is the were studied and practised by the same plague. He likewise mentions a third kind, person. Hippocrates, therefore, has been the opposite of the former; and these he universally regarded as having contributed calls sporadic, or straggling diseases : these equally to our physiological and anatomical last include all the different sorts of distemknowledge of the human frame, and the few pers which invade any one season, which anecdotes relating to him for which we can are sometimes of one sort and sometimes find room, has been already communicated of another. He distinguished between those to the reader under the article ANATOMY. diseases which are hereditary, or born with We shall here therefore only add those us, and those which are contracted afteropinions of the Coan sage, which more im- wards; and likewise between those of a mediately apply to the science of thera- kindly, and such as are of a malignant napeutics, and which are most entitled to ture; the former of which are easily and general attention,

frequently cured, while the latter give phy. As far as Hippocrates attempts to explain sicians a great deal of trouble, and are selthe causes of disease, he refers much to the dom overcome by all their care. hamours of the body, particularly to the A foundation for the theory and practice blood and the bile. He treats also of the of medicine being thus laid, the science effects of sleep, watchings, exercise, and was pursued with great avidity by Praxa. rest, and all the benefit or mischief we goras, who nevertheless ventured, in some may receive from them; of all the causes of respects, to oppose the practice of Hippodiseases, however, mentioned by Hippo. crates, and by Erasistratas and Herophilus, crates, the most general are diet and air. On of whom the last, as a disciple of Praxagothe subject of diet he has composed several ras, inclined rather to the Praxagorean than books, and in the choice of this he was the Hippocratic school. Erasistratus, how. exactly careful; and the more so, as his ever, acquired a higher fame, though a more practice turned almost wholly upon it. He steady adherent to the older and Hippocraalso considered the air very much, he ex. tic doctrines, and to him we are indebted amined what winds blew ordinarily or ex- for the first regular indications of the pulse. traordinarily; be considered the irregu. About this period the profession of medilarity of the seasons, the rising and setting cine began to be divided into the three of the stars, or the time of certain constel- branches of dietetic, pharmaceutic, and chilations; also the time of the solstices, and rurgic; or those who pretended to cure by of the equinoxes, those days, in his opinion, regimen alone, disregarding, and even de. producing great alterations in certain dis- spising, pharmacy ; those who undertook tempers; lie does not, however, pretend to to cure chiefly by pharmaceutic preparaexplain how, from these causes, that va- tions (of which number was Erasistratus riety of diseases arises which is daily to be himself); and those who devoted their whole observed. All that can be gathered from time and attention to the chirurgical dehim with regard to this is, that the different partment of the medical art. causes above mentioned, when applied to The next division of medical practitioners was into that of dogmatists and empyrics; minancy, or deficiency, or disproportion of the latter having commenced with Serapion which, originates the different temperanients of Alexandria, about the year 287 before of the animal frame, and the varieties in the Christ, who, according to Galen, retained different diseases to which it is subject : the mode of practice of Hippocrates, but these humours are the blood, phlegm, yellow pretended to despise his mode of reasoning. and black bile. He likewise established In reality this sect, to which Serapion be- three distinct kinds of auras, gases, or spilonged, and of which, if not the founder, rits, a natural, a vital, and an animal, which he was a very zealous supporter in its ear- he regarded as so many instruments to disliest infancy, depended upon their own per- tinct faculties; referring the seat and action sonal experience alone, whether progressive of the first chiefly to the liver, of the seor fortuitous. On the contrary, the dog. cond to the heart, of the third to the brain. matists affirmed, that there is a necessity His authority, in spite of all the fancies for knowing the latent as well as the evi- which are interwoven into his system, condent causes of diseases, and that physicians tinued to prevail till the overthrow of the ought to understand the natural actions and Roman empire, and learning and the arts functions of the human body, and conse- were transferred to the eastern empire: unquently its internal organs.

der the auspices of which, however, the The physicians of chief fame who fou- science of medicine does not appear to have rished subsequently to this division, were made any progress ; the Saracenic physiAsclepiades, who opposed the Hippocratic cians totally neglecting the study of anatotheory of natural power and sympathy, or my and every other auxiliary pursuit, and attraction, by engrafting upon medicine merely adding to the Materia Medica a vathe physical principles of the Epicurean riety of plants, whose names we now sel. philosophy : Themison, the founder of the dom hear of, and whose pharmaceutic vir. methodic sect, whose doctrines evinced tues have long beeu despised and forgot. equal bostility to the dogmatists and empy- ten. rics, and divided diseases into the two From the period at wbich we are now arclasses of hypertonic and atonic, a division rived, till the commencement of the sixwhich in various modifications bas descended teenth century, the history of medicine to the present day: Thessalus, contempo- furnishes no particulars of interest. It was rary with Nero, a man of some merit, but this epoch that gave birth to Paracelsus, of inordinate vanity; and Celsus, deservedly who having plunged deeply into the science denominated the Latin Hippocrates, whose of alchemy, it such a term as science be not work is equally valuable for the purity of prostituted by an application to such a subits language, and the knowledge it commu- ject, proscribing by one broad sweep all nicates of the state of medicine at the time the reasonings of the ancient authors, enhe wrote.

deavoured to explain all the facts and doc. About the year after Christ 131, in the trines of medicine npon the principles of reigu of Adrian, appeared the celebrated the fashionable science of the day. Galen, whose name makes so conspicuous It was in 1628 that medicine acquired a an appearance in the history of physic. knowledge of the momentons fact of the Practitioners were at this time divided into circulation of the blood, throngh the indethe three sections of methodists, dogmatists, fatigable labours of Dr. W. Harvey, who and empyrics. Galen inclined to the sccond nevertheless had to struggle for years against party, but with a true eclectic spirit under- a double torrent of nearly equal violence, took to combine with its doctrine whatever before the jealonsies and prejudices of the existed of real worth in the two adverse profession were completely mastered: some systems ; and hence, to reform and give a denying the fact altogether, and others confinish to the science of medicine beyond tending that it was a point that had been what it had ever possessed before. For the ascertained for ages, and consequently that most part he was a follower of Hippocrates, he was by no means entitled to the honour whose name he revered, and whose opinions of the discovery. The establishment of this he commented upon; asserting in the course important fact, however, did not, even for of his comments that he had never been a long period after its general admission, thoroughly understood before. Like Hip- produce all the advantages which might pocrates, he denominated the vital principle have been expected from it. For the phy. nature; like him he admitted the existence siologists of the day, in reasoning upon the of four distinet humours, from the predo. powers by which this phænomenon, as well

ORDER I.

FEBRES.

ORDER II.

as various others of the animal frame was scope for comparison, and as offering the accomplished, unfortunately took hold of the best arrangements of dişeases which have mechanical philosophy as their guide ; and hitherto been presented to the world : these every function was immediately attempted five comprehend the nosological systems of to be explained by the laws of projectiles, Cullen, Sauvage, Linnæns, Vogel, and Satill the system at length destroyed itself by gar; and we shall exhibit them in their rethe absurdity of the extent to which it was spective classes, orders, and genera. pushed. Boerhaave, at this period, led the way

Nosological Arrangement of CULLEN. to an admirable reformation, both of principle and practice; and by uniting the doc.

CLASS I. PYREXIÆ. trines of Hippocrates with the philosophy of the times, framed a theory of medicine upon the supposition of acrimony, lentor,

$ 1. Intermittentes. and other changes in the circulating fluids.

§ 2. Continua.

1. Tertiana Contemporary with Boerhaave were Hoff

4. Synocha

2. Quartana man and Stahl; both of whom deviating from

5. Typhus

3. Quotidiana the theory of Boerhaave, the first laid the

6. Sypochus foundation of the spasmodic hypothesis, by

PHLEGMASLE. resolving the origin of all diseases into an universal atony, or an universal spasm in

7. Phlogosis 16. Hepatitis the primary moving powers of the system; 8. Ophthalmia 17. Splenitis and the second into the action of certain

9. Phrenitis 18. Nephritis noxions agents, controlled, however, by the 10. Cynanche 19. Cystitis internal existence of a rational soul that di- 11. Pneumonia 20. Hysteritis rects the entire economy. The humoral 12. Carditis 21. Rheumatismus pathology, nevertheless, continued to pre. 13. Peritonitis 22. Odontalgia vail, till, under the auspices of Dr. Culleu, 14. Gastritis 23. Podagra the theories of Hoffman and Stahl were 15. Enteritis 24. Arthropuosis united into one common and ingenious sys

ORDER 111. EXANTHEMATA. tem ; a system which still holds its ground, though it has been since controverted by 25. Variola 30. Erysipelas the sensorial bypothesis of Dr. Brown and 26. Varicella 31. Miliaria Dr. Darwin.

27. Rubeola 32. Urticaria

28. Scarlatina 33. Pemphigus NOSOLOGY.

29. Pestis

34. Aphtha In order to reduce the practice of medi

ORDER IV. HÆMORRHAGIÆ. cine to something definite, to simplify what was perplexed, and to lay down certain ge- 35. Epistaxis 37. Hæmorrhois neral rules for a more accurate investiga. 36. Hæmoptysis 38. Menorrhagia tion of diseases, physicians in all ages have

ORDER V. PROFLUVIA. attempted to arrange these last into a systematized form; and the works which have 39. Catarrhus 40. Dysenteria thus treated of diseases, are entitled Noso. logies. We cannot enter into an examina.

CLASS II. NEUROSES. tion of those which have progressively been offered to the world in former periods, for this would carry us far beyond the limits

41. Apoplexia 42. Paralysis prescribed by a Cyclopædia of any extent; yet while we are compelled to pass by the

ORDER II. ADYNAMIÆ. different arrangenients of the Greeks and

45. Hypochondriasis Romans, of the Arabians, the earlier Ita- 43. Syncope

44. Dyspepsia 46. Chlorosis lians, and Germans, we cannot consent to relinquish a survey of those which are chiefly appealed to in the present day, and under which the art and science of medi. 47. Tetanus 51. Raphania cine are generally taught in our public 48. Trismus 52. Epilepsia schools. We shall, for this pnrpose, select 49. Convulsio 53. Palpitatio the five following, as affording a sufficient 50. Chorea 54. Asthma

ORDER I.

COMATA,

ORDER III.

SPASMI.

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Nosological Arrangement of SAUVAGE.

ORDER III. IMPETIGINES,

CLASS I. VITIA.

83. Scrophula
84. Syphilis
85. Scorbutus
86. Elephantiasis

87. Lepra
88. Frambesia
89. Tricoma
90. Icterus

ORDER I.

MACULÆ.

Genus 1. Leucoma
2. Vitiligo
3. Epbelis

4. Gutta rosea
5. Nævus
6. Ecchymoma

CLASS IV. LOCALES.

ORDER I.

DYS. ESTHESIÆ.

ORDER II.

7. Herpes
8. Epinictis

EFFLORESCENTIÆ.

9. Psydracia 10. Hidroa

91. Caligo
92. Amaurosis
93. Dyaopia
94. Pseudoblepsis
95. Dysecea

96. Parachsis
97. Anosmia
98. Agheustia
99. Anæsthesia

ORDER III.

PHYMATA.

ORDER II.

DYSOREXI.E.

11. Erythema
12. Edema
13. Emphysema
14. Scirrhus
15. Phlegmone
16. Bubo

17. Parotis
18. Furunculus
19. Anthrax
20. Cancer
21. Parouychia
22. Phimosis

ORDER IV.

1. Appetitus erronei. 105. Nostalgia 100. Bulimia § 2. Appetitus defici101. Polydipsia

entes. 102. Pica

106. Anorexia 103. Satyriasis 107. Adipsia 104. Nymphomania 108. Anaphrodisia

ORDER III. DYSCINESIÆ.
109. Aphonia 113. Strabismus
110. Mutitas 114. Dysphagia
111. Paraplovia 115. Contractora
112. Psellismus

23. Sarcoma
94. Condyloma
25. Verruca
26. Pterygium
27. Hordeolum

EXCRESCENTIÆ.
28. Bronchocele
29. Exostosis
30. Gibbositas
31. Lordosis

ORDER V.

CYSTIDES.

ORDER IV.
116. Profusio
117. Ephidrosis
118. Epiphora

APOCENOSES.
119. Ptyalismus
120. Enuresis
121. Gonorrhea

32. Aneurisma
33. Varix
34. Hydatis
35. Marisca
36. Staphyloma

37. Lupia
58. Hydrarthus
39. Apostema
40. Exomphalus
41. Oscheocele

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