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ground. It is used by gunners to fire the the second liquids: hence we may define a guns.
liquid to be a Aoid not sensibly elastic, the LINT, linum, from the fax of which parts of which yield to the smallest impreslinen is made.
sion, and move on each other. ihen liquid In surgery, the term lint denotes the bodies are mixed together, they act in scrapings of linen which is used in dressing various ways according to the nature of the wounds, and is made up in various forms, substances employed. Some dissolve each as tents, dossils, pledgets, &c. See Sur- other in any proportion, as in the case with
most gases when mixed; some unite in LINUM, in borany, fax, a genus of the determinate proportions; some do not act Pentandria Pentagynia class and order. sensibly upon each other, separating again, Natural order of Gruinales. Caryophyileæ, though mixed ever so carefully; and some Jussieu. Gerania, Smith. Essential cha- decompo e each other. racter: calyx five-leaved; petals five; cap- LIQUIDAMBER, in botany, a genus of sule ten-valved, ten celled; seeds solitary. the Monoecia Polyandria class and order. There are lwenty-five species. The several Natural order of Coniferæ. Amentaceæ, species of Alax are mostly herbaceous, some Jussieu. Essential character: male, calyx are fruticose, or woody at bottom; two common, four-leaved; corolla none; tilaare shrubby, and one arboreous; leaves ments uumerous : female, calyx in a globe, generally alternate; flowers solitary and four-leaved; corolla none; styles two; capaxillary; corolla commonly blue, sometimes sules many in a globe, two-valved, many. fading to white, and in some yellow. Flaxseeded. There are two species, riz. L. is found wild in many parts of Europe, in styraciflua, maple-leaved liquidamber, or corn fields ; in England it is, perhaps, sweet gum; and L. imberbe, oriential liquiddoubtful whether it be aboriginal. It is amber; the trunk of the former is usually common in the western counties, not only two feet in diameter, straight, and free in corn fields, but in pastures and on from branches, to the height of fifteen feet; downs.
whence the branches spread and rise in a LION. See Felis.
copic form forty feet from the ground. The LIONCELLES, in heraldry, a term used leaves are shaped like those of the lesser for several lions borne in the same coat of maple, of a dark green colour, their upper arms.
surfaces shining; a sweet glutinous subLIP, hare, a disorder in which the upper stance exudes through their pores in warm lip is in a manner slit or divided, so as to weather, which renders them clammy to resemble the upper lip of a lare, whence the tonch ; in February, before the leaves the name.
are formed, the blossoms break forth from LIPARIA, in botany, a genus of the the tops of the branches into spikes of yelDiadelphia Decandria class and order, lowish red pappose globular flowers which Natural order of Papilionaceæ, or Legumi. swell gradually, retaining their round form nosæ. Essential character: calyx five cleft, to the full maturity of their seed vessels, with the lowest segment elongated; corolla which are thick set with pointed hollow wings two-lobed below; stamina the larger, protuberances, and splitting open discharge with three shorter teeth; legume ovate. their seeds. The wood of this tree is There are five species, natives of the Cape good timber, and is used in wainscotting, of Good Hope.
&c.; the grain is fine, some of it is beautiLIPPIA, in botany, so named from Au- fully variegated. When wrought too green gustine Lippi, a genus of the Didynamia it is apt to shrink. From between the wood Gymnospermia class and order. Natural and the bark issues a fragrant gum, which order of Stellatæ. Vitices, Jussieu. Essen- trickles from the wounded trees, and by tial character: calyx four-toothed, roundish, the heat of the sun congeals into transpaupright, compressed, membranaceous; cap- rent drops, which the Indians chew as a sule one-celled, two-valved, two-seeded, preservative to their teeth; it smells very straight; seed one, two-celled. There are much like Balsam of Tolu, so that it is diffi. five species.
cult to distinguish them. The bark is of sin. LIQUID. Fluids have been divided into gular use to the Indians for covering their two classes ; viz. those which are elastic, huts. Native of North America. and the non elastic, or those which do not LIQUOR of flints. Alkalies have a sensibly diminisha in bulk when subjected to powerful action on silica : they combine in pressure. The first class are airs or gases, different proportions : two or three parts of potash, with one of silica, give a compound, poplar. The young shoots of this tree are which is deliqnescent in the air, and soluble covered with a smooth purplish hark; they in water : this was formerly distinguished are garnished with large leaves, whose footby the name of liquor of flints, but it is stalks are four inches long; the leaves are now denominated silicated alkali.
of a singular form, being divided into three LIQUORICE. The glycirrhiza, or com- lobes; the middle lobe is blunt and hollowmon liquorice shrub, has a long, thick, ed at the point, appearing as if it had been creeping root, striking several feet deep cut with scissars; the upper surface of the into the ground; an upright, firm, herba- leaves is smooth, and of a lucid green, the ceous, annual stalk, three or four feet high, under of a pale green; the flowers are garnished with winged leaves, of four or produced at the end of the branches, comfive pair of oval lobes, terminated by an posed of six petals, three without and three odd one: and from the axillas, erect spikes within, forming a sort of bell-shaped flower, of pale blue flowers in July, succeeded by whence the inhabitants of North America short smooth pods. The root of this plant gave it the name of tolip; the petals are is the useful part, being replete with, a marked with green, yellow, and red spots, sweet, balsamic, pectoral juice, which is making a beautiful appearance when the either extracted, or the wood sold in sub- trees are charged with flowers; when the stance. It is much used in all compositions flowers fall off the germ swells, and forms a for coughs, and disorders of the stomach ; kind of cone, which does not ripen in Engbut by far the greatest quantity is used by land; the handsomest tree of this kind, brewers. The common liquorice is cul- near London, is in a garden at Waltham tivated in most countries of Europe, for Abbey. the sake of its root; but in Spain and Italy,
The wood is used for canoes, bowls, and particularly in Sicily and Calabria, it dishes, spoons, and all sorts of joiners' makes a considerable article of commerce work. with this country. In Calabria, liquorice is
Kalm speaks of having seen a barn of chiefly manufactured, and exported from considerable size, the sides and roof of which Corigliano, Rossano, Cassano, and Palermo. were made of a single tulip-tree split into
The Calabrian liquorice, upon the whole, is boards; there is no wood that contracts preferable to that coming trom Sicily, and and expands so much as this, which is a the Italian paste to that coming from great inconvenience attending it; the bark Spain. Liquorice also grows in great abun- is divisible into thin laminæ, which are dance in the Levant; and vast quantities of tongh like bast. it are consumed there, in making a decoc
LISIANTHUS, in botany, a genus of tion which is drank cold in the summer, in
the Pentandria Monogynia class and order. the manner of sherbet.
Natural order of Rotaceæ. Gentianæ, JusTo prepare liquorice, the roots are boiled sieu. Essential character : calyx keeled; a long time in water, till the Auid has got a
corolla with a ventricose tube, and recurved deep yellow tincture; and the water at divisions ; stigma two-plated; capsule twolength evaporated till the remains acquire a celled, two-valved; the margins of the consistency, when they are formed into valves intorted. There are nine species, sticks, which are packed up with bay leaves, natives of Jamaica. in the same order as we receive them. The LISTING. Persons listed are to be car. boiling requires the utmost care and pre- ried within four days, but not sooner than caution, as the juice takes an unpleasant twenty-four honrs, after they have enlisted, smell and flavour, if burnt in the least before the next justice of peace of any degree,
county, riding, city, or place, or chief LIRIODENDRUM, in botany, a genus magistrate of any city or town corporate of the Polyandria Polygynia class and (not being an officer in the army); and if, order. Natural order of Coadunatæ. Mag. before such justice or magistrate they disnolie, Jussieu. Essential character: calyx sent from such listing, and return the listing three-leaved; petals six; seeds imbricated money, and also twenty shillings in lieu of into a strobile. There are two species, viz. all charges expended on them, they are to L tulipifera, common tulip tree; and L. be discharged. But such persons refusing lillifera ; the former is a native of North or neglecting to return and pay such money Ainerica, where it is a tree of the first within twenty-four hours, shall be deemed magnitude, and is generally known in all as duly Listed as if they had assented thereto the English settlements by the name of before the proper magistrate; and they
will, in that case, be obliged to take the Wednesdays and Fridays, the ancient staoath, or upon refusal they shall be confined tionary days for fasting. To these days the by the officer who listed them till they do rubric of our church has added Sundays, as take it. Persons owning before the proper being the greatest days for assembling at magistrate, that they voluntarily listed divine service. Before the last review of themselves, are obliged to take the oath, or the “Common Prayer," the litany was a suffer confinement by the officer who listed distinct service by itself, and used sometime them till they do take it. The magistrate is after the morning prayer was over ; at preobliged, in both cases, to certify that such sent it is made one office with the morning persons are duly listed ; setting forth their service, being ordered to be read after the birth, age, and calling, if known, and that third collect for grace, instead of the interthe second and sixth sections of the articles cessional prayers in the daily service. of war, against mutiny and desertion, were LITERARY property. Authors, it should read to them, and that they had taken the seem had, by the common law, the sole and oath. Officers offending herein are to be exclusive copyright remaining in themselves cashiered, and displaced from their office; or their assigns in perpetuity, after having to be disabled from holding any post, civil printed and published their compositions. or military; and to forfeit 1001. Persons This, as a common law right, was strangely receiving inlisting money from any officer, questioned by some of our judges, who knowing him to be such, and afterwards studied special pleading more than comabsconding, and refusing to go before a mon sense. But by statute 8 Anne, c. 19, magistrate to declare their assent or disseut, it is secured to them for fourteen years, are deemed to be inlisted to all intents and from the day of publishing; and after the purposes, and may be proceeded against as end of fourteen years, the sole right of if they had taken the oath.
printing or disposing of copies, shall return LITA, in botany, a geuus of the Pentan to the anthors, if then living, for other fourdria Monogynia class and order. Natural teen years. This statute, it has been held, reorder of Rotaceæ. Gentianæ. Jussieu. Es- strains the right of the author and his assigns sential character: calyx five-cleft, with two to the fourteen or the twenty-eight years, or three scales at the base; corolla salver whatever it might have been at the common shaped, with a long tube, dilated at the law. A penalty on each sheet found in the base and throat; border five-cleft; anthers possession of a party pirating a work, is intwin, inserted in the throat ; capsule one- dicted by the statute, 9 Anne, c. 19; and, in celled, two-valved; seeds numerous. There order to entitle the plaintiff to recover this are two species, viz
. L. rosea, and L. cæru- penalty, the book must have been entered lea, natives of Guiana.
at Stationers' Hall. But an author whose LITANY, a solemn forın of snpplication work has been pirated, may maintain an to God, in which the priest utters some action for damages merely without having so things fit to be prayed for, and the people entered his book. When an author transjoin in their intercession, saying, “ We be- fers all bis right or interest in a publication seech Thee to hear us, good Lord,” &c.
to another, and happens to survive the first At first, the use of litanies was not fixed fourteen years, the second term will result to any stated time, but were only employed to his assignee, and not to himself. By as exigencies required. They were observ- statute 12 Geo. II. c. 36. 34 Geo. III. ed, in imitation of the Ninevites, with c. 20, s. 57, books printed in England ardent supplications and fastings, to avert originally, may not be reprinted abroad, the threatening judgments of fire, earth- and imported within twenty years. А quakes, inundations, or hostile invasions. last act extends also to Ireland, where About the year 200, litanies began to be English books were frequently pirated. used in processions, the people walking By statute 8 Geo. II. c. 13; 7 Geo. III. barefoot, and repeating them with great c. 28; 17 Geo. III. c. 57, Engravers devotion; and it is pretended, that by this have a property in their prints and engrav. means, several countries were delivered ings for twenty-eight years absolutely. A from great calamities. The days on which fair abridgment is equally protected with these were used were called rogation days: an origioal work. Acting a play on a stage these were appointed by the canons of dif- is not a publishing within the statute, 8 ferent councils, till it was decreed by the Anne, c. 19; but one cannot take a piece council of Toledo, that they should be used in short band and print it before the author every month throughout the year; and thus has published it. by degrees they came to be used weekly on LITHARGE, in the arts. Lead is easily oxydable. When first fased its surface is rope, particularly in corn-fields and waste perfectly bright, but by the contact of the places, flowering from May to July. air it is quickly covered with a thick film, LITHOTOMY, in surgery, the operacailed the dross of lead. If this be taken tion by which a calculus is removed from off, the same circumstances again take the bladder. place, and thus the whole of the lead inay LITMUS, in chemistry, a substance, the be converted into a kind of grey powder, tincture of which is extremely usefil, as a which is the oxide of lead. By exposing it test of the presence of an acid or alkali. All to a higher degree of heat, it acquires a acids, and salts, with an excess of acid, yellow colour, forming a pigment named change the natural violet purple of linnus to “ massicot :” and by a still greater heat, and red; when reddened by an acid, the blue is causing the fame to play upon the surface, restored by an alkali. while the powder is constantly stirred, the
LITTORELLA, in botany, plaintain yellow colour becomes red, and the sub- shoreweed, a genus of the Monoecia Te. stance is then called minium, or red lead, trandria class and order. Natural order of which is the metal in a high degree of Plantagines, Jussieu. Essential character: oxydizement. By a particular management male, calyx four-leaved ; corolla four-cleft; of the beat, during the oxydizement of lead, stamina long : female, calyx none; corolla supplying it quickly with a current of air slightly, four-cleft ; styles long ; seed a nut. blown over the surface of the metal, the LITURGY, a name given to those set oxide is semi-vitrified, forming the soft forms of prayer which have been generally faky substance named litharge. By a used in the Christian church. Of these stronger heat, the lead may be vitrified, there are not a few ascribed to the apostles when it forins the glass of lead.
and fathers, but they are almost universally LITHOMARGE, in mineralogy, is a
allowed to be spurious. species of the clay genus, and divided by LIVER, in anatomy, a very large viscus, Werner and others into two sub-species, of a red colour, situated in the right hypociz. the friable and the indurated. Friable chondrium, and serving for the secretion lithomarge or rock-marrow is white and of the bile or gall. See ANATOMY ; Phy. massive; it occurs likewise as a crust, and disseminated. Its lustre is feebly glimmer- LIVER, a name formerly given to difing, is generally coherent, feels greasy, and ferent chemical combinations, because they adheres to the tongue. It is found in large were supposed to resemble the animal liver arantities in the Saxon tin veins. Indu. in colour only. Thus we had liver of rated lithonarge is commonly white, but sulphur, liver of antimony, &c. &c. See with many varieties of colour. The white SULPHURET. and red are uniform, but the other colours LIVERY of seisin, a delivery of possesare nsually disposed in clouded and spotted sion of lands, tenements, or other corporeal delineations. It is found in many parts of thing (for of things incorporeal there can be Germany, and occurs in veins of porphyry, no seisin) to one that has right. gneiss and serpentine ; in drusy cavities of Livery of seisin must be on the land in topaz rock, or nidular in basalt, amygdaloid the presence of two witnesses, and was and serpentine ; and in beds over coal. Ac- anciently used to give publicity to gilts or cording to Jameson, the terra-miraculosa, transfers of land. It is now necessary, in which is remarkable for the beauty of its order to complete a feoffment, and to make coloured delineations, is a variety of the in- good a lease for life or grant of the freehold durated lithomarge.
to commence at a future day. See Estate, LITHOPHILA, in botany, a genus of LEASE. Where there is land and a house, the Diandria Monogynia class and order. it must be made in the house, that being Essential character : calyx three-leaved; the principal. corolla three-petalled; nectary two-leaved. LIVERYMEN, of London, are a number There is only one species, a native of Navaza. of men chosen from among the freemen of
LITHOSPERMUM, in botany, grom- each company. Out of this body the comwell, a genus of the Pentandria Monogynia mon council, sheriff, and other superior ofclass and order. Natural order of Asperi. ficers for the government of the city are foliæ. Borragineæ, Jussieu. Essential cha- elected, and they alone have the privilege racter : calyx five parted ; corolla funnel of giving their votes for members of parliaform, perforated at the throat. There are ment; from which the rest of the citizens twelve species, natives of most parts of Eu- are excluded.
LIZARD. See LACERTA.
money was followed in 1712, 1713, and LOAM, in mineralogy, is a sub-species of 1714. In the latter year, though the intethe clay genus, and of a yellowish grey co- rest paid was equal to only 51. 78. 2d. per lour, frequently spotted yellow and brown. cent, on the sum borrowed, the premium It occurs massive, is dull and sometimes allowed was upwards of 34l. per cent.; but, weakly glimmering. It adheres pretty as peace was restored, and the legal rate of strongly to the tongue, feels greasy, and is interest had been reduced to 5 per cent. it not very heavy : it is generally mixed with seems that a larger premium was allowed, sand and gravel, and also iron ochre. Ac- for the sake of appearing to borrow at a mocording to Mr. Jameson it may be consi- derate rate of interest. dered as sandy potter's clay, mixed with In the reign of George I. the interest on mica and iron ocbre. See CLAY.
a considerable part of the public debts LOAN, in finance, money borrowed by was reduced to 5 per cent. and the few government for defraying the extraordinary loans that were raised were, comparatively, expences of the state.
of small amount ; that of the year 17 20, was The comparative advantage or disad- obtained at little more than 4 per cent. invantage of the terms, on which the public terest. loans have been obtained at different pe- About 1730 the current rate of interest riods, has frequently been misrepresented, was 34 per cent. ; and, in 1736, govern. either from misconception or for party ment was enabled to borrow at 3 per cent. purposes, though it is evidently a subject per annum. The extraordinary sums neon which the truth is very easily ascertain- cessary for defraying the expenses of the ed. The economy or extravagance of war, which began in 1739, were at first ob. every transaction of this kind depends on its tained from the sinking fund and the salt. correspondence or disagreement with the duties ; a payment from the Bank, in 1742, price of the public funds, and the current rendered only a small loan necessary in that rate of interest at which money could be year, which was obtained at little more obtained on good security at the time the than 3 per cent. interest. In the succeeding bargain was concluded ; and, consequently, years the following sums were raised by a loan, on which the highest interest is loans. paid, may have been obtained on the best
Sum borrowed. terms that could be made at the time it
£. £. 8. d. was negociated. The interest paid, how.
1743 1,800,000 3 8 4 ever, forms the real burthen of each loan to
1744 1,800,000 S 6 10 the country ; for, since the mode of buying 1745 2,000,000 up stock at the market price has been
1746 2,500,000 5 5 adopted in the redemption of the debt, the 1747 4,000,000 4 8 0 nominal capital that is created has become 1748 6,300,000 4 8 but of little importance, though certainly not to be wholly disregarded.
Loans of the seven years' war. The first loans differed materially from those of subsequent periods, in being raised
1756 2,000,000 3 12 0
1757 3,000,000 3 14 3 wholly on terminable anpuities; and in
1758 5,000,000 3 6 5 having a particular fund assigned for each
1759 loan, by the supposed adequateness or in
6,600,000 3 10 9 sufficiency of which the interest required by
1760 3,000,000 3 13 7 the lenders was frequently influenced, as
1 11 well as by other causes, which have since
1769 ......12,000,000 4 10 9 ceased to exist.
1763 3,500,000 During the reign of Queen Anne, loans
Loans of the American war. were chiefly raised on annuities for 99 years, till 1711 ; when, by the establisbment of
1776 2,000,000 39 the South Sea Company, a variety of debts 1777 5,000,000 were consolidated and made a permanent
6,000,000 4 18 7 capital, bearing 6 per cent. interest. About 1779 7,000,000
5 18 10 this period lotteries were also frequently
...,12,000,000 5 16 8 adopted for raising money for the public 1781 ..12,000,000 5 11 service, under which form a considerable 1782 ......13,500,000 5 18 premium was given, in addition to a high 1783 ......12,000,000 4 13 9 rate of interest. This mode of raising 1784 6,000,000 5, 6 11