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AR decided upon the strict interpretation of the sacra and Marseilles, have long had presses in constant AR-
MENIA. mental words. They believe in an intermediate state, employment at Echmiyadzin, Constantinople, and MENIA

but not in purgatory; and they pay the same super- Venice. The Armenian convent on the island of St.
NIAN stitious regard to the pictures of the saints as the Lazarus, near the latter place, has a printing office
MONKS. other Christians of the east.

They keep many and which was established in the beginning of the last STATE rigid fasts, and some festivals. Christmas they cele- century, from which, besides commentaries and conbrate on the 6th of January. Their church govern- troversial writings, there have issued grammars, dicment is episcopal, and their clergy is subject to the tionaries, mathematical, philosophical, geographical

patriarch, who resides at the great monastery of Ech- and historical works; most of them, however, are
miyadzin, about 10 miles distant from Erivān. That modern compilations.
place is also called Uch kilīsèh, and may be consi The best account of Armenian literature is to be found
dered as the head quarters of the religion and litera• in Cirbied and Martin's Recherches curieuses sur l'Histoire
ture of Armenia.

Ancienne de l'Asie, Paris 1806, and Martin's Mémoires
The Armenian language is harsh and rough, and Historiques et Géographiques sur l'Arménie, Paris 1918.
has adopted some foreign words and idioms ; it may No less than 30 historical writers are enumerated in
be justly considered as dead, for it is not more intel- these works, and if half that number could be at all
ligible to the unlearned, than the ancient Greek is to compared with the faithful and intelligent Moses of
the present natives of Greece.. It has the peculiarity Chorene, it would be fully sufficient to renove the
of substituting gh for l, and converting Paulus into stigma which has been affixed upon the Armenians
Böghös. It abounds in inflections, and in the number considered as an illiterate people. There is likewise
of its coses is exceeded by no language but that of the another circumstance which gives a considerable de-
Laplanders. The modification of the sense in verbs, gree of interest to the learning of the Armenians;
and the order of the words in a sentence seem to and that is their having translations of Greek writers

, have been influenced by a desire to copy Greek mo of whose works the original is lost. Such, for exdels. The language was brought to its greatest de- ample, is the Chronicle of Eusebius, of which a Latin gree of perfection by Mesrob and his disciples in the translation by Zohrab and Mai, was published at fourth and fifth centuries, and in the writings of the Milan, in 1818, and the Armenian original with anolearned, is still preserved unaltered. The best work ther Latin Version by Dr. Aucher, of Angorn, at the upon it is Schræder's Thesaurus Lingua Armeniaca, convent in the island of St. Lazarus in the same year. Amsterdam, 1711, 4to. and Bellaud's Essai sur la langue The complete works of Philo Judæus are also extant Armenienne, Paris 1812, one of the most modern. in an Armenian version, and would be published by

The extreme oppression under which the Arme- the members of the convent in St. Lazarus, if sufinians have lived for so many centuries must natu cient encouragement were held out. The authors from rally have retarded their progress in literature. Als whose works the best information respecting this most the only book in use among them, except the country may be obtained are Tavernier, Chardin, Scriptures, of which Sir P. Ricaut seems to have heard, Tournefort, Güldenstädt, Reineggs, Sauvebæuf, Yowas a collection of lives of the saints, and yet the rier, Macdonnald Kinnier, Rennell, Rousseau, Notice historical and geographical works of Moses of Cho- Historique sur la Perse, Marseille, 1818. Tancoigne rene must have been in the hands of the more learned, Lettres sur la Perse, Paris, 1819. Dupré L'oyage ex and the history of Arekel was actually printed ten Perse, Paris, 1819. Sir W. Ouseley's Travels, vol. iii

. years before his book appeared. The Armenians have Zadour, Etat actuel de la Perse, Paris, 1817. Sir long been aware of the advantage of printing, and be- Robert Ker Porter's Travels, Lond. 1821. sides the books printed at Rome, Amsterdam, Paris,

ARMENIAN MONKS. The smaller number are ish Armenia is about 40, and the number of monks lay brethren, who follow the severe rule of St. An- about 200. Their revenues are very small, and their thony, the Hermit, in all its rigour. They live as discipline extremely rigid. There are also 15 nunhermits even in their monasteries, and are found prin- neries in Persian Armenia. There is a convent of cipally on the confines of Persia. The greater number Armenian monks of the order of St. Basil at Jeru follow the rule of St. Basil, but not rigidly. Their salem, which has been richly endowed by the libemonasteries are generally in towns or places of pil- rality of the pilgrims. Most if not all the monks of grimage. The most celebrated is that of Ejmiyazin, the united or conforming Armenian church (i. e. chat or Etchmeazin, i. e. the Descent of the Son of God, part of it which acknowledges the supremacy of not far from Erivān, the seat of the Catholicus or pa- Rome,) are branches of the order of St. Dominic. triarch of the Armenian church; where there is also Helyot Hist. des Ordres Religieur, i. c. 5. an ecclesiastical seminary and a printing establish ARMENIENSTADT, in Hungarian Szamos Urd, ment. See ARMENIA. There are three churches near pronounced Samosh Uïvar; in Walonian Naissa each other at this place, whence it receives its name Gyerli, (Nyimtin Jerli); in Latin Armenopolis, a of Uch kilēseh ; and most of the vertabets or doctors handsome town in Transylvania . (Siebenbürgen), in divinity graduated here. The monastery has cells the county of Szolnock, (Solnok). It has all the for 80 monks ; but seldom more than 50 occupants. privileges of a city, and is inhabited by 400 Arme The whole nuinber of convents in Persian and Turk- nian families, rated at 400,000 gulden. Grazing and


ARME- tanning are the trades principally carried on by them. £187. Is. Ild. It is 4 miles E. N. E. from Don- ARNALL.
NIEN. There are also many Hungarians, (majars,) Germans, caster.
STADT. and Vallachians. The streets and houses are built ARNALL, in the north division of the Wapentake

with remarkable regularity. It is covered by a castle of Broxtow, county of Nottingham; a discharged

built by Cardinal Martinuzzi, and enlarged by Prince Vicarage, valued in the King's Books at £7.178. Sd.;
George Rákóczy, (Ra kotchy,) which is now used Patron, the Duke of Devonshire. The resident popu-
as a prison for heinous offenders. Rumy in Ersch's lation of this parish in 1801, was 2769. The money

raised by the parish rates in 1803, was £860. 16s. 10d.,
ARMILLARY, armilla, a brace for the arm; at 3s. 9d. in the pound. It is 32 miles N. by E. from

ARMIN, in the lower division of the Wapentake ARNCLIFFE, in the west division of the Wapen-
of Osgoldcross, West Riding, county of York, in the take of Staincliffe and Ewcross, West Riding, county
parish of Snaith ; a Chapel, with the Chapel of Snaith, of York, in the parish of Arncliffe ; a discharged
of the certified value of £7.; Patrons, Earl Percy, Vicarage, valued in the King's Books at £13. 6s. 8d.;
and E. Starkie, Esq., alternately. The resident popu- Patron, University College, Oxford. The resident
lation of this township in 1801, was 391. The money poj lation of this township in 1801, was 241. The
raised by the parish rates in 1803, was £350. ls. 01.., money raised by the parish rates in 1803, was
at 4s. 4.. in the pound. It is 31 miles S. W. by S. £134. 45. 8d. It is 104 miles N. E. from Settle.
from Ilowden.

ARNESBY, in the hundred of Guthlaxton, county

or AMERINGILL, in the hun- of Leicester ; a discharged Vicarage, valued in the
dred of Henstead, county of Norfolk; a Curacy, of King's Books at £5. 16s. 8il.; Patron, John Sher-
the certified value of £16.; Patrons, the Dean and win, Esq. The resident population of this parish is
Chapter of Norwich. The resident population of this 321. The money raised by the parish rates in 1863,
parish in 180l, was 81. The money raised by the was £385. ls. l., at 6s. 511. in the pound. It is
parish rates in 1803, was £79. 7s. 6., at 3s. 4d. in 8 miles S. hy E. from Leicester.
the pound, on the rack rental. It is 3 miles S. E. by ARNHEIM, or ARNHEIM, the capital of the Dutch
S. from Norwich.

province of Guelderland, and of the quarter of Veluwe
ARMINIANISM, see ECCLESIASTICAL HISTORY. in particular. It was, before the late changes, the

ARMIPOTENT, arma, arms; and potens, able; meeting-place of the States, and the seat of the courts able, strong, powerful in arms; warlike.

of justice and exchequer. It was in a former age the And dounward from an hill under a bent,

residence of the dukes of Guelderland, and afterwards Ther stood the temple of Mars armipolent,

of the governors of the province. It lies at the foot Wrought all of burned stele, of which th' entree

of a hill near the Rhine, 3 miles from the spot where Was longe and streite, and gastly for to see.

the Yssel branches off from that river. It is neatly Chaucer. The Knightes Tale, v. i. p. 79.

built, and its fortifications were greatly enlarged by Beneath the low'ring brow, and on a bent,

the famous Coehorn in 1702. It is well situated for
The temple stood of Mars armipotent :

trade, and vas a member of the confederacy of the
The frame of burnish'd steel, that cast a glare
From far, and seem'd to thaw the freezing air.

Hanse towns. Population in 1796, 10,080. 30 miles
A streight, long entry, to the temple led,

E. of Utrecht, and 45 S. E. of Amsterdam. Long. 5°
Blind with high walls, and horrour over head.

37' E. Lat. 52° N.

Dryden. ARNHEIM Bay, a spacious bay at the north west ARMISTICE, arma, arms; and sisto, to stay, to extremity of the gulf of Carpentaria, containing an cease ; a cessation from arms, from war ; a suspen area of above 100 square miles, fit for the reception sion of arms.

of shipping. The shores are low; wood is plentiful

Many reasons of prudence might incline the king of England to upon them, and fish may be taken on the coast.
think this armistice more desireable than a continuance of the war. ore is found on the flat ground, which is covered with

Lyttelton. vegetation. Kangaroos are abundant, and parrots are
This made an armistice (that is, speaking with regard to my seen in the woods. The entrance of the bay lies in
uncle Toby,—but, with respect to Mrs. Wadman, a vacancy)-of 12° 11' S. lat. and 136° 3' E. long.
almost eleven years.

Sterne's Tristram Shandy.

ARNICA, in Botany, a genus of plants, class Syn

genesia, order Polygamia Superflua.
ARMITAGE, in the south division of the hundred Generic character. Receptacle naked. Pappus
of Ofow, county of Stafford; a Curacy, of the clear simple, divisions of the calyx equal, florets of the ray
yearly value of £20. 10$. ; Patron, the Prebendary of frequently containing abortive stamina.
Handesacre, in the Cathedral Church of Lichfield. The best known species of this genus is the A. Mon-
The resident population of this parish in 1801, (in- tana, or Leopard's Bane.
cluding the township of Handesacre), was 464. The A. Montana, leaves ovate, entire, stem leaves oppo
money raised by the parish_rates in 1803, was site, in pairs.
£191. Ss. 61. It is 21 miles E.S. E. from Rudgeley. This is a common plant in the alpine parts of Ger-

many, in Sweden, Lapland, and Switzerkind. The
ARMTHORPE, in the lower division of the Wa- flowers and the root have been used in medicine, and
pentake of Strafforth and Tickhill, West Riding, still retain a place in the pharmacopeias of Edinburgh
county of York, a Rectory, valued in the King's and Dublin, they are stimulating and slightly aro-
Books at £8. 188. 9d. ; Patron, the King. The re matic, and have chiefly been given in cases of paralysis
sident population of this parish in 1801, was 273. The in the form of infusion.
money raised by the parish rates in 1803, was ARNO, the principal river in Tuscany, has its source

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in the hill of Falterona, one of the Appenines, and after Of other strewings, and aromatizers, to enrich our sallets we arome traversing the grand duchy in its whole breadth from have already spoken.

TICE east to west, loses itself in that part of the Mediterranean called the Tuscan sea. It is increased in its

All who bear the name course by a multitude of small rivers, divides the city

Of Cappadocians, swell the Syrian bost;

With those who gather from the fragrant shrub
of Florence into two unequal parts, and enters the sea

The aromatic balsam, and extract
12 miles N. from Leghorn, and 4 below Pisa, to which Its milky juice along the lovely side
place it is navigable for small vessels.—The Arno for Of Jordan.
merly gave name to an extensive and populous de-

Glover's Leonidas, book it.
partment in the French empire, which was formed

AROMATICS, in Medicine, a term applied to a
out of the north-eastern part of the grand duchy. It class of medicines, which have a grateful spicy scent,
was divided into the arrondissements of Florence, and an agreeable pungent taste, as cloves, cinnamon,
Aroyzo, and Pistoja. Florence was the chief city. &c. Their peculiar flavour resides in their essential
The population amounted to about 600,000. Long. oil, and rises in distillation with water or spirit.
10° 16' E. Lat. 43° 40 N.

ARONA, a town of Italy, in the Upper Novarese,
Arno, Civita D', a town of Italy, in the States

or Piedmontese, part of the county of Anghiera. It of the Church, district of Perugiano. Three miles is seated on the west bank of the Lago Maggiore, E. N. E. of Perugiano.

opposite the town of Anghiera. Here is an old castle, ARNON, in ancient Geography, a river of Palestine the hereditary governor of which was the eldest of the which rose among the mountains of Gilead, in family of Borromai, to whom the town belonged as a Arabia, and traversing the desert, discharged itself fief. In this castle was born the famous Carolus Borinto the Dead Sea. By its course it divided the Amo

romæus, whom the Catholics have canonised, and rites from the Moabites.

whose pretended miracles have drawn many thousand ARNOPOGON, in Botany, a genus of plants, pilgrims to the place of his birth. In order to conclass Syngenesia, order Polygamia Aqualis.

vert it into an establishment similar to that of the Generic character. Receptacle naked, pappus plu- holy house of Loretto, the room in which the saint mose, stipitate, calyx of one leaf eight-partite turbi

was born was moved to a neighbouring eminence, nate.

and enclosed in a splendid church, which contains English name, Sheep's beard, a genus allied to different chapels, a seminary, and a large metal statue Tragopogon, or Goat's Beard, there are three species, of its patron saint. The hill is hence called Monte natives of the south of Europe.

di San Carlo. The position of the town on the lake is
AROMA’TICK, Apwua, of uncertain etymology favourable for trade, and the adjoining country
AROMATICAL, Vossius prefers Apwua, ab apı, par- abounds in excellent wine. Population 4000. 17
AROMATICKS, ticula avšntik, et otw, sive oồun. miles N. N. W. of Novar. Long. 8° 32' E. Lat. 45°
AROMATIZE, Apwpu, proprie sit, quod bonum 46' N.
ARO'MATIZER. spirat odorem.

Arona, or ARONE, a small river of Italy, in the Aromatick is commonly appiied to that which is States of the Church, which issues from the lake of spicy; smelling of, scented with, spices.

Bracciano, and falls into the Mediterranean.
My chåber is strowed with mirre & insence

On round. It. ronda Fr.
With sote sauoring alos, and with sinamone

ARO’und. adv.
Breathing an aromatike redolence

from rota, a wheel. In A. S. (says Tooke) the place
Surmounting Olibane, in any mans dome.
Chaucer. Remedie of Loue, fol. 324. c. 1.

of this preposition is supplied by Hweil, and On

Ver hath made the plesant field
Many sereral odours yeeld,

The baron came to the grene wode,

Wi mickle dule and care,
Odours aromatical;
From faire Astra's cherrie lip

And there he first spied Gill Morice
Sweeter smells for ever skip,

Kameing his zellow hair ;

That sweetly wav'd around his face,
They in pleasyng passen all.

That face beyond compare.
William Browne. Praise to his Mistress.

Gill Morice in Percy's Reliques, F. 3.
Unto converted Jews who are of the same seed, no man im-

Around him all the planets, with this our earth, single, or with puteth this unsavoury odor; as though aromatized by their con

attendants, continually move; seeking to receive the blessing of version, they lost their scent with their religion, and smelt no

his light, and lively warmth.
longer then they savoured of the Jew.
Brown's Vulgar Errors.

Shaftsbury. Characteristick.

No war, or battel's sound
But Sancho, thou canst not denie me one thing ; when thou

Was heard the world around :
didst approach her, didst thou not feele a most odiriferous smell,

The idle spear and shield were high up hung.
an aromatical fragancy, an–I cannot tell what,-so pleasing, as

Milton. On the Nativity.
I know not how to term it.
Shelton's Trans. Don Quix.

Their embryon atoms; they around the flag

Of each his faction, in their several clanns,
Cloris. O that these dews rose-water were for thee,

Light arm’d or heavy, sharp, smooth, swift or slow,
These mists perfumes that hang upon these thicks;

Swarm populous, unnumber'd as the sands.
And that the winds were all aromatics,

Milton's Par. Last, boos i
Which if my wish could make them they should be.
Drayton's Nymph. iv.

The goddess heard, and bade the muscs raise

The golden trumpet of eternal praise ;
Drink the first cup at supper hot, and half an hour before supper From pole to pole the winds diffuse the sound,
something hot and aromaticed.

That fills the circuit of the world around.

Pope. The Temple of Fame

AROUNDprep} ronde, from the Lat. rotandusa

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AROUND. The whole atınosphere glowed, and every thing around was in a Begnawed thee; be thou gnawed, eaten, consumed; AROYNT. state of perfect stagnation, not a leaf was in motion.

similar to the common malediction-a plague take AROYNT. Gilpin's Tuur to the Lakes of Cumberland, &c. thee ; a pock light upon thee. See Ronyon, Roynish, BÚSE.

ARQUEThe goodness of God, through his creatures, as his instruments, and Royne. is every where spread around,

Gilpin's Sermons.

A saylor's wife had chesnuts in her lappe,

And mnouncht, and mouncht, and mouncht:
He who could have sunmoned twelve legions of angels to form

Giue me, quoth J. a flaming guard around his person, or have called down fire from

Aroynt thee, Witch, the rumpe-fed Ronyon cryes. heaven on the guilty city of Jerusalem, on his false accusers, his

Shakespeare's Macb. fol. 132. unrighteous judge, the executioners, and the insulting rabble, made no resistance when his body was fastened to the cross by the

ARPEGGI, ARPEGGIATURA, in Music, is a mark Roman soldiers.

which signifies that the notes must be struck one Horsley's Sermons.

after the other, in the style of harp music. Arpeggio AROUSE. Perhaps formed upon the past participle

accompaniment, consists chiefly of the notes of the arose, of the verb arise.

several chords taken in returning successions.
The king aroused thus,

ARPI, in ancient Geography, a town of Italy, in
More heedfullye beheld them,

Apulia, between Luceria and Sipontum. It is now in
Till a crimson blush

ruins, but was a populous city in the time of Livy,
His remembrance crost.
The King of France's Daughter. Percy's Reliques, v.3.

and supplied Annibal with 3000 soldiers.

ARPINO, in Geography, formerly Arpinum, a town
This is the wine

of Naples. It is chiefly remarkable as having been
Which, in former time,
Each wise one of the magi

the birth place of C. Marius and Cicero. The villa of
Was wont to arouse

the latter, of which so agreeable an account is given, In a frolick bouse,

in his letters to Atticus, ii. 11, is now called the villa Recubans sub tegmine fagi.

of St. Dominic, and is possessed by a convent of monks.
F. Beaumont. In praise of Suck.

The residence of Marius is about 12 miles from the
But absent, what fantastic woes orous'd,

town; this is called Casa Mari, and is occupied by
Rage in each thouglıt, by restless musing fed,

the convent of the Monks of La Trappe. 55 miles Chill the warm cheek, and blast the bloom of life?

Thomson. Spring.

N. N. W. of Naples.
With a pard's spotted hide his shoulders broad

ARQUA, or ARQUATO, a village of Italy, in the
He maniled over; to his head upheav'd

Paduan territory, about three miles from Bataglia,
His brazen helmet, and with vig'rous hand

celebrated as having been the place where Petrarch
Grasping his spear, forth issu'd to arouse

was born, and where he was also buried. There are His brother, mighty sov'reign of the host.

two other places of this name, one in the march of

Cowper's Iliad, book x.
ARO'W. Arewe. On row.

Ancona, and the other in the duchy of Milan.
A.S. hræwa. Angl.

A'RQUEBUSE, In the Italian Archibuso, comrew, row, and aray. Battle row, battle


ARQUEBUS A’DE, posed of arco, an arc or bow,

A'RQUEBUSIER. and busio, which signifies, (iron,)
In an orderly line; in regular succession.

hole, in Italian. Menage. But the etymology of
po hü come to Guldefordc, þýs erle Godwyne be ssrewe busio is unsettled. See however, the quotation from
Lete bý's gultelese men sette al arewe,

An telle out enere pe tepe man, & pe nyne poru out he nome
And let smöte of her alre heuedys, & made a reufol dom.

And now farewell both spear and shield,
R. Gloucester, p. 327.

Caliver, pistol, arquebus,
Tho praith the kinge, thou praith the quene,

See, sec, what sighs my heart doth yield

To think that I must leave you thus ;
Forth with the lordes all arewe,

And lay aside my rapier blade,
That lie somme myrthe wolde shewe.

And take in hand a ditching spade.
Gower. Con. A. book viii. p. 255.

Nicholas Breton, in Ellis, v. ii.
Alle bei fled on rowe, in lýnen white as milke,
For non suld þam knowe, þer armes whilk were whilk.

Then pusled souldiers with their pikes,
R. Brunne, p. 334.

And halberdes with handy strokes;

The argabushe in fleshe it lightes,
But plainly for to make it knowe

And duns the ayre with misty smokes.
Howe that the signes sit a rowe,

Cupil's Assault. Percy's Reliques, v. ii.
Eche after other by degree,
In substance and in propertee.

There was a water-man at the Tower staires, desired the sayd
Gower. Con. A. book yii. Lieutenants manne to take him, who did so, which being espyed of
For joye le lient hire in his armes two ;

Wyats men, senen of them with harquebussas, called them to land

againe ; but they would not, whereupon each man discharged His lierte bailed in a bath of blisse,

their piece and killed the sayde waterman.
A thousand time a-row he gan hire kisse.

Stowe. Chronicle.
Chancer. The Wit of Bathes Tale, v. i. p. 275.
My master and his man are both broke loose,

Soldiers armed with guns, of whatsoever sort or denomination the
Beaten the maids, a-row, and bound the doctor.

latter, appear to have been called arquebusiers, though the weapon
Shakespeare's Comedy of Errors, fol. 98.

termed an arquebuse (originally a haque or haquebut), is distin

guished by a particular description in dictionaries and glossaries.
The borders of their peticoats below,

It is probable, however, that haques or arquebuses, antiently sig-
Were guarded thick with rubies on a-row.

nified guns in general; in proof of which a gunsinith is still
Dryden's Fables.

called in French an arquebusier. The strange alteration from AROʻYNT. Fr. ronger, rodere, rodicare, rocare,

harquebut to arquebuse may be gradually traced in these papers ;

where the bearers of the weapons in question are variously stiled, roncare, ronger. Menage.

hackbutters, or hagbutters, or harquebutliers, &c.;" from Fr. ronger, to gnaw, knap, or nibble off; to fret, haque, a term of unknown derivation, and huter, Fr. to aim at. eat, or wear away. Cotgrave,

Lodge's Illustrations, v. i. p. 238.

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ARQUE ARQUEBUSADE, (cau d'arquebusade, from arque- Andalousia is derived from Vandalicia, or Vandelousia. Arri. BUSADE buse, a gun or musket.) A spirituous water, dis- Arragon enjoys a pure and sweet clinate, but the GX

tilled from a number of aromatic plants, and used as great disadvantage under which it labours, is the ARRAGON. an application to gun-shot wounds, whence it derives want of water ; a peculiarity the more remarkable, rasca its name

as there is no province of Spain through which so ARQUES, a river of France, in the department of many and such large rivers take their course. It is the Lower Seine, which passes by the town of Arques, only the districts near these that are susceptible of and loses itself in the English channel, near Dieppe. general cultivation ; all the rest of the province being

ARQUES, a small town of France, in the department either parched and sandy, or else a rocky and mouna of the Lower Seine, arrondissement of Dieppe, lying tainous tract, the wealth of which consists wholly in in what was called the land of Caux, in Upper Nor- mines, which in this part of Spain are very abundant. mandy. It is situated on a river of the same name; It is said that in the time of the Romans the mines of two leagues S. E. of Dieppe, and 11 N. of Rouen. Arragon were an object of great attention ; and the Population 1700.

remains of silver mines may still be found. Copper; Arques, a village of France, in Artois, arrondisse- lead, and iron, however, are extremely plentiful ; and ment of St. Omer, with 600 inhabitants. 13. leagues the Arragonese blades, of which Martial and Pliny N. E. of Arras.

speak, were celebrated to a late time. The cobalt, Arques, a village of France, in Lower Languedoc, salt, and alum; of Arragon, are still in. high repute, department of the Aude, arrondissement of Limoux, as is also its marble. The natural history of this prowith 115 houses. 64, leagues S. of Carcassonne. vince is only peculiar from the number of wild beasts, ARRAC, ARRACK, ARAC, Rack, Samsu of the Chi- which infest it, in greater numbers than are to be

An ardent spirit obtained by distillation from found in any other part of Europe. The black bear, the external pulp of different species of palms, the lynx, the wolf, are commonly met with in the , or from rice, which has been fermented. At Goa, mountains towards the Pyrennees. The principal and in Ceylon, the arrack is distilled from toddy, commercial wealth of the province is derived from its (tār'i or tā'di,) the fluid obtained from cocoa-nut wool, of which large quantities used annually to be and palmyra, (cocos nucifera and elate sylvestris, in exported. The sun total of exports has lately been Portuguese palmeyra,) by an incision made near the estimated at £230,000. The population is about top of the tree. A pot sufficient to hold two quarts 630,000, of which 10,000 were ecclesiastics, and 9000 is fixed, at night, just below the place whence a shoot belonged to the privileged class of noblesse. The has been cut, and in the morning it is removed filled chief town is Sarragossa, a place that distinguished with juice.

At Batavia, arrack is distilled from itself, by a most obstinate and courageous defence paddi, or rice in the husk. Good arrack should be against the French, during the late peninsular war. clear, yellow, of a strong smell and taste, and have, ARRAGONITE, in mineralogy, a species of mineat least, 52-54 per cent. of alcohol. That made at ral, which was, until lately, supposed to consist only Goa, and thrice rectified, is the best. The Batavian of carbonic acid and lime, and in the same proportions is not so clear or well coloured. The Parriar, Co- in which those substances occur in common carbonate lombo, and Quilon arrack, are very strong and fiery. of lime. Its crystalline form, however, being incomThe Chinese increase its stimulus by the addition of patible with that of carbonate of lime, it was conjecholothurias, a sort of worm found in the East Indies. tured that some of its constituent elements had ARRACAN See Barma.

escaped the researches of former chemists. A nem ARRACISSA, a sea-port town of Brazil, in the cap- analysis was therefore undertaken by Stromeyer, who tainship of Pernambuco. It is esteemed the strongest succeeded in detecting carbonate of strontian as one maritime place in Brazil ; nevertheless James Lancas- of its component parts. A translated notice of this ter, in 1595, with some English vessels, made himself discovery was published in the Annals of Philosophy, master of the place, and obtained immense plunder. vol. iv. p. 244. The proportion of carbonate of stronSince that time it has been greatly strengthened. tian is asserted by Stromeyer to be chemically com

ARRAGON, a province of Spain, which before the bined, and to be constant and definite. union with Castile, in the person of Charles V. was The name of Arragonite was given to this substance governed by its own king and laws. The kingdom of from its having been first discovered in Molina, in Arragon comprised the provinces of Valencia, Cata- Arragon, near a spot called el salto del frayle: it has lonia, and Mallorka ; but Arragon proper is bounded since been found in many other parts of Europe. on the north by the Pyrennees, on the east by Catalo It does not generally occur in masses of sufficient nia and Valencia, by New Castille on the south, and size to be applicable to any purposes of art; the large by Navarre on the west. According to these boun- sarcophagus, however, recently brought from Egypt daries, Arragon is not less than 240 miles in length, by Belzoni, and now deposited in the British Museum, and about 160 in breadth. The name of Arragon has is said to be arragonite. See MINERALOGY. by some been derived from a small and obscure river ARRAIGN, Ad rationem, ponere, araisonner, of the same name; but as the province contains some

ARRAIGNMENT. and by contraction, arainier (araisof the finest rivers in Spain, as the Ebro, Xalon, the ner and arraisner.) Vide Du Cange. Cinca, it seems unlikely that it should have taken its To arraign, is nothing else but to call the prisoner name in preference from a stream ; which, except to the bar of the court, to answer the matter charged from the accident of its appellation, would hardly upon him in the indictment. This word in Latia, have been noticed. The more common derivation is (Lord Hale says,) is no other than ad rationein pobere; from the Roman province of Tarraconensis, by drop- and in French, ad reson, or abbreviated a reso. Vide ping the first letter, in the same way as the name of Blackstone's Comment. vol. iv. p. 322, and note.

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