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ARV NZE STAD
AR decided upon the strict interpretation of the sacra and Marseilles, have long had presses in constant AR-
but not in purgatory; and they pay the same super- Venice. The Armenian convent on the island of St.
They keep many and which was established in the beginning of the last STATE rigid fasts, and some festivals. Christmas they cele- century, from which, besides commentaries and conbrate on the 6th of January. Their church govern- troversial writings, there have issued grammars, dicment is episcopal, and their clergy is subject to the tionaries, mathematical, philosophical, geographical
Ancienne de l'Asie, Paris 1806, and Martin's Mémoires
, have been influenced by a desire to copy Greek mo of whose works the original is lost. Such, for exdels. The language was brought to its greatest de- ample, is the Chronicle of Eusebius, of which a Latin gree of perfection by Mesrob and his disciples in the translation by Zohrab and Mai, was published at fourth and fifth centuries, and in the writings of the Milan, in 1818, and the Armenian original with anolearned, is still preserved unaltered. The best work ther Latin Version by Dr. Aucher, of Angorn, at the upon it is Schræder's Thesaurus Lingua Armeniaca, convent in the island of St. Lazarus in the same year. Amsterdam, 1711, 4to. and Bellaud's Essai sur la langue The complete works of Philo Judæus are also extant Armenienne, Paris 1812, one of the most modern. in an Armenian version, and would be published by
The extreme oppression under which the Arme- the members of the convent in St. Lazarus, if sufinians have lived for so many centuries must natu cient encouragement were held out. The authors from rally have retarded their progress in literature. Als whose works the best information respecting this most the only book in use among them, except the country may be obtained are Tavernier, Chardin, Scriptures, of which Sir P. Ricaut seems to have heard, Tournefort, Güldenstädt, Reineggs, Sauvebæuf, Yowas a collection of lives of the saints, and yet the rier, Macdonnald Kinnier, Rennell, Rousseau, Notice historical and geographical works of Moses of Cho- Historique sur la Perse, Marseille, 1818. Tancoigne rene must have been in the hands of the more learned, Lettres sur la Perse, Paris, 1819. Dupré L'oyage ex and the history of Arekel was actually printed ten Perse, Paris, 1819. Sir W. Ouseley's Travels, vol. iii
. years before his book appeared. The Armenians have Zadour, Etat actuel de la Perse, Paris, 1817. Sir long been aware of the advantage of printing, and be- Robert Ker Porter's Travels, Lond. 1821. sides the books printed at Rome, Amsterdam, Paris,
ARMENIAN MONKS. The smaller number are ish Armenia is about 40, and the number of monks lay brethren, who follow the severe rule of St. An- about 200. Their revenues are very small, and their thony, the Hermit, in all its rigour. They live as discipline extremely rigid. There are also 15 nunhermits even in their monasteries, and are found prin- neries in Persian Armenia. There is a convent of cipally on the confines of Persia. The greater number Armenian monks of the order of St. Basil at Jeru follow the rule of St. Basil, but not rigidly. Their salem, which has been richly endowed by the libemonasteries are generally in towns or places of pil- rality of the pilgrims. Most if not all the monks of grimage. The most celebrated is that of Ejmiyazin, the united or conforming Armenian church (i. e. chat or Etchmeazin, i. e. the Descent of the Son of God, part of it which acknowledges the supremacy of not far from Erivān, the seat of the Catholicus or pa- Rome,) are branches of the order of St. Dominic. triarch of the Armenian church; where there is also Helyot Hist. des Ordres Religieur, i. c. 5. an ecclesiastical seminary and a printing establish ARMENIENSTADT, in Hungarian Szamos Urd, ment. See ARMENIA. There are three churches near pronounced Samosh Uïvar; in Walonian Naissa each other at this place, whence it receives its name Gyerli, (Nyimtin Jerli); in Latin Armenopolis, a of Uch kilēseh ; and most of the vertabets or doctors handsome town in Transylvania . (Siebenbürgen), in divinity graduated here. The monastery has cells the county of Szolnock, (Solnok). It has all the for 80 monks ; but seldom more than 50 occupants. privileges of a city, and is inhabited by 400 Arme The whole nuinber of convents in Persian and Turk- nian families, rated at 400,000 gulden. Grazing and
ARME- tanning are the trades principally carried on by them. £187. Is. Ild. It is 4 miles E. N. E. from Don- ARNALL.
built by Cardinal Martinuzzi, and enlarged by Prince Vicarage, valued in the King's Books at £7.178. Sd.;
raised by the parish rates in 1803, was £860. 16s. 10d.,
ARNESBY, in the hundred of Guthlaxton, county
or AMERINGILL, in the hun- of Leicester ; a discharged Vicarage, valued in the
province of Guelderland, and of the quarter of Veluwe
ARMIPOTENT, arma, arms; and potens, able; meeting-place of the States, and the seat of the courts able, strong, powerful in arms; warlike.
of justice and exchequer. It was in a former age the And dounward from an hill under a bent,
residence of the dukes of Guelderland, and afterwards Ther stood the temple of Mars armipolent,
of the governors of the province. It lies at the foot Wrought all of burned stele, of which th' entree
of a hill near the Rhine, 3 miles from the spot where Was longe and streite, and gastly for to see.
the Yssel branches off from that river. It is neatly Chaucer. The Knightes Tale, v. i. p. 79.
built, and its fortifications were greatly enlarged by Beneath the low'ring brow, and on a bent,
the famous Coehorn in 1702. It is well situated for
trade, and vas a member of the confederacy of the
Hanse towns. Population in 1796, 10,080. 30 miles
E. of Utrecht, and 45 S. E. of Amsterdam. Long. 5°
37' E. Lat. 52° N.
Dryden. ARNHEIM Bay, a spacious bay at the north west ARMISTICE, arma, arms; and sisto, to stay, to extremity of the gulf of Carpentaria, containing an cease ; a cessation from arms, from war ; a suspen area of above 100 square miles, fit for the reception sion of arms.
of shipping. The shores are low; wood is plentiful
Lyttelton. vegetation. Kangaroos are abundant, and parrots are
Sterne's Tristram Shandy.
ARNICA, in Botany, a genus of plants, class Syn
genesia, order Polygamia Superflua.
many, in Sweden, Lapland, and Switzerkind. The
in the hill of Falterona, one of the Appenines, and after Of other strewings, and aromatizers, to enrich our sallets we arome traversing the grand duchy in its whole breadth from have already spoken.
TICE east to west, loses itself in that part of the Mediterranean called the Tuscan sea. It is increased in its
All who bear the name course by a multitude of small rivers, divides the city
Of Cappadocians, swell the Syrian bost;
With those who gather from the fragrant shrub
The aromatic balsam, and extract
Glover's Leonidas, book it.
AROMATICS, in Medicine, a term applied to a
ARONA, a town of Italy, in the Upper Novarese,
or Piedmontese, part of the county of Anghiera. It of the Church, district of Perugiano. Three miles is seated on the west bank of the Lago Maggiore, E. N. E. of Perugiano.
opposite the town of Anghiera. Here is an old castle, ARNON, in ancient Geography, a river of Palestine the hereditary governor of which was the eldest of the which rose among the mountains of Gilead, in family of Borromai, to whom the town belonged as a Arabia, and traversing the desert, discharged itself fief. In this castle was born the famous Carolus Borinto the Dead Sea. By its course it divided the Amo
romæus, whom the Catholics have canonised, and rites from the Moabites.
whose pretended miracles have drawn many thousand ARNOPOGON, in Botany, a genus of plants, pilgrims to the place of his birth. In order to conclass Syngenesia, order Polygamia Aqualis.
vert it into an establishment similar to that of the Generic character. Receptacle naked, pappus plu- holy house of Loretto, the room in which the saint mose, stipitate, calyx of one leaf eight-partite turbi
was born was moved to a neighbouring eminence, nate.
and enclosed in a splendid church, which contains English name, Sheep's beard, a genus allied to different chapels, a seminary, and a large metal statue Tragopogon, or Goat's Beard, there are three species, of its patron saint. The hill is hence called Monte natives of the south of Europe.
di San Carlo. The position of the town on the lake is
Arona, or ARONE, a small river of Italy, in the Aromatick is commonly appiied to that which is States of the Church, which issues from the lake of spicy; smelling of, scented with, spices.
Bracciano, and falls into the Mediterranean.
On round. It. ronda Fr.
from rota, a wheel. In A. S. (says Tooke) the place
of this preposition is supplied by Hweil, and On
The baron came to the grene wode,
Wi mickle dule and care,
And there he first spied Gill Morice
Kameing his zellow hair ;
That sweetly wav'd around his face,
That face beyond compare.
Gill Morice in Percy's Reliques, F. 3.
Around him all the planets, with this our earth, single, or with puteth this unsavoury odor; as though aromatized by their con
attendants, continually move; seeking to receive the blessing of version, they lost their scent with their religion, and smelt no
his light, and lively warmth.
No war, or battel's sound
Was heard the world around :
The idle spear and shield were high up hung.
Milton. On the Nativity.
Their embryon atoms; they around the flag
Of each his faction, in their several clanns,
Light arm’d or heavy, sharp, smooth, swift or slow,
Swarm populous, unnumber'd as the sands.
Milton's Par. Last, boos i
The goddess heard, and bade the muscs raise
The golden trumpet of eternal praise ;
That fills the circuit of the world around.
Pope. The Temple of Fame
AROUNDprep} ronde, from the Lat. rotandusa
AROUND. The whole atınosphere glowed, and every thing around was in a Begnawed thee; be thou gnawed, eaten, consumed; AROYNT. state of perfect stagnation, not a leaf was in motion.
similar to the common malediction-a plague take AROYNT. Gilpin's Tuur to the Lakes of Cumberland, &c. thee ; a pock light upon thee. See Ronyon, Roynish, BÚSE.
ARQUEThe goodness of God, through his creatures, as his instruments, and Royne. is every where spread around,
A saylor's wife had chesnuts in her lappe,
And mnouncht, and mouncht, and mouncht:
Giue me, quoth J. a flaming guard around his person, or have called down fire from
Aroynt thee, Witch, the rumpe-fed Ronyon cryes. heaven on the guilty city of Jerusalem, on his false accusers, his
Shakespeare's Macb. fol. 132. unrighteous judge, the executioners, and the insulting rabble, made no resistance when his body was fastened to the cross by the
ARPEGGI, ARPEGGIATURA, in Music, is a mark Roman soldiers.
which signifies that the notes must be struck one Horsley's Sermons.
after the other, in the style of harp music. Arpeggio AROUSE. Perhaps formed upon the past participle
accompaniment, consists chiefly of the notes of the arose, of the verb arise.
several chords taken in returning successions.
ARPI, in ancient Geography, a town of Italy, in
Apulia, between Luceria and Sipontum. It is now in
ruins, but was a populous city in the time of Livy,
and supplied Annibal with 3000 soldiers.
ARPINO, in Geography, formerly Arpinum, a town
of Naples. It is chiefly remarkable as having been
the birth place of C. Marius and Cicero. The villa of
the latter, of which so agreeable an account is given, In a frolick bouse,
in his letters to Atticus, ii. 11, is now called the villa Recubans sub tegmine fagi.
of St. Dominic, and is possessed by a convent of monks.
The residence of Marius is about 12 miles from the
town; this is called Casa Mari, and is occupied by
the convent of the Monks of La Trappe. 55 miles Chill the warm cheek, and blast the bloom of life?
N. N. W. of Naples.
ARQUA, or ARQUATO, a village of Italy, in the
Paduan territory, about three miles from Bataglia,
celebrated as having been the place where Petrarch
was born, and where he was also buried. There are His brother, mighty sov'reign of the host.
two other places of this name, one in the march of
Cowper's Iliad, book x.
Ancona, and the other in the duchy of Milan.
A'RQUEBUSE, In the Italian Archibuso, comrew, row, and aray. Battle row, battle
ARQUEBUS A’DE, posed of arco, an arc or bow,
A'RQUEBUSIER. and busio, which signifies, (iron,)
hole, in Italian. Menage. But the etymology of
And now farewell both spear and shield,
Caliver, pistol, arquebus,
See, sec, what sighs my heart doth yield
To think that I must leave you thus ;
And lay aside my rapier blade,
And take in hand a ditching spade.
Nicholas Breton, in Ellis, v. ii.
Then pusled souldiers with their pikes,
And halberdes with handy strokes;
The argabushe in fleshe it lightes,
And duns the ayre with misty smokes.
Cupil's Assault. Percy's Reliques, v. ii.
There was a water-man at the Tower staires, desired the sayd
Wyats men, senen of them with harquebussas, called them to land
againe ; but they would not, whereupon each man discharged His lierte bailed in a bath of blisse,
their piece and killed the sayde waterman.
Soldiers armed with guns, of whatsoever sort or denomination the
latter, appear to have been called arquebusiers, though the weapon
termed an arquebuse (originally a haque or haquebut), is distin
guished by a particular description in dictionaries and glossaries.
It is probable, however, that haques or arquebuses, antiently sig-
nified guns in general; in proof of which a gunsinith is still
called in French an arquebusier. The strange alteration from AROʻYNT. Fr. ronger, rodere, rodicare, rocare,
harquebut to arquebuse may be gradually traced in these papers ;
where the bearers of the weapons in question are variously stiled, roncare, ronger. Menage.
“ hackbutters, or hagbutters, or harquebutliers, &c.;" from Fr. ronger, to gnaw, knap, or nibble off; to fret, haque, a term of unknown derivation, and huter, Fr. to aim at. eat, or wear away. Cotgrave,
Lodge's Illustrations, v. i. p. 238.
ARQUE ARQUEBUSADE, (cau d'arquebusade, from arque- Andalousia is derived from Vandalicia, or Vandelousia. Arri. BUSADE buse, a gun or musket.) A spirituous water, dis- Arragon enjoys a pure and sweet clinate, but the GX
tilled from a number of aromatic plants, and used as great disadvantage under which it labours, is the ARRAGON. an application to gun-shot wounds, whence it derives want of water ; a peculiarity the more remarkable, rasca its name
as there is no province of Spain through which so ARQUES, a river of France, in the department of many and such large rivers take their course. It is the Lower Seine, which passes by the town of Arques, only the districts near these that are susceptible of and loses itself in the English channel, near Dieppe. general cultivation ; all the rest of the province being
ARQUES, a small town of France, in the department either parched and sandy, or else a rocky and mouna of the Lower Seine, arrondissement of Dieppe, lying tainous tract, the wealth of which consists wholly in in what was called the land of Caux, in Upper Nor- mines, which in this part of Spain are very abundant. mandy. It is situated on a river of the same name; It is said that in the time of the Romans the mines of two leagues S. E. of Dieppe, and 11 N. of Rouen. Arragon were an object of great attention ; and the Population 1700.
remains of silver mines may still be found. Copper; Arques, a village of France, in Artois, arrondisse- lead, and iron, however, are extremely plentiful ; and ment of St. Omer, with 600 inhabitants. 13. leagues the Arragonese blades, of which Martial and Pliny N. E. of Arras.
speak, were celebrated to a late time. The cobalt, Arques, a village of France, in Lower Languedoc, salt, and alum; of Arragon, are still in. high repute, department of the Aude, arrondissement of Limoux, as is also its marble. The natural history of this prowith 115 houses. 64, leagues S. of Carcassonne. vince is only peculiar from the number of wild beasts, ARRAC, ARRACK, ARAC, Rack, Samsu of the Chi- which infest it, in greater numbers than are to be
An ardent spirit obtained by distillation from found in any other part of Europe. The black bear, the external pulp of different species of palms, the lynx, the wolf, are commonly met with in the , or from rice, which has been fermented. At Goa, mountains towards the Pyrennees. The principal and in Ceylon, the arrack is distilled from toddy, commercial wealth of the province is derived from its (tār'i or tā'di,) the fluid obtained from cocoa-nut wool, of which large quantities used annually to be and palmyra, (cocos nucifera and elate sylvestris, in exported. The sun total of exports has lately been Portuguese palmeyra,) by an incision made near the estimated at £230,000. The population is about top of the tree. A pot sufficient to hold two quarts 630,000, of which 10,000 were ecclesiastics, and 9000 is fixed, at night, just below the place whence a shoot belonged to the privileged class of noblesse. The has been cut, and in the morning it is removed filled chief town is Sarragossa, a place that distinguished with juice.
At Batavia, arrack is distilled from itself, by a most obstinate and courageous defence paddi, or rice in the husk. Good arrack should be against the French, during the late peninsular war. clear, yellow, of a strong smell and taste, and have, ARRAGONITE, in mineralogy, a species of mineat least, 52-54 per cent. of alcohol. That made at ral, which was, until lately, supposed to consist only Goa, and thrice rectified, is the best. The Batavian of carbonic acid and lime, and in the same proportions is not so clear or well coloured. The Parriar, Co- in which those substances occur in common carbonate lombo, and Quilon arrack, are very strong and fiery. of lime. Its crystalline form, however, being incomThe Chinese increase its stimulus by the addition of patible with that of carbonate of lime, it was conjecholothurias, a sort of worm found in the East Indies. tured that some of its constituent elements had ARRACAN See Barma.
escaped the researches of former chemists. A nem ARRACISSA, a sea-port town of Brazil, in the cap- analysis was therefore undertaken by Stromeyer, who tainship of Pernambuco. It is esteemed the strongest succeeded in detecting carbonate of strontian as one maritime place in Brazil ; nevertheless James Lancas- of its component parts. A translated notice of this ter, in 1595, with some English vessels, made himself discovery was published in the Annals of Philosophy, master of the place, and obtained immense plunder. vol. iv. p. 244. The proportion of carbonate of stronSince that time it has been greatly strengthened. tian is asserted by Stromeyer to be chemically com
ARRAGON, a province of Spain, which before the bined, and to be constant and definite. union with Castile, in the person of Charles V. was The name of Arragonite was given to this substance governed by its own king and laws. The kingdom of from its having been first discovered in Molina, in Arragon comprised the provinces of Valencia, Cata- Arragon, near a spot called el salto del frayle: it has lonia, and Mallorka ; but Arragon proper is bounded since been found in many other parts of Europe. on the north by the Pyrennees, on the east by Catalo It does not generally occur in masses of sufficient nia and Valencia, by New Castille on the south, and size to be applicable to any purposes of art; the large by Navarre on the west. According to these boun- sarcophagus, however, recently brought from Egypt daries, Arragon is not less than 240 miles in length, by Belzoni, and now deposited in the British Museum, and about 160 in breadth. The name of Arragon has is said to be arragonite. See MINERALOGY. by some been derived from a small and obscure river ARRAIGN, Ad rationem, ponere, araisonner, of the same name; but as the province contains some
ARRAIGNMENT. and by contraction, arainier (araisof the finest rivers in Spain, as the Ebro, Xalon, the ner and arraisner.) Vide Du Cange. Cinca, it seems unlikely that it should have taken its To arraign, is nothing else but to call the prisoner name in preference from a stream ; which, except to the bar of the court, to answer the matter charged from the accident of its appellation, would hardly upon him in the indictment. This word in Latia, have been noticed. The more common derivation is (Lord Hale says,) is no other than ad rationein pobere; from the Roman province of Tarraconensis, by drop- and in French, ad reson, or abbreviated a reso. Vide ping the first letter, in the same way as the name of Blackstone's Comment. vol. iv. p. 322, and note.