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botanical writers, says Dr. Smith, have green, and when ripe are of a dark purple judiciously preserved this very natural colour. They continue on the bush two gevus entire, notwithstanding the capsule is years, and are sessile in the axil of the in some species one-celled, in others three- leaves. Juniper is common in all the norcelled. The sea-rushes are planted on the thern parts of Europe, in fertile or barren sea-banks in Holland; the roots running soils, on hills or in valleys, in open sandy deep into the sand, and matting very much plains, or in. moist and close woods. In so as to hold it together. In the summer, England it is found chiefly on open downs, when they are full grown, they cut them, in a chalky or sandy soil. and when dry work them into baskets.

IVORY, a hard, solid, and firm subJUNGERMANNIA, in botany, so nam. stance, of a white colour, and capabie of a ed from Louis Jungermannus of Leipsic, very good polish. It is the tusk of the ele. Professor of Botany at Atorff, a genus of plant, and is hollow from the base to a certhe Cryptogamia Algą, Lionæus, class and tain beight. It is brought to us from the order. Natural order of Hepaticæ, Jussieu. East Indies, and from the coast of Guinea. Thirty species of these mosses are arranged Tusks are valuable in proportion to their in five subdivisions, in the fourteenth edition size; and it is observed, that the Ceylon of " Systema Vegetabilium." Dr. Withering ivory, and that from the island of Achem, bas forty-eight species in the third edition do not become yellow by wear, as all other of his “Arrangement of British Plauts;" he ivory does: hence the teeth of these places says many of them are beautiful microscopic bear a larger price than those of the coast objects.

of Guinea. JUNGIA, in botany, so named from Ivory black, is prepared from ivory, or Joachim Jungius, M. D. a genus of the bones burnt in a close vessel. This, when Syngenesia Polygamia Segregata class and finely ground, forms a more beautiful and order. Natural order of Compositæ Oppo deeper colour than lamp-black; but, in the sitifoliæ. Cinarocephalæ, Jussieu. Essen- common methods of manufacturing, it is tial character: calyx common, three-dower- apt to be adulterated with charcoal dust, so ed; receptacle chaffy; florets tubular, two as to be almost, or altogether, unfit for lipped; outer lip ligulate; inner two-part- use. ed. There is but one species, viz. J. ferru. JUPITER, 4, in astronomy, one of the ginea, the stems of which are woody, cover- superior planets, remarkable for its great ed with a ferruginous down ; leaves alter- brightness. See ASTRONOMY. nate, five-lobed, cordate at the base ; lobes Jupiter is the brightest of all the planets rounded, blunt; they are hirsute, and except Venus. He moves from west to underneath hoary; panicle terminating, east in a period of 4332 days, exbibiting large, decompounded; beads of flowers irregularities similar to those of Mars. Besmall, heaped. It is a native of South fore he comes into opposition, and when America.

distant from the sun about 115°, his motion JUNIPERUS, in botany, juniper-tree, a becomes retrograde, and increases in swiftgenus of the Dioecia Monadelphia class and ness till he comes into opposition. The order. Natural order of Coniferæ. Essen- motion then becomes gradually slower, and tial character: male, calyx of the ament a becomes direct when the planet advances scale; corolla pone; stamina three: female, within 115° of the sun. The duration of calyx three-parted; petals three; styles the retrograde motion is about 121 days, three; berry three-seeded, icregular, with and the arch of retrogradation described the three tubercles of the calyx. There are is about 10°. But there is a considerable twelve species; some of these are lofty difference both in the amount and in the handsome trees; but the J. communis, com- doration of this retrograde motion, mon juniper, is a low shrub, seldom more Jupiter has the same general appearance than three feet in height, sending out many with Mars, only that the belts on his surspreading tough branches, inclining on face are inuch larger and more permanent. every side, covered with a brown or reddish They are said to have been first discovered bark, with a tinge of purple. The male by Fontana and two other Italians; but tlowers are sometimes on the same plant Cassini was the first who gave a good acwith the females, but al a distance from count of them. Their number is very them; they are commonly on distinct variable, as sometimes only one, and at plants. The female flowers are succeeded others no fewer than eight, may be per. by roundish berries, which are at first ceived. They are generally parallel to one

another, but not always so; and their ence in the place of their noces, he conbreadth is likewise variable, one belt har. cluded that they were all in the same place, ing been observed to grow narrow, while and that their ascending nodes were in the another in its neighbourhood has increased middle of Aquarius. After observing them in breadth, as if the one had flowed into for more than thirty-six years, he found the other, and in this case Dr. Long ob- their greatest latitude, or deviation from serves, that a part of an oblique belt lay the plane of Jupiter's orbit, to be 2° 55'. between them, as if to form a communica- The tirst of these satellites revolves at the tion for this purpose. The time of their distance of 5.697 of Jupiter's semi-diamecontinuance is very uncertain, sometimes ters, or 1' 51", as measured by proper inremaining unchanged for three movtlis; struments ; its periodical time is 1d. 18li. at others, new belts have been formed in 27' 34". The next satellite revolves at the an hour or two. In some of these belts distance of 9.017 semi-diameters, or 2' 56'', large black spots have appeared, which in 3d. 13h. 13' 45"; the third at the distance moved swiftly over the disk from east to of 14.384 semi-diameters, or 4' 49", in 70. west, and returned in a short time to the 3h. 42" 36" ; and the fourth at the distance same place; from whence the rotation of of 25.266, or 8' 16'', in 164. 16h. 32' 09". this planet about its axis has been deter. Since the time of Cassini it has been found mined.

that the nodes of Jupiter's satellites are The figure of Jupiter is evidently an not in the same place; and from the difoblate spheroid, the longest diameter of ferent points of view in which we have an his disk being to the shortest as 13 10 12.. opportunity of observing them from the His rotation is from west to east, like that earth, we see them sometimes apparently of the sun, and the plane of his equator is moving in straight lines, and at other times very nearly coincident with that of his in elliptic curves. All of them, by reason orbit; so that there can scarcely be any of their immense distance, seem to keep difference of seasons in that planet. His near their primary, and their apparent rotation has been observed to be some- motion is a kind of oscillation like that of what quickerin his aphelion than his perihe- a pendulum ; going alternately from their lion. The axis of rotation is nearly per. greatest distance on one side to the greatpendicular to the plane of the ecliptic, and est distance on the other, sometimes in a the planet makes one revolution in about straight line, and sometimes in an elliptic 9 h. 55' and 37". The changes in the curve. appearances of these spots, and the differ. When a satellite is in its superior semience in the time of their rotation, make circle, or that half of its orbit which is it probable that they do not adhere to more distant from the earth than Jupiter Jupiter, but are clouds transported by the is, its motion appears to us direct, accord. wind, with different velocities, in an atmos- ing to the order of the signs ; but in its infe. phere subject to violent agitations. ' rior semi-circle, when it is nearer to us than

Pour little stars aro observed around Jupiter, its motion appears retrogade; and Jupiter, which constantly accompany him. both these motions seem quicker the noarer Their relative situation is continually chang- the satellites are to the centre of the priing. They oscillate on both sides of the mary, slower the more distant they are, planet, and their relative rank is determin. and at the greatest distance of all they aped by the length of these oscillations. That pear for a short time to be stationary. one in which the oscillation is shortest is From this account of the system of Jupiter called the first satellite, and so on. These and his satellites, it is evident that occulta. satelites are analogous to our moon. See tions of them must frequently happen by ASTRONOMY. They are all supposed to their going behird their primary, or by move in ellipses; though the excentri. coming in betwixt is and it. The former cities of all of them are too small to be mea- takes place when they proceed towards sured, excepting that of the fourth; and the middle of their upper semi-circle; the even this amounts to no more than 0.007 latter, when they pass throngh the same of its mean distance from the primary. part of their inferior semi-circle. Occulta.

The orbits of these planets were thought tions of the former kind happen to the by Galileo to be in the same plane with first and second satellites; at every revoluthat of their primary: but M. Cassini kastion, the third very rarely escapes an occulfound that their orbits make a small angle tation ; but the fourth more frequently, by with it; and as he did not find any differ. reason of its greater distance,


It is seldom that a satellite can be dis. from conjunction with, or opposition to covered upon the disk of Jupiter, even by the sun, both its immersions and immediate the best telescopes, excepting at its first ly subsequent emersions are visible ; as they entrance, when by reason of its being more likewise are in the fourth, when the distance directly illuminated by the rays of the sun of Jupiter from conjunction or opposition than the planet itself, it appears like a lucid is twenty-four degrees. spot upon it. Sometimes, however, a satel- JURATS, magistrates in the nature of lite in passing over the disk appears' like Aldermen, for the government of several a dark spot, and is easily to be distinguish- corporations. Thus we meet with the Mayor ed. This is supposed to be owing to spots and Jurats of Maidstone, Rye, &c. on the body of these secondary planets; JURY, a certain number of persons and it is remarkable, that the same satellite sworn to inquire of and try somé matter has been known to pass over the disk at of fact, and to declare the truth upon such one time as a dark spot, and at another so evidence as shall be laid before them. The luminous that it could not be distinguished jory are sworn judges upon all evidence in from Jupiter himself, except at its coming any matter of fact. Juries may be divided on and going off. When the satellites pass into two kinds, common and special. A through their inferior semi-circles, they common jury is such as is returned by the may cast a shadow upon their primary, sheriff, according to the directions of the and thus cause an eclipse of the sun to bis statute 3 George II. cap. 25, which apinhabitants if there are any; and in some points that the sheriff's officer shall not resituations this shadow may be observed turn a separate pannel for every separate · going before or following the satellite. On cause. but one and the same bannel for the other hand, in passing through their every cause to be tried at the same assizes, superior semi-circles, the satellites may be containing not less than forty-eight, nor eclipsed in the same manner as our moon, more than seventy-two jurors; and their by passing through the shadow of Jupiter ; names being written on tickets shall be put and this is actually the case with the first, into a box or glass, and when each cause second, and third of these bodies; but the is called, twelve of those persons whose fourth, by reason of the largeness of its names shall be first drawn out of the box orbit, passes sometimes above or below the shall be sworn upon a jury, unless absent, shadow, as is the case with our moon. challenged, or excused. When a sufficient

The beginnings and endings of these eclip. number of persons are impannelled, they ses are easily seen by a telescope when the are then separately sworn well and truly to earth is in a proper situation with regard try the issue between the parties, and a to Jupiter and the sun; but when this or true verdict give according to the eviany other planet is in conjunction with the dence. sun, the superior brightness of that lumi. Special juries were originally introduced nary renders both it and the satellites in- in trials at bar, when the causes were of visible. From the time of its first appear. loo great nicety for the discussion of ordiing after a conjunction until near the op- pary freeholders. To obtain a special jury, position, only the immersions of the satel. a motion is made in court, and a rule is lites into his shadow, or the beginnings of granted thereupon, for the sheriff to atthe eclipses, are visible; at the opposition, tend the master, prothonotary, or other only the occultations of the satellites, by proper officer, with his freeholder's book, going behind or coming before their pri- and the officer is to take indifferently fortymary, are observable; and from the ap- eight of the principal freeholders, in the position to the conjunction, only the im- presence of the attornies on both sides, who mersions, or end of the eclipses, are to be are each of them to strike off twelve, and seen. This is exactly true in the first the remaining twenty-four are returned upsatellite, of which we can never see an im. on the pannel. mersion with its immediately subsequent Jnrors are punishable for sending for, or, emersion : and it is but rarely that they receiving, instructions from either of the can be both seen in the second; as, in order parties concerning the matter in question. to their being so, that satellite must be near In causes of nisi prius, every person one of its limits, at the same time that the whose name shall be drawn, and who shall planet is near his perihelion and quadrature not appear after being openly called three with the sun. With regard to the third times, shall, on oath made of his having when Jupiter is more than forty-six degrees been lawfully summoned, forfeit a sum not exceeding 51., nor less than 40s., unless tices of nisi prius, as well as justices of some reasonable cause of absence 'be prov. assize, by reason of the writ or action they ed, by oath or affidavit, to the satisfaction have to deal in. of the judge. If any juror shall take of Justices of oyer and terminer. As the jnseither party to give his verdict, he shall, tices of assize and nisi prius are appointed on conviction, by bill or plaint, before the to try civil cases, so are the justices of oyer court where the verdict shall pass, förfeit and terminer, and gaol delivery, to try inten times as much as he has taken ; half to dictments for all crimes all over the king. the King, and half to him who shall sue. dom, at what are generally denominated A man who shall assault or threaten a juror the circuits or assizes; and the towns where for giving a verdict against him, is highly they come to execute their commission are punishable by fine and imprisonment; and called the assize towns, and are generally if be strike him in the court, in the presence the county towns. of the judge of assize, he shall lose his hand Justices of the peace, are persons apand his goods, and the profits of his lands pointed by the King's commission, to at. during life, and suffer perpetual imprison. tend to the peace of the county where they ment.

dwell. They were called guardians of the JURY mast, whatever is set up in room peace till the thirty-sixth year of Edw. III. of a mast that has been lost in a storm or C. 12, where they are called justices. A in an engagement, and to which a lesser justice of the peace must, betore he acts, yard, ropes, and sails are fixed.

take the oath of office, which is usually JUSSIÆA, in botany, so named from done before some persons in the county, Antoine de Jussieu, a genus of the De. by virtue of a dedimus protestatem out of candria Monogynia class and order. Natu- chancery. Sheriffs, coroners, attorneys, ral order of Calycanthemæ. Onagræ, Jus- and proctors, may not act as justices of the sien. Essential character: calyx four or peace, five-parted, superior; petals four or five; The power, ofice, and duty of this macapsules four or five celled, oblong, gaping gistrate extends to an almost infinite numat the corners; seeds mumerons, minute. ber of instances, specified in some hoodreds

There are eleven species. These are mostly of acts of parliament, and every year accu. herbaceous plants, natives of North and mulating. The commission of the peace South America, also of the East and West does not determine by the demise of the Indies.

King, nor until six months after, unless JUSTICE signifies be who is deputed by sooner determined by the successor : but the King to do right by way of judgment. before his demise, the King may determine

Justices in eyre, in ancient times, were it, or may put out any particular person, sent with commission into several counties which is most commonly done by a vew to hear such causes especially as were commission, leaving out such person's name. termed pleas of the crown. And this was Justices of the peace can only be ap. done for the ease of the people, who must pointed by the King's special commission, otherwise have been hurried to the King's and such commission must be in his name: Bench, if the case were too high for the but it is not requisite that there should be county court: they differed from the justices a special suit or application to, or warrant of oyer and terminer, because they were from the King for the granting it, which is sent upon one or for special causes and to only requisite for such as are of a particular one place; whereas the justices in eyre were nature, as constituting the mayor of such a sent through the province and counties of town and his successors perpetual justices of the land, with more indetinite and general the peace within their liberties, &c, which commissions.

commissions are neither revocable by the JUSTICES of gaol delivery, such as are King, nor determinable by his demise, as sent with commission to hear and deter. the common commission of the peace is, mine all causes appertaining to such as for which is made of course by the Lord Chanany offence are cast into the gaol.

cellor according to Ins discretion. JUSTICES of nisi prius, are the same with The form of the commission of the peace, justices of assize, for it is a common ad- as it is at this day, was, according to journment of a cause, to put it off to such a Hawkins, settled by the judges about day, nisi prius justiciarii venerint ad eas 23 Elizabeth. partes ad capiendas assisas; and upon this Justices of the peace have no power to clause of adjournment, they are called jus. hear and determine felonies, unless they are

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authorized so to do by the express words of sessions four times in the year, riz. the their commissions ; and that their jurisdic. first week after Michaelmas, the Epiphations to hear and determine murder, man- ny, Easter, and St. Thomas, They are, slaughter, and other felonies and trespasses, justices of record, for none but justices of is by force of the express words in their record can take a recognizance of the commission.

peace. Every justice of the peace has a But thouglijnstices of the peace by force separate power, and may do all acts conof their commission have authority to hear cerning his office apart and by himself; and and determine murder and manslaughter, even nay commit a fellow justice upou yet they seldom exercise a jurisdiction treason, felony, or breach of the peace. By herein, or in any other offences in which several statutes, justices may act in many clergy is taken away, for two reasons: 1. cases where their commission does not By reason of the monilion and clause in reach ; the statutes themselves being a suftheir commission, riz, in cases of difficulty ficient commission. i i to expect the presence of the justices of Justices of the peace are authorized to do assize. 2. By reason of the direction of the all things appertaining to their office, so far statute of 1 and 2 Philip aud Mary, c. 13, as tincy relate to the laws for the relief, which directs justices of the peace, in case maintenance, and settlement of the poor; of manslanghter and other felonies, to take for passing and punishing vagrants; for re, the examination of the prisoner, and the in- pair of the highways, or to any other laws formation of the fact, and put the same in concerning parochial taxes, levies, or rates; writing, and then to bail the prisoner if notwithstanding they are rated or chargethere be cause, and to certify the same able with the rates, within any place affect. with the bail, at the next general gaol deli- ed by such their acts. Provided that this very ; and therefore in cases of great mo- shall not empower any justice for any ment they bind over the prosecutors, and county at large, to act in the determination bail the party, if bailable, to the next gene- of any appeal to the quarter sessions of such ral gaol delivery ; but in smaller matters, as county, from any order, matter, or thing, petty larceny, and in some other cases, they relating to any such parish, township, or bind over to the sessions, but this is only in place, where such justice is so charged or point of discretion and convenience, not be chargeable, 16 Geo. II. c. 18. The power cause they have not jurisdiction of the crime. of justices is ministerial, when they are

As to inferior offences, the jurisdiction commanded to do any thing by a superior herein given to justices of the peace by par authority, as the court of Banco Regis, &c. ticular statutes, is so various, and extends In all other cases they act as judges; but to such a multiplicity of cases, that it would they must proceed according to their combe endless to endeavour to enumerate mission, &c. Where a statute requires an them; also they have as justices of the act to be done by two justices, it is an esta. peace a very ample jurisdiction in all mat. blished rule, that if the act be of a judicial ters concerning the peace. And therefore nature, or the result of discretion, the two not only assaults and batteries, but libels, justices must be present to concur and join barratry, and common night-walking, and in it, otherwise it will be void ; as in the orhaunting bawdy-houses, and such like of ders of removal and filiation, the appoint. fences, which have a direct tendency to ment of overseers, and the allowance of the cause breaches of the peace, are cognizable indenture of a parish apprentice; but where by justices of the peace, as trespasses within the act is merely ministerial, they may act the proper and natural meaning of the separately, as in the allowance of a poorword.

rate. This is the only act of two justices Op renewing the commission of the which bas beon construed to be ministerial ; peace (which generally happens when any and the propriety of this construction has person is newly brought into it) a writ of been justly questioned. dedinus protestatem is issued out of chan. Where a justice shall exceed his anthoricery to take the oath of bim who is newly ty in granting a warrant, the officer must inserted, which is usually in a schedule an execute it, and he is indemnified for so nexed, and to certify the same into that doing ; but if it be in a case wherein ke lias court at such a day as the writ commands. no jurisdiction, or in a matter whereof he Loto which oath are usually annexed the has no cognizance, the officer ought not to oaths of allegiance and supremacy.

execute such warrant; for the officer is Justices of the peace are to hold their bound to take notice of the aathority and

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