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the Act of Settlement, statute 12 and 13 forejudged of life or limb, nor shall bis lands
William III. c. 2, whereby the crown was or goods be seized into the King's hands
limited to his present Majesty's illustrious contrary to the Great Charter, and the law
house ; and some new provisions were add- of the land. And again, by statute 28
ed at the same fortunate æra, for better Edward III. c. 3, that no man shall be put
securing our religion, laws, and liberties, to death without being brought to answer
which the statute declares to be the birth by due process of law.
right of the people of England;" according The right of personal liberty consists in
to the ancient doctrine of the common the power of loco-motion, of changing si-

tuation, or moving one's person to whatso-
Thus much for the declaration of our ever place one's own inclination may direct,
rights and liberties. The rights themselves without imprisonment or restraint, unless
thus defined by these several statutes, con- by due course of law. This right there is at
sist in a number of private immunities, present no occasion to enlarge upon. For the
which will appear, from what has been pre- provisions made by the laws of England to
mised, to be indeed no other than, either secure it. See Habeas corpus, False im-
that residuum of natural liberty,which is not prisonment, BAIL, Arrest, &c.
reqnired by the laws of society to be sacri- The absolute right of property, inherent
ficed to public convenience; or else those in every Englishnan, consists in the free
civil privileges which society bath engaged use, enjoyment, and disposal of all his ac-
to provide in lieu of the natural liberties so quisitions, without any controul or dimi.
given up by individuals. These, therefore, nution, save only by the laws of the land.
were formerly, either by inheritance or Another effect of this right of private
purchase; the rights of all mankind ; but in property is, that no subject of England can
most other countries of the world, being be constrained to pay any aids or taxes,
now more or less debased or destroyed, even for the defence of the realm, or the
they at present may be said to remain, in a support of the government, but such as are
peculiar and emphatical manner, the rights imposed by his own consent, or that of his
of the people of England.

representatives in parliament. By statuto These rights may be reduced to three 25 Edward I. c. 5, 6, it is provided, that the principal or primary articles :

King shall not take any aids or tasks, but The right of personal security. The right by the common assent of the realm. And of personal liberty. The right of private what that common assent is, is more fully property.

explained by statute 34 Edward I. statute The right of personal security consists in 4, c. 1; which enacts, that no talliage or a person's legal and uninterrupted enjoy- aid shall be taken, without the assent of ment of his life, bis limbs, his body, his the Archbishops, Bishops, Earls, Barons, health, and his reputation. The enjoyment Knights, Burgesses, and other freemen of of this right is secured to every snbject by the land : and again, by statute 14 Edw. III. the various laws made for the punishment of statute 2. c. 1. the Prelates, Earls, Barons, those injuries, by which it is any way vio. and Commons, Citizens, Burgesses, and lated ; for a particular detail of which, see Merchants, shall not be charged to make Assault, HOMICIDE, MAIHEM, LIBEL, any aid, if it be not by the common assent NUISANCE, &c.

of the great men and commons in parlia. The words of the Great Charter, c. 29, ment. And as this fundamental law had are, “ Nullus liber homo capiatur, impriso- been shamefully evaded, under many pre. netur, vel aliquo modo destruatur, nisi per ceding princes, by compulsive loans and legale judicium parium suorum ant per le benevolences, extorted without a real and gem terræ.” No freeman shall be taken, im voluntary consent, it was made an article in prisoned, or any way destroyed, unless hy the the petition of rights, 3 Charles I. that no lawful judgment of his peers, or by the law man shall be compelled to yield any gift, of the land; which words, “ aliquo modo loan, or benevolence, tax, or such like destruatur,” according to Coke, include a charge, without common consent by act of prohibition, not only of killing or maiming, parliament. And, lastly, by the Bill of but also of torturing, (to which our laws are Rights, statute i William and Mary, statute strangers), and of every oppression by co. 2, c. 2, it is declared, that levying money lour of an illegal authority. And it is enacted for or to the use of the crown, by pretence by stat. 5 Edward III. c. 9, that no man of prerogative, without grant of parlia. shall be attached by any accusation, nor ment, or for longer time, or in other man.

her than the same is or shall be granted, is And by the Bill of Rights it is declared, illegal.

that the pretended power of suspending or The above is a short view of the princi. dispensing with laws, or the execution of pal absolute rights which appertain to every laws, by regal authority, without consent of Englishman ; and the constitution has pro. parliament, is illegal. Not only the subvided for the security of their actual enjoy- stantial part, or judicial decisions of the ment, by establishing certain other auxiliary, law, but also the formal part, or method of subordinate rights, which serve principally proceeding, cannot be altered but by paras out-works or barriers to protect and llament; for, if once those outworks were maintain those principal rights inviolate. demolished, there would be an inlet to all These are,

manner of innovation in the body of the law The constitution, powers, and privileges itself. The King, it is true, may erect new of parliament. The limitation of the King's courts of justice; but then they must proprerogative. The right of applying to ceed arcording to the old established forms courts of justice for redress of injuries. The of the conimon law. For which reason it is right of petitioning the King or parliament declared in the statute, 16 Charles I. c. 10, The right of having arms for defence. upon the dissolution of the court of star

This last auxiliary right of the subjects of chamber, that neither his Majesty nor his having arms for their defence, suitable to Privy Council have any jurisdiction, power, their condition and degree, and such as are or authority, by English bill, petition, arti. allowed by law, is declared by the Bill of cles, or libel, (which were the course of Rights; and it is, indeed, a public allowance, procceding in the Star-chamber borrowed under due restrictions of the natural right of from the civil law), or by any other arbitrary resistance and self-preservation, when the way whatsoever, to examine or draw into sanctions of society and laws are found question, determine or dispose of the lands insufficient to restrain the violence of op- or goods of any subjects of this kingdom ; pression.

but that the same ought to be tried and deAs to the first and second of the subordi- termined in the ordinary courts of justice, nate rights above mentioned. See PARI.IA. and by course of law. MENT, King

The right of petitioning the King, or eiWith respect to the third and fourth, ther house of parliament, for the redress of some short information is here subjoined. grievances, appertains to every individual

Since the law is, in England, the supreme in cases of any uncommon injury, or inarbiter of every man's life, liberty, and pro- fringement of the rights already particulaperty, courts of justice must at all times be rized, which the ordinary course of law is open to the subject, and the law be duly ad- too defective to reach. The restrictions, ministered therein. The emphatical words of for some there are, which are laid upon this Magna Charta, c. 29, spoken in the person right of petitioning in England, while they of the King, who, in judgment of law (says promote the spirit of peace, are no check Sir Edward Coke) is ever present, and re- upon that of liberty; care only must be peating them in all his courts, are these, taken, lest, under the pretence of petition“Nulli vendemus, nulli negabimus, aut dif- ing, the subject be guilty of any riot or tuferemus rectum vel justitiam.” To none mult; as happened in the opening of the will we sell, to none will we deny, or delay, memorable parliament in 1640. And 10 right or justice.

prevent this, it is provided by statute, It is also ordained by Magna Charta, 13 Charles II. stat. 1. c. 5, that no petition c. 29, that no freeman shall be outlawed, to the King, or either house of parliament, that is, put out of the protection and benefit for any alteration in church or state, shall of the law, but according to the laws of the be signed by above twenty persons, unless land. By statutes 2 Edward III. c. 8. the matter thereof be approved by three 11 Richard II. e. 10, it is enacted, that no justices of the peace, or the major part of commands or letters shall be sent under the grand jury in the county ; and in Lonthe Great Seal, or the Little Seal, the Sig. don by the Lord Mayor, Aldermen, and net or Privy Seal, in disturbance of the Common Council ; nor shall any petition law ; or to disturb or delay common right, be presented by more than ten persons at a and thongh such commandments should time. But under these regulations, it is decome, the judges shall not cease to do clared by the Bill of Rights, that the subject right. This is also made a part of their hath a right to petition ; and that all compath, by statute 11 Edward III. stat. 4. mitments and prosecutions for such petj.

tioning are illegal. The sanction of the serpent; but this library was burnt by order grand jury may be given either at the as

of Leo Isaurus. The most celebrated lisizes or quarter sessions ; the punishment braries of ancient Rome were the Ulpian for offending against the stat. 13 Charles II. and the Palatine, and in modern Rome, that not to exceed a fine of 1001. and three of the Vatican; the foundation of the Vatimonth's imprisonment. Upon the trial of can library was laid by Pope Nicholas, in Lord George Gordon, the Court of King's the year 1450; it was afterwards destroyed Bench declared, that they were clearly of in the sacking of Rome, by the constable of opinion, that this statute was not in any de Bourbon, and restored by Pope Sixtus V. gree affected by the Bill of Rights.

and has been considerably enriched with In the several articles above enumerated, the ruins of that of Heidelberg, plundered by consist the rights, or as they are more fre. Count Tilly in 1682. One of the most com. quently termed, the liberties, of English- plete libraries in Europe, is that erected by men. Liberties more generally talked of Cosmo de Medicis; though it is now exceeded than thoroughly understood ; and yet highly by that of the French King, which was benecessary to be perfectly known and consi- gun by Francis I. augmented by Cardinal dered by every man of rank or property, Richelieu, and completed by M. Colbert. lest his ignorance of the points whereon The Emperor's library at Vienna, according they are founded, should burry him into to Lambecius, consists of 80,000 volumes, faction and licentiousness on the one band, and 15,940 curious medals. The Bodleian or a pusillanimous indifference, and crimi library at Oxford exceeds that of any uninal submission, ou the other. And all these versity in Europe, and even those of any of rights and liberties it is our birthright to the sovereigns of Europe, except those of the enjoy entire, unless where the laws of our Emperors of France and Germany, which country have laid them under necessary

are each of them older by a hundred years. restraints. So that this review of our si- It was first opened in 1602, and has since tuation may fully justify the observation of been increased by a great number of bene. a learned French author, (of former times), factors : indeed the Medicean library, that who has professed that the English is the of Bessarion at Venice, and those just menonly nation in the world where political tioned, exceed it in Greek manuscripts, but or civil liberty is the direct end of its con- it outdoes them all in oriental manuscripts; stitution.

and as to printed books, the Ambrosian at LIBRA, the balance, in astronomy, one Milan, and that of Wolfenbuttle, are two of the twelve signs of the zodiac, the sixth of the most famous, and yet both are infein order ; so called because when the sun rior to the Bodleian. The Cotton library enters it, the days and nights are equal, as consists wholly of manuscripts, particularly if weighed in a balance. See ASTRONOMY. of such as relate to the history and antiqui

LIBRA, in Roman antiquity, a pound ties of England; which, as they are now weight; also a coin, equal in value to twenty bound, make about 1000 volumes. denarii.

In Edinburgh there is a good library beLIBRARY, an edifice or apartment des. longing to the university, well furnished tined for holding a considerable number of with books, which are kept in good order, books placed regularly on shelves; or, the and cloistered up with wire doors, that none books themselves lodged in it.

but the keeper can open; a method much The first who erected a library at Athens more commodious than the multitude of was the tyrant Pisistratus, which was trans-' chains used in other libraries. There is also ported by Xerxes into Persia, and after- a noble library of books and manuscripts wards brought back by Seleucus Nicanor belonging to the gentlemen of the law. to Athens. Plutarch says, that under Eu- LIBRATION, in astronomy, an appamenes there was a library at Pergamus that rent irregularity of the moon's motion, contained 200,000 books. That of Ptolemy whereby she seems to librate about her Philadelphus, according to A. Gellins, con- axis, sometimes from the east to the west, tained 700,000, which were all burnt by and now and then from the west to the Cæsar's soldiers. Constantine and his suc- east; so that the parts in the western limb cessors erected a magnificent one at Con. or margin of the moon sometimes recede stantinople, which in the eighth century con- from the centre of the disc, and sometimes tained 300,000 volumes, and among the rest move towards it, by which means they beone in which the Iliad and Odyssey were come alternately visible and invisible to the written in letters of gold, on the guts of a inhabitants of the earth. See Moon.

LIBRATION of the earth, is sometimes used such instance no confidence is destroyed, to denote the parallelism of the earth’s axis, because none was reposed; no promise to in every part of its orbit round the sun. speak the truth is violated, because none

LICHEN, in botany, a genus of the was given, or understood to be given. 2. Cryptogamia Algæ class and order. Natu. Where the person you speak to has no rig:it ral order of Algæ. Generic character: male to know the truth, or more properly where flowers; vesicles conglomerated, extremely little or no inconveniency results from the small, crowded or scattered on the disk, want of confidence in such cases; as where margin, or tips of the fronds : female flowers you tell a falsehood to a madman for his own on the same, or on a distinct plant; recep- advantage; to a robber, to conceal your tacle roundish, fattish, convex, concave, property ; to an assassin, to defeat or to di. subrevolute affixed to the margin, often vert him from his purpose. It is upon this differing from the frond in colour, within principle, that, by the laws of war, it is alcontaining the seeds disposed in rows. This lowed to deceive an enemy by feints, false is a very numerous genus; many of the spe- colours, spies, false intelligence, and the cies are of considerable use, particularly in like; but, by no means, in treaties, truces, the art of dying. L. rocella, or orchall, as signals of capitulation, or surrender: and an article of commerce, is of great impor- the difference is, that the former suppose tance, being extremely valuable for dying hostilities to continue, the latter are calcuwool or silk any shade of purple or crimson. lated to terminate or suspend them. Many L. onplialodes will dye wool of a brown people indulge in serious discourse a habit of reddish colour, or a dull but durable crim- fiction and exaggeration, in the accounts son, paler and more lasting than that of they give of themselves, of their acquaintorchall. L. islandicus is used by the Ice. ance, or of the extraordinary things which landers in their broth; they also dry it, and they have seen or heard ; and so long as the make it into bread, &c.

facts they relate are indifferent, and their Lichen, in medicine, a tetter or ring- narratives, though false, are inoffensive, it worm, a cutaneous disease, defined by Dr. may seem a superstitious regard to truth to Willan, “

an extensive eruption of papillæ censure them merely for truth's sake. Yet affecting adults, connected with internal the practice ought to be checked : for, in disorder usually terminating in scurf, recur- the first place, it is almost impossible to rent, not contagious.” The Doctor has pronounce beforehand with certainty conmentioned five varieties.

cerning any lie, that it is inoffensive, or to say LICULA, in botany, a genus of the Ap. wliat ill consequences may result from a lie pendix Palmæ. Natural order of Palms. apparently inoffensive: and, in the next Essential character: flowers all hermaphro- place, the habit, when once formed, is easily dite; calyx and corolla three-parted; nec

extended to serve the designs of malice or tary sertiform; drupe. There is but one

interest; like all habits, it spreads indeed species, viz. L. spinosa, a native of Macassar of itself. Pious frauds, as they are improand Celebes, where the inhabitants make perly enough called, pretended inspirations, much use of the narrow leaves for tobacco forged books, counterfeit miracles, are impipes, and the broad ones for wrapping up positions of a more serious nature. It is fruit, &c.; the wood is of little use, not possible that they may sometimes, though being durable.

seldom, have been set up and encouraged LIE, in morals, denotes a criminal breach with a design to do good; but the good of veracity. Dr. Paley, in treating of this they aim at requires that the belief of them subject, observes, that there are falsehoods shouid be perpetual, which is hardly poswhich are not lies; that is, which are not sible; and the detection of the fraud is sure criminal : and there are lies which are not to disparage the credit of all pretensions of literally and directly false.

the same nature. Christianity has suffered 1. Cases of the first class are those : more injury from this cause than from all 1. Where no one is deceived; as, for in- other causes put together. stance, in parables, fables, novels, jests, II. As there may be falsehoods which are tales to create mirth, or ludicrous embellish- not lies, so there may be lies without literal ments of a story, in which the declared de- or direct falsehood. An opening is always sign of the speaker is not to inform, but to left for this species of prevarication, when divert; compliments in the subscription of the literal and grammatical signification of a a letter; a prisoner's pleading not guilty; sentence is different from the popular and an advocate asserting the justice, or his customary meanivg. It is the wilful deceit belief of the justice of his client's cause. In that makes the lie; and we wilfully deceive when our expressions are not true in the nant, during the absence of the captain, is sense in which we believe the hearer appre- charged with the command of the ship, as hends them. Besides, it is absurd to con- also the execution of whatever orders le tend for any sense of words in opposition to may have reccived from the commander, usage; for all senses of all words are found. relating to the King's service. The lieute. ed upon usage, and upon nothing else. Or nant who commands the watch at sea, keeps a man may act a lie; as by pointing his a list of all the officers and men thereto befinger in a wrong direction when a traveller longing, in order to muster them when he inquires of him liis road, or when a trades. judges it expedient, and report to the cap. man shuts up his windows to induce his cre- tain the names of those who are absent from ditors to believe that he is abroad; for to all their duty. During the night-watch he ocmoral purposes, and therefore as to veracity, casionally visits the lower decks, or sends speech and action are the same; speech thither a careful officer to see that the pro. being only a mode of action. See Paley's per centinels are at their duty, and that Moral Philosophy.

there is no disorder amongst the men ; no LIEUTENANT, an officer who supplies tobacco smoked between decks, nor any the place, and discharges the office of a su- fire or candles burning there, except the perior in his absence. Of these, some are lights which are in lanterns, under the care civil, as the lords-lieutenants of kingdoms, of a proper watch, for particular purposes. and the lords- lieutenants of counties; and He is expected to be always on deck in his others are military, as the lieutenant.general, watch, as well to give the necessary orders lieutenant-general of the artillery, lieutenant: with regard to trimming the sails, and su. colonel, lieutenant of artillery of the Tower, perintending the navigation, as to prevent lieutenants of horse, foot, ships of war, &c. any noise and confusion ; but he is never to

LIEUTENANT, lurd, of Ireland, is proper. change the ship's course without the cap. ly a viceroy, and has all the state and gran- tain's directions, unless to avoid an imme. deur of a king of England, except being diate danger. In time of battle, the lieuteserved upon the knee. He has the power nant is particularly to see that all the nen of making war and peace, of bestowing are present at their quarters, where they all the offices under the government, of have been previously stationed, according dubbing knight, and of pardoning all crimes to the regulations made by the captain. except high treason; he also calls and He orders and exhorts them every where to prorogues the parliament, but no bill can perform their duty, and acquaints the cap. pass without the royal assent. He is as. tain at all other times of the misbehaviour sisted in his government by a privy-coun. of any persons in the ship, and of wliatever cil ; and, on his leaving the kingdom, he ap. else concerns the service or discipline. points the lords of the regency, who govern LIFE, duration of. The uncertainty of in his absence.

the continuance of human life, bas been a LIEUTENANTS, lords, of counties, are of. fruitful source of serious reflections not ficers, who, upon any invasion or rebellion, only to divines and moralists of all ages, but have power to raise the nilitia, and to give occasionally to every individual of the hu. commissions to colonels and other officers, man race. Independent of the host of fatal to arm and form them into regiments, troops, diseases which are continually angmenting and companies. Under the lords-lieutenants, the list of their victims, the frequently ocare deputy-lieutenants, who have the same curring instances of persons apparently in power ; these are chosen by the lords-lieu- full possession of all the requisites to the tenants out of the principal gentlemen of continuance of life, being unexpectedly coneach county, and presented to the King for signed to the grave, would cause men to his approbation.

think life more uncertain than they geneLIEUTENANT generul, is an officer next in rally appear to consider it, did not the exrank to the general; in battle, he com- perience of living from one day to another, mands one of the wings; in a march, a de. contirmed by the whole of their past lives, tachment, or a flying camp; also a quarter, impress them with the expectation of conat a siege, or one of the attacks, when it is tinuing so to do, while they do not feel any his day of duty.

known impediment to it; and it is pecessa. LIEUTENANT of a ship of war, the officer ry to the well being of society that this idea next in rank and power to the captain ; of should in general preponderate. But as these there are several in a large ship, who the property or income from which many take precedence according to the dates of persons derive their subsistence depends on their first commissions. The oldest lieute- the continuance of their life, or that of

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