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His nose was aquiline, liis eyes were blue,
ARA, or the Altar, a constellation in the southern

Ruddy his lips, aud fresh and fair his hue.

hemisphere, containing 24 stars. Dryden's Pal. and Arcile. ARABAH (ARABAT), a four-wheeled tilted wag.

ARABIL His eyes (were) hollow, yet piercing; his nose inclined to aqui- gon with latticed windows, almost the only carriage line, his beard neglected and mixed with grey.

useid by the Turks. See Muradgna d'Ohsson's EmIntrod. to Mem. of Martinus Scrib. pire Othoman, tom. ii. pl. 84.

ARABGIR, a Sanjak (or Captaincy) in the Pas'Twere well, says one sage erudite, profound,

hālik, of Sīvās, producing a revenue of 21,000 aspers, Terribly arch'd and aquiline his nose,

and containing seven Ziàmeh and 153 Timārs. Its And overbuilt with most impending broirs, "T'were well, could you permit the world to live

Kāzīliks (jurisdictions) are Egin and Shādī. The As the world pleases.

town and castle of Arabgir, are two or three miles Couper's Task. west of the Euphrates; one day's journey east of

Divrigē, and one south of Egin. A small stream runs AQUITANIA, a province of Transalpine Gaul, by Arabgir, and falls into the Euphrates near Zilah which was divided into Aquitania Prima, Secunda, on its eastern bank. (Jehān-numā, 624.) and Tertia ; the two first of which were conquered by ARABESQUE, or MORESQUE, a style of ornaCæsar, and the last by his lieutenants. This part of ment in painting or sculpture, in which no animal reFrance is now called Guienne and Gascony.

presentations are used.

A R A B I A.

Boundaries. ARABIA, a vast Peninsula, bounded by the Indian The division made by the native geographers, Dirisirs,

Ocean on the east and south, the Red Sea on the appears to have existed almost frem the earliest times,
west, and the Persian Gulf on the north. The coun and to have arisen from the physical distribution of
try between the two last mentioned seas, is almost the country. Beginning from the southern and most
entirely a desert, and is occupied by tribes who have fertile part of the Peninsula, we have,
no fixed abode. This region, which extends north I. Yemen (or Yaman.) The happy Arabia of the
wards to the banks of the Euphrates, and westwards Greeks, between the parallels of 12 and 18° N. Lat.,
and eastwards to the confines of Syria, and the and 41° and 43° E. Long: ;-containing the Districts
Arabian Irāk, is entirely occupied by Arab Tribes, of Tehāyim el Yemen, Mahrah, Hadramaūt and
and is properly, at least in part, the Rocky Arabia Yemen, properly so called, --Sheh'r is also mentioned
(petræa) of the ancients. The continual warfare and by Abū 'l-fedā, but belongs to the Tehāyim-el-
wandering habits of these tribes will readily account Yemen.
for the different limits assigned to Arabia by different II. 'Hijaz (Hedsjas, llegias, Hedjuz), a part of the
ancient writers ; (see Syriax DESERT), but the most Rocky Arabia of the ancients. This is the holy-land
convenient division is that which would be formed of the Musselmans, and has been more fully described
by a line drawn from the head of the Arabian to the by the Arabian geographers, than any other part of
head of the Persian Gulf, nearly in the parallel of 30° their country. It contains the sacred cities of Mecca
North Latitude. The earlier Greek geographers di- and Medinah.
vided Arabia into two parts, the Happy and the Desert III. Nejed (Nedsjed, Nadjed), lying between Hijāz
(Felix and Deserta.) Ptolemy adds a third division, and the Arabian Irāk, and bounded by Yemen on the
the Rocky (Petraa), and his partition has been gene- south ; by the Syrian Desert on the north. The
rally followed. But the Arabia Petræa of Ptolemy, is mountains are fertile, but the plains, like most of
the southern part of the great Syrian Desert, and be those in Arabia, deficient in water. Its inhabitants
yond the imaginary limit of Arabia assigned above. are, for the most part, wandering tribes. (Niebuhr,
Arabia Felix contained the fertile, habitable, regions Besch. p. 342-3). At the north western extremity of
to the south and west ; Deserta, the barren countries Nejed is Darâyyeh, the head quarters of the Wah-
intervening between them and the Syrian Desert. häbis.

The most ancient name of this country was Kedem, : IV. Yemūmah or Arü'd, to the south west of Hijaz.
the East, (Is. xi. 14., Jer. xlix. 28., Job. i. 3.); and V. El Ah'sā or Hajar (or Hajar], (Lachsa, Hadsjar;
the Arabians were called Beni Kedem, “Children of Hadschar), to the west of Bahrein, between it and
the East ;” but it was afterwards named Arab, from Nejed, stretching to Irāk Arabi on the north, and
Arabah, a desert, and this name occurs in the later Omān on the south.
books of the Old Testament, (Ezek. xxvii. 21., 2 VI. Bah'rein, (1. e., the two Seas). Islands, and a
Chron. ix. 14.). By the Arabians themselves, their sandy district on the western shore of the Persian
country is called Jezirat-el-arab, i.e. Peninsula of Gulf, celebrated for their pearl fishery.
Arabia, and by the Persians and Turks Arebistān. VII. Omān. The eastern extremity of the Peninsula.
Various and fanciful etymologies of this name have Its capital is Maskat.
been given ; but none is so probable as that men The whole Peninsula, taken in the strictest sense,
tioned above, which is applicable to much the greater is comprehended between 1994 and 31° N. Lat., 33
part of the region comprehended within the limits and 59° E. Long., measuring about 1100 geographi-
which we have assigned.

cal miles in its greatest length, and 1150 in its greatest

TRABIA. breadth, from Cape Răs-el-h'add to the port than a civil appellation ;* but civil and ecclesiastical ARABIA.

of Jiddah ; and forming an irregular triangle, the laws are so blended together in the Koran, that such
area of which contains about 130,000 square an intermixture of offices and titles will be found in

every musselman state. He maintains a small stand-
The whole of the western, and a considerable part ing army, and Niebuhr estimated his revenue at
of the other coasts, is a belt of sand, separating the 480,000 dollars (=£80,000. nearly). The different
mountains from the sea ; and though there are no districts or provinces of his kingdom are governed by
alps or mountains of an extraordinary height, the Dõlahs or Emīrs, who have troops under their com-
elevation of the greater part of the interior is very mand, and collect the revenue for the Imām. Justice
considerable, and sufficient materially to affect the is administered by the Ka'dīs or Judges, who are not
climate. Frost and snow in the night are not very dependant upon the Dõlah. A brisk trade is carried
uncommon in these regions, during the winter on by the inhabitants of Yemen ; and at the port of
months, while the low, sandy plains, stretching along Mokhā, they have considerable intercourse with the
the coast in the district of Tehāmeh, and the barren, Europeans, particularly the English established in
rocky, provinces of Hijāz and Nejed, suffer the excess India; whose brokers are Banians (baniyās), or
of heat in summer, and are deluged with torrents of Hindūs, who pass a few years there, and in other
rain in winter. At Mecca and Mokhā particularly, ports of the Indian ocean, and when they have amassed
the heat and drought during the day are such, that a considerable sum of money return home. There
were it not for the heavy dews which fall at night, are also many Jews in every part of Yemen ; who
no vegetation could exist. (Niebuhr I. 485.) The generally live, as in other Mohammedan countries,
seasons, of course, vary much in a country where so separately from the rest of the inhabitants.
great a difference of elevation occurs. In Yemen, the The province of Hijāz, which has Nejed and
rains cominence in June and end in September ; at Yemamah on the east, Yemen on the south, and
Maskat they last from the middle of November to the the Syrian Desert on the north, is bounded on the
middle of February. The seasons therefore in Arabia, west by the Red Sea. It forms a part of the
like the monsoons in India, are the converse of each Arabia Petræa of the ancients. It has its Tehāmah,
other on the opposite sides of the Peninsula, and this is or sandy plain near the sea, as well as Yemen ;
a strong confirmation of the opinion that the central but its mountains are fertile, and in many places
deserts are an elevated plateau, like that between the torrents descend from them and fertilize the
two ranges of G'hāts on the coasts of Malabar and plains below. It has, however, fewer productive
Coromandel. The Nejed, or highland country, to tracts of land than Yemen, and the central part of
wards the centre of the northern part is extremely the northern, as well as of the southern half of the
barren, and probably a vast sandy plain, more or Peninsula, is, it can hardly be doubted, one vast
less interspersed with naked rocks; but it is almost sandy desert. The inhabitants are principally sta-
entirely unknown; and is probably occupied by a tionary, and in the interior, governed by independant
thin population of wandering tribes. Yemen itself, Chiefs or Sheikhs. The towns on the coast, and a
and all the states or provinces dependant upon it, few others, are now subject to the Pāshā of Egypt;
which have been already enumerated as belonging to who, a few years ago, subdued the Sherif, or Prince,
that division of Arabia, are fertile and well cultivated. of Mecca, their sovereign, on account of his con-
The vallies, hills, and in several places even the sides nection with the Wahhăbīs. No part of Arabia is
and summits of the loftier mountains produce grain, more frequented by strangers than this; as the pilgri-
especially durrah (sorghum vulgare), which is the mage to Mecca annually brings many thousand stran-
common food in the interior of Africa as well as gers from every part of the Mohammedan world to
Arabia, figs, dates, apricots, pomegranates, coffee, the holy cities; and most of them make it a trading
(the best is grown in the district called Uddeīn), and as well as a religious journey. The neighbourhood of
many kinds of esculent roots and seeds. A consider. Mecca is also remarkable for producing, in the
able quantity of cattle is bred, and there is a vast greatest perfection, that species of Amyris, from the
variety of the monkey tribe in the woods. Iron, gum of which, its celebrated balsam is formed,
lead, and copper are found in various places ; but, as (Bruce's Travels, Append.) Near Khaibar, there are
Niebuhr expressly says, none of the precious metals still, as in the time of Mohammed, whole tribes of
for which Arabia is so often celebrated by the Jews: they are governed by their own Sheikhs.
ancients. Cornelian, agate, and the onyx, are not The provinces of Bah'rein, El-Ah'sā, and Yemāmah
very uncorumonly found ; and the pearl-fishery on are the least known and the least civilized of any part
the coast produces a considerable revenue. The in- of Arabia. Some of their inhabitants are settled in
habitants of Yemen are all stationary, settled in towns, but the greater part are Bedowins, or wander-
towns and villages. The same is the case with re- ing shepherds, who maintain themselves by the pro-
gard to the greater part of 'Hijāz and Omān; but in duce of their sheep and camels. (See Bedowins,
Yemāmah, El-Ah'sā, Bah'rein, and particularly. Nejed, Syrian DESERT.) Omān is less fertile than even the
many, if not the greater part of the inhabitants are 'Hijāz, but is more so than the countries last men-
always encamped, and change their abode as want of tioned. It is subject to a Prince, commonly called
fresh pastures for their cattle, or predatory excur the Imām of Maskat (or Muskat), from the place of
sions, may lead them. The whole country is divided his residence, a town on the coast nearly at the
into petty states, independant of each other. Yemen
is governed by an absolute prince, who is called the
Imām, a title which implies guidance rather than have embraced the Mohammedan religion, are always called

* So, on the western coast of Africa, the Negro Kings, who command, and is more properly an ecclesiastical, Almamy, i. e., Al-imāmi : the Imam.

4 z


ARABIA. eastern extremity of the Peninsula. This Prince has most used by the Arabians, will come more properly AREA

long been in strict alliance with the English govern- under that head. The oxen and cows are nearly of a
ment at Bombay, and has more than once been in- the same breed as those common in India, and have a
debted to the assistance of our troops for ridding him hunch of fat above their shoulders. They are very
of cnemies who were too strong for him. The small and produce little milk; their flesh also is not
districts of Aden, 'Hadramaut, Sheh'r and Mahrah, at all to be compared with European beef. There is
which are narrow strips of hilly country, between the tvo little water in Arabia for the buffalo ; but goats
Desert and the Sea, are least known, though in some and sheep are abundant, and the milk of the former
respects more interesting than any other part of nearly makes up for the dryness of the cows. Asses
Arabia ; for they (more particularly 'Hadramaūt and are a domestic animal, much used in these countries ;
Sheh'r), are the original countries of myrrh and and the Arabian, like the Egyptian breed, is incom-
frankincense, and are frequently mentioned in the parably superior to the small sluggish race predomi
most ancient books of the Arabians, as well as in the nant in Europe, and is better suited for travelling in
Pentateuch. Had the unfortunate Seetzen not fallen that country and climate than even the horse.
a victim to the jealousy and rapacity of the Dõlah of (Niebuhr, Besch. p. 164.) Mules do not appear to be
Mokhā, he would probably have visited those coun so much used here, as in most other parts of Asia.
tries, and it is much to be wished that some enter Bcasts of prey are found wherever the woods or cares
prising traveller, properly qualified, would undertake in the mountains afford them a shelter. Jackals
to explore them.

(Benāt-el-wāwī), and foxes, are the most common, Natural As a very large portion of Arabia, perhaps two- but it cannot be doubted that hyænas, lions, tygers

, History: thirds, is entirely deprived of water, the soil must leopards, and other ferocious animals, natives of tropi

necessarily be barren and burnt up, and except to a cal countries, are found there, though Niebuhr did not
mineralogist, can present few objects of an interest- meet with them. The Jerboa (Yerbūù), one of the
ing kind. But the mountains are in many places prettiest of the rat or opossum species, is the constant
well wooded, and, together with the vallies which inhabitant of the sandy deserts. These regions also
they enclose, highly productive. Forskäl, in the are the favourite abode of the antelope, that light and
small extent of country which he examined, discovered elegant species of deer which supplies the Arabian
several new genera, and Seetzen, had he lived to poets with so many metaphors and similes.
bring his treasures home, would, no doubt, have Of birds, the Arabs have poultry in abundance,
greatly added to their number. 'Hadramaut, Sheh'r, guinea-fowl are found wild, and are so common in
Mahrah and Omān have never been visited by any the hilly part of Tehāmah, that the boys knock then
naturalist. The difference of elevation, and conse down with stones, and bring them to market. Pigeons
quently of temperature, in different parts of the same are met with in the woody districts. The red-legged
region, occasions a greater diversity of vegetation partridge, pheasants, and bustards, (Otis Hubara,
within a small space, than is usually found under the plovers, storks, eagles, vultures, and hawks, with
same parallels of latitude. Among those worthy of other common birds of prey, are also usual in plat
notice may be mentioned the Kādī, or Pandanus odo- adapted to their habits.
ratissimus, the fragrance of which is celebrated by Besides locusts, the pests of a great part of Asia

, Arabian as well as Indian writers; the Celastrus the Arabs have innumerable insects, many of which edulis, or Kāt, a tree cultivated by the Arabs, in have not yet been described; and among

their their coffee plantations; the green leaves of which reptiles, many serpents deserving of notice; para are chewed by them, as the Indians chew the Betel- ticularly a small one called bethen or beten, about nut; they are believed to be a preservative against the a foot long, spotted black and white, about twice as plague. (Fl. Ægypt. Arab. p. 64.) The most valuable thick as the thumb; the bite is said to produce invegetable productions of Arabia, are, however, the stant death. The bruised leaves of the Aristolochia Opobalsamum and other species of Amyris, the sempervirens (Ghākah and Leéyyah), are considered myrrh and frankincense, though inferior to that from as an antidote for the poison of serpents, and a decor Africa and India, and most especially coffee, (see tion of it, as a preservative against the effects of their COFFEE), which is cultivated with great care on the bite. hills of Yemen, at no great distance from Mokhā. The mountains in Arabia run parallel with it: 1. Their fruits are figs, pears, quinces, almonds, filberts, shores, one range excepted, which seems to stretch = peaches, apricots, oranges, lemons, tamarinds, dates across from Bah'rein on the east, to the neighborrand cocoa-nuts. Esculent vegetables, such as melons, hood of Mecca on the west ; but the position and gourds, and all the cucurbitaceous tribe, with a variety direction of these ranges is extremely uncertain. Tres of others less palatable to Europeans. Fodder for are craggy and precipitous, basaltic columns are procattle is also abundant in the woods and fertile bably found in some places (Niebuhr Reisebesch

. I parts of the country; and even the deserts pro- 333.) ; but gypsum, schistus, iron-stone, and calcareduce a few plants, such as the Avicennia tomentosa, ous rocks are those of the most frequent occurrence. (the Rack of Bruce's Trav. v. 44.), which afford a These hills are, in the rainy season, every where iscanty meal for the camels.

versed by torrents, which are generally lost in the Of all the quadrupeds found in Arabia, none are sand of the plains below. There is scarcely a stream more celebrated than its horses, but as the genuine of any magnitude which reaches the sea, —for tha

: breed is only to be met with among the Arabs of the which is laid down in our maps as discharging its desert, we shall reserve our account of it for that waters into the Persian Gulf, near Bahrein, is said article (see Syrian DESERT). An account of the camel expressly by Niebuhr, to be dry in summer, and there also, which, next to the horse, is the beast of burden seems to be no authority for the lower part of the


ARABIA. course of the river near Sanâi, which passes through which we are now speaking'; the latter does to a cer- ARABIA.

'Hadramaut, and falls into the Indian Ocean near tain extent, since they are sometimes provoked by
Kharjah. The river marked Prim on the maps, very gross insults to commit murder, and even to re-
running into the sea, near the gulf of Curia Muria, venge themselves on the relations of the offender;
(i. e., Khurtān wa Murtān), should be written Terīm, but it must be remembered, that the law of retalia-
as appears from Idrīsī, and seems to be nothing tion is prescribed by the Koran ; and that a disposi-
more than a torrent (wādī) from the neighbouring tion to revenge is therefore almost enjoined upon

Musselmans. The dress of the Arabs is very simple ; Manners The natives of Arabia, (we are now speaking of large wide trowsers, a blue and white striped shirt and cus those who are settled in towns and villages ; for the with very wide sleeves, a leathern girdle, a short

nomade tribes, see BEDOWINS), are of a middle stature, jacket without sleeves, a capot thrown over the
thin and sallow; having black eyes and hair, and thin shoulders, and a turban, consisting of a cap with a
wiry beards. They are very abstemious. Their shawl twisted round it, together with a pair of slip-
common food consists of thin cakes of wheaten or pers, constitute the whole of their attire. A short
durrah bread, and pillau which is made of fowl or crooked knife or dagger is stuck into their girdle ;
mutton boiled in rice ; their beverage is water and and it is there that the poor carry their purses, smok-
coffee, or kisher, a preparation from the husks of the ing utensils, &c. A coarse shirt, hanging down to the
coffee-beans, which is almost the only luxury they in- knees, and girded round the loins, is all the clothing
dulge in. They seldom transgress the law of Mohammed the labourers wear. The women's dress is much like
by drinking any fermented liquors, and never do it in that of the men, but nose and ear rings, together with
public. The use of tobacco is universal ; and they bracelets and rings round their ancles, are worn only
often make up for the want of intoxicating liquors, by by them. They also stain their nails red with hinnā,
smoking h’ashīshah (hemp-leaves). (See De Sacy's (Lawsonia inermis), and their eye-lids with stibium.
Chrestomathie Arabe ii. 120. sq.) At dinner time This nation is divided into iwo distinct classes of
they sit round on the floor of the room, spread a cloth men, who differ materially in their habits and man-
or a piece of leather before them, place the dishes ners; the inhabitants of the towns and those of the
upon it, and helping themselves with their fingers, desert: the latter are always encamped, and con-
for they have no knives and forks, they finish their tinually changing their place of abode. (See BEDO-
meal very quickly. This is the custom among the wins). The former have settled in cities and vil-
rich and great, as well as among the poor. Their lages, and are those of whom we now intend to speak.
religion requires frequent ablutions, and they are Their character appeared in a very favourable light to
naturally cleanly, so that this use of their hands in the Danish travellers, in 1762 and 1763, but it may be
eating is not so filthy as might be supposed. Their feared that the wars in which the Wahhābis have in-
temperance is probably the chief cause of the con volved most parts of Arabia, in these latter times,
stant health they usually enjoy. Tedious illnesses are have had a mischievous effect upon the habits of that
uncommon among them, and the worst disorder to people. The traders and public officers in the cities
which they are liable is the leprosy, the prevalence of are, indeed, often crafty and fraudulent, and some-
which is in a great measure owing to the ignorance times oppressive and rapacious, but the inhabitants
of their physicians. They are extremely fond of of the villages are simple, inoffensive, and industrious,
anointing themselves ; even the poorest people do it and surprisingly free from that fanaticism, which is
on holidays. Those who are in good circumstances, the genuine offspring of the Koran. They are often
are fond of burning incense, and sprinkling their much oppressed by the exactions of their rulers, for
clothes with sweet scented waters, and both are done the imperfections of Mohammed's system pervade
when a stranger comes in, as is usual in most Moham- every Musselman government, and are felt under the
medan countries. The Arabs are fond of society and unostentatious Courts of Yemen, as well as under
great frequenters of the coffee-houses. The women, the splendid ones of Constantinople or Dehli. The
as must always be the case where the law of Moham- éducation of the Arabs, as Niebuhr observes, (Besch.
med is observed, are kept in great seclusion. They v. Arab. p. 27), is so different from ours, that it must
have the care of all the children in their earliest produce a vast difference of habits and character.
years, but the boys, after a certain age (eight or nine Their children are removed from the Harem, as we
years), are removed from the l'arem and kept entirely before remarked, when they are five or six years old,
with their male relations. In wealthy families they and from that time accustomed to sit for hours toge-
are placed under the care of a tutor. They are ex ther with their fathers; familiar intercourse with the
tremely careful, in marriage, to ascertain that their other sex, and such amusements as music and danc-
wife's virginity is unspotted, and if the contrary ing are also considered as unlawful by the Arabians ;
proves to be the fact, they either require a compensa- they therefore acquire habits of seriousness from a
tion in money from her father, or return her upon his very early age. But they do not dislike society; the
hands. The hospitality of the Arabs is almost pro- coffee-houses are much frequented, and they delight
verbial ; they are, also, civil to strangers, and were in acute and pointed discourse. They are not quarrel-
not, when the Danish travellers visited their country some, though noisy in their disputes. They have not
sixty years ago, inclined to look upon Christians with so many terms of abuse as most European nations.
that abhorrence which characterises so many of the Hospitality is prescribed by the Koran ; the tra- Hospitality.
followers of Mahomet. They did not seem anxious veller is peculiarly the object of the charitable ; and
to make proselytes. The Arabs have been accused the good effects of their benevolent precepts are felt
of being crafty and revengeful. The former charge in Arabia, as well as other Mohammedan countries.
does not at all apply to that part of the nation of Fountains and caravanscrais are as cominon in Yemen

ARABIA. as in other parts of Asia ; and though nothing but away! away !_which sends all the women out of ARABIA

house room is provided by the one, or water by the sight immediately. It may reasonably be doubted,
other, the abstemiousness and simple habits of the whether the seclusion of the women in the east is
Arabians render every thing beyond that, superfluous. really considered as a hardship by them. It is not
The heroes of all their romances are celebrated for improbable, that the exposure of their persons with-
their liberality as well as their bravery; and those out a veil would shock them to such a degree, as to
virtues were fostered by the doctrines of Mahomet. render European society highly irksome. Conceal-
His uncle Abda’llah, was one of the three who had ment and retirement are as essential in the eyes of
the reputation of being the most liberal men of their Mohammedan wonien, as decent clothing in those of
age; and the account of the method by which it was a Christian.
determined to which of the three preference should be The language and literature of the Arabs have
given, is very illustrative of the manners of the Ara justly attracted much attention among the learned in

These men, who had been disputing the Europe. The Arabic has been, in consequence of its point together, determined to go, each to the one being the language of Mahomet, more widely difwhom he preferred, to ask his assistance. Abda'llah fused than any other, and is studied and understood, was just mounting his camel for a long journey - if not spoken, from the shores of the Atlantic to the “Son of the uncle of the Apostle of God," said the banks of the Ganges; and from the Steppes on the man who wished to try his liberality, “ I am a tra Volga to the countries on the Niger. But indepenveller and in distress." Abdallah, immediately dantly of that circumstance, it is highly deserving of alighting, gave him the camel with all her trappings, notice from its antiquity and copiousness, and partionly requiring him not to dispose of a sword slung cularly from its close affinity to the Hebrew, which from the saddle, because it had belonged to Ali. The it resembles nearly as much as the Doric does the camel carried, besides robes of silk, 4000 pieces of Attic Greek. It belongs to that class of languages, gold, but the sword was still more valuable. The which German philologers have very conveniently second of the disputants went to Kais, the next of termed Semitic, and together with the Éthiopic, forms the three about whom they had been debating, and the southern division of it. The earliest specimens learned from a servant that his master was asleep ; of this language which we possess, do not ascend Take, however,' said he, " these 7000 pieces of much higher than the age of Mohammed ; we cannot gold; it is all we have in the house, and show this therefore form a decided opinion as to the time and token to my master's camel-driver, he will provide process by which it acquired its present form. The you with a camel and a slave for your journey home.” traditions of the country ascribe the separation of Arābah, the third of these generous men, was leaning their language from the Syriac to Yâreb, son of on two slaves (for his eye-sight failed him), and on Kah'tan (the Joktan of Scripture), whom they call his way to the Mosque, when he met the man who the Father of Yemen :-but it may be observed, that wished to put his liberality to the test. No sooner

this reference to the Syriac, rather seems to shew had he heard the request, than clapping his hands to that the tradition is of no considerable antiquity. The gether, and lamenting his misfortune in having no two leading dialects prevalent before the time of money, he desired him to take the two slaves, which Mohammed, were that of H'imyar (or Homeir, and the other refused to take then, till Arābah declared thence the Homeritæ) in Yemen and the south ; and that he would liberate them if he did not, and dis that of the Koreish and other descendants of Ismael missing his slaves, went onwards feeling his way by in the north-west. The first, or Himyaritic, dialect the wall. The palm for liberality was given, as may bore, as has been reasonably conjectured, a strong be supposed in favour of Arābah.' (Sale's Prelim. Disc. affinity to the Ethiopic; which, in many respects, apto Koran, p. 29.)

proaches to the Hebrew and Syriac, more nearly than The Arabs are extremely courteous ; inferiors in the Arabic of the Koran. This conjecture is confirmed rank or age always kiss or attempt to kiss the hand by a tale told by the Arab grammarians of a man who of their superiors. Equals embrace each other putting threw himself over a precipice, because the King of cheek to cheek. They use, when addressing Mussel Himyar said to him theb, meaning 'sit down,' inmans, the common salutation, Es-salām aleikum, stead of “ leap down,' as that word signifies in the which properly signifies, ‘God save you !' and that dialect of the Koreish. (Pococke Spec. Hist. Arab. explains why Mohammedans are unwilling to give p. 151.) The other dialects mentioned by the it to Christians; the latter also dislike to use it, grammarians, as the Hudheīlī, the Tāyi, Temas being connected with the faith of Mahomet. They mimi, &c., differed more in pronunciation and prohave a good deal of etiquette in the form of their vincialisms than in essential points ;—as is clearly visits, and it appears from Niebuhr's plate of his shown by the Diwān Hudheil, a collection of poems audience at Sanaã, that subjects are not allowed to written in one of them. The second, or language - sit down in the presence of the Imām. They sit of the Koreīsh, being that which Mohammed himself cross-legged as most of the other Asiatics do, and in- spoke and consequently the dialect of the Koran, feriors may be said to sit upon their heels when in the has become, with his religion, universal throughpresence of their superiors, a most uncomfortable out the Mohammedan world, and has nearly, if not posture. Their houses are not luxurious, even those entirely, suppressed its ancient rivals. The extent to of the great have few conveniences, while the habita- which it is, or has been, current, has been already tions of the lower orders are miserable hovels ; when noticed ; and when we add that the greater part of those who have no separate apartments for the wo- Spain and the whole of Sicily, together with the men, carry a stranger home, they detain him at the eastern coast of Africa as far as Madagascar, ought to door, till they have gone in and cried 'tarik, i; e., be mentioned among the countries where this lan

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