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APOSTLE. "You know, brother, [says Mr. Calvin,] that the fashion is who avoided the making use of the ministry of per- APOSTLE.
otherwise with us : I bear with it, because it is not profitable to sons endowed with the advantages of fortune and
Hall's Peace-Maker. learning, lest the fruits of this embassy, and the pro-
to find out the reason of Christ's limiting the number
of the Apostles to twelve ; and various conjectures
have been applied to the solution of this question.
tribes, of which the body of the Jewish nation con-
Taylor's Episcopacy Asserted. sisted. This opinion seems to be countenanced by 'Tis well worth remarking upon this place, that the promise, ye
the declaration of Christ to his Apostles, that " when
twelve tribes of Israel.”. (Matt. xix. 28.) On the
21, 22, 26.) This seems to have been a mark of
respect to the Jews, previously to the offer of the
added, without any regard to the number of twelve.
Two distinct commissions were given by Jesus
sent them forth, two and two, to preach exclusively
to the Jews. (Matt. x. 5, 6.) Concerning the par-
ticular circumstances of this their first preaching, the Ser’n thousand raliant Romans march behind,
evangelical history is silent; it simply states that And great Camillo had the charge assign'd.
they returned and told their master all that they had Brooke's, Jerusalem Delivered, book i. done. (Luke ix. 10.) Their second commission, APOSTLE, (amootólos, from åtoote Xw I send forth) just before Christ's ascension into heaven, was of a properly signifies a messenger or person sent by another more extensive and particular nature; they were no on some business ; and hence, by way of eminence, longer to confine their preaching to the Jews, but it denotes one of the disciples commissioned by Jesus were to “ go and teach all nations, baptizing them Christ to preach the Gospel.
in the name of the Father, of the Son, and of the Out of the number of his disciples, Jesus selected Holy Ghost.”-(Matt. xxviii. 19, 20.) Accordingly, twelve, whom he separated from the rest by the name after our Lord's ascension, and the miraculous effuof Apostles, to accompany him constantly through the sion of the Holy Spirit upon them, they began pubwhole course of his ministry; that they might be licly to exercise their Apostolic office, daily working faithful and respectable witnesses of the sanctity of miracles in proof of their divine mission, and conhis life, and the grandeur of his miracles, to the re verting great multitudes to the Christian faith. motest nations; and also that they might transmit to After the Apostles had exercised their ministry in the latest posterity a genuine account of his sublime Palestine, they resolved, (according to an ancient doctrines, and of the nature and design of the gospel ecclesiastical tradition), to disperse themselves into dispensation. Their names were, Simon - Peter; different parts of the world ; but what were the parAndrew his brother ; James, the greater, and John, ticular provinces assigned to each, does not appear his brother, who were sons of Zebedee' ; Philip, of from any authentic history. Eusebius (Hist. Ecc. Bethsaida ; Bartholomew; Thomas ; Matthew ; lib. i. c. 1.), and Socrates, (Hist. Eccl. lib. i. c. 19), James, the son of Alpheus, who was also called James on the authority of tradition, concur that Thomas the less ; Lebbeus his brother, who was surnamed took Parthia for his lot; the latter historian assigns Thaddeus, and was also called Judas or Jude; Simon Ethiopia to Matthew, and India to Bartholomew ; the Canaanite, and Judas Iscariot, who subsequently and Eusebius says that Andrew bad Scythia ; John, betrayed his master, and afterwards committed Asia Minor ; Peter preached to the Jews who were suicide. Of these, Simon-Peter, Andrew, James the dispersed in Pontus, Galatia, Bithynia, Cappadocia, greater, and John were fishermen; and Matthew was and Asia Minor ; and Paul preached the gospel from a publican, or tax-gatherer ; of what profession the Jerusalem, (where we know from the Acts of the rest were, we are not informed,
though it is probable Apostles, that James the less continuerl, being Bishop that they also were fishermen. These men were poor, of that church) to Illyricum. Of the travels and il literate, and of mean extraction, and such alone labours of the Apostles, subsequently to the particuwere truly proper to answer the views of Jesus Christ; lars recorded in the New Testament, as well as of
APOSTLE. their deaths, we have very short and imperfect ac we have no evidence whatever), but because it con- APOSTLE
counts; but we know from the concurrent testimony tains a brief statement of the doctrines which they
mary of faith that is extant. The true author of this The appellation of Apostle is, by the author of the formulary, it is at this distance of time impossible to epistle to the Hebrews (iii. 1.), applied pre-eminently determine ; though its great antiquity may be into Jesus Christ, who was sent by the Father into the ferred from the fact, that the whole form, as it now worli, not to condemn it, but to save it. Saint Paul stands in the English Liturgy, is to be found in the is also frequently called the Apostle, by way of dis- works of Ambrose and Ruffinus, who lived in the tinction, and the Apostle of the Gentiles, because his fourth century. Though this creed was always used ministry was chiefly directed to the conversion of the prior to the administration of baptisın, when the gentile world ; as St. Peter, who was employed in catechumen made an open profession of his faith, preaching to the Jews, is on that account termed the and sometimes in private devotion, yet in the earlier Apostle of the circumcision. The several apostles are ages it constituted no part of the public liturgy. The usually represented with their respective attributes ;
constant repetition.of it was first introduced into the as James the less with a piller's club; Paul, with a daily service of the Greek church, at Antioch, in the sword ; Peter, with the keys; Andrew, with a cross close of the fifth century; and from the eastern or saltier ; John, with a cup and a winged serpent churches this custom was brought into the west, flying froin it ; Bartholomew, with a knife ; Philip, though it was not introduced into the Romish Liturgy with a long staff
, the upper end of which is formed until the beginning of the eleventh century. into a cross ; Matthew, with a hatchet; Matthias, APOSTOLATE (Apostolatus), the office of an Apostle with a battle-axe ; Thomas, with a lance; James of Christ; by various ancient writers, of the fourth the greater, with a Pilgrim's staff, and a gourd-bottle; century, it is used for the office of a bishop ; and in Simon, with a saw; and Jude with a club.
the ninth and following centuries, it became approApostle is also an appellation given to the ordi- priated to the papal dignity. nary travelling ministers of the church (see Rom. APOSTOLIC, (From Apostle), relating to xvi. 7.), and likewise to those who were sent by the APOSTOL'ICAL, the Apostles, or delivered by churches to carry their alms to the poor
of other Apostol'ICALLY. them, or in the manner of the churches. This usage was borrowed from the Syna Apostles. gogues of the Jews, who called those sent on this This appellation was, in the primitive church, message by the same name. Thus St. Paul, writing given to all such churches as were founded by the to the Philippians, tells them that Epaphroditus, their Apostles, and even to the Bishops of those churches, Apostle, had ministered to his wants. In like manner, as being the reputed successors of the Apostles. this appellation is given to those persons who are These were, at first, confined to four,—viz., Rome, said to have first planted the Christian faith in any Alexandria, Antioch, and Jerusalem ; but, in succeedplace. Thus, Dionysius, of Corinth, is called the ing ages, other churches assumed the same quality, Apostle of France; Boniface, (an Englishman), the principally on account of the conformity of their docApostle of Germany; Xavier, the Apostle of the Indies ; trine with that of the churches which were apostoCand in the East Indies the Jesuit Missionaries are lical by foundation, and because all bishops held styled Apostles. In some ages of the church, the themselves to be the successors of the Apostles, or Pope was peculiarly denominated the Apostle ; which acted in their respective dioceses with apostolical word Sir Henry Spelman informs us was anciently authority. In progress of time, however, the Bishop used for Admiral.
of Rome having acquired greater power than all ihe Apostle, among the Jews, denoted an officer, who rest, and the three Patriarchates of Alexandria, was anciently sent into the several parts and pro- Antioch, and Jerusalem, having fallen into the hands vinces in their jurisdiction, as visitors or commissa- of the Saracens, the title apostolical was restricted to ries, to see that the laws were duly observed, and to the Pope, and to his church alone. collect money for the reparation of the temple, as Apostolic Canons, or Constitutions, are certain well as the tribute payable to the Romans. These rules or laws for the government of the Christian Apostles were a degree below the Patriarchs, from church, and supposed by some writers to have been whom they received their commission.
drawn up by the Apostles themselves; but Bishop Apostle, (atootódos), in the Liturgy of the Greek Beveridge, to whom we are indebted for the besi church, is an appeliation given to lectionaries, con edition of them, is of opinion, that though they were taining lessons from the Epistles of St. Paul, in the not actually written by the Apostles, yet they are of order in which they are appointed to be read through- 'great antiquity, and are a collection of the canons of out the year, as well as the epistles themselves; several churches, enacted before those made by the where such book contains lessons from the gospels council of Nice. Though bearing the name of the and epistles, it is termed atoOTO Roevayyelov; and Apostles of Christ, they are destitute of the external when it comprises the Acts of the Aposties, together evidence necessary to support that claim, not being with the Epistles, it is called apačuroo70 os. (Du quoted by any of the Christian writers of the first Cange, Gloss. Græc. in voce. Bishop Marsh's three centuries. They are also destitute of interaal Michalis, vol. ii. pp. 111, 639.)
evidence, and contain many expressions and allusions Apostles' Creed, a formulary or summary of which are evidently later than the times of the Christian Faith, so called, not from the fact of its Apostles, as well as unworthy of them, and many iabeing composed by the Apostles themselves (of which consistencies and much false history. They are bow
APOS- generally admitted to have been compiled about the Notwithstanding which, each man had a spiritual ATOSTOLIC. middle of the fourth century.
sister with him, after the manner of the Apostles,
TOLIC. Arostolic CHAMBER, (Camera Apostolica), the trea with whom he lived in a domestic relation.
APOSsury of the Pope, as Bishop of Rome ; whence he The third sect of the Apostles arose in the thirteenth TROPHE, used to draw the necessary sums for his personal ex century, its members made little or no alteration in penses. It was also considered as a fund for the the doctrinal part of the public religion ; their efforts support of Christian hospitality, and for relieving the were chiefly directed to the introduction of the simdistresses of the poor.
plicity of the primitive times, and more especially the
iii. pp. 132, 133, 290, 292.]
52° 34' S.
otpeow, to turn.
How absurd would it appear, in our temperate and calm speak-
ers, to make use of an apostrophe, like that noble one of Demos-
“ No, my fellow-citizens, no; you have not erred. I swear by drew after them a multitude of adherents, of all ranks
plains of Marathon and Platæa.”
Apostrophe is a sudden change in our discourse ; when, without
giving previous notice, we address ourselves to a person or thing proachable and exeinplary. Yet they were reprehen- different from that to which we were addressing ourselves before. sible, on account of the following peculiarities. They
Beattie's Elements of Moral Science.
Alas ! Tom! thou smilest no more, cried the corporal, looking
Sterne's Tristram Shandy.
But to pare,
АГОТАС APOTACTITÆ, or Apotactici, from uroTATTW, I
Whan it is night myn heade appalleth; TITÆ.
And that is for I see hir nought, renounce; an ancient sect who renounced all property,
Whiche is the waker of my thought. APPAL. and professed poverty, in imitation of the apostles.
Gower. Con. A book iv. APOTHECARY, a person who sells drugs, em
And glader onght bis frend ben of his deth, ployed in medicine, conformable to the prescriptions
Whian with honour is yolden up his breth,
Than whan his name appalled is for age.
Chaucer. The Knightes Tale, v. i. p. 120. charter of incorporation in the 15th of James I. For
The answere that ye made to me, my dere, a full account of the history of this branch of the me
When I did sue for my poore hartes redresse,
Hath so appalde my countnance, and my chere,
That in this case, I am all comfortlesse,
Sins I of blame no cause can well expresse.
Wyatt. and great men among the gods. For an account of & amonge other of his famous dedis, le (Ereobertus) reuvoed the manner in which it was performed, see Herodian, and quickened agayn the fayth of Crist, ye in some placis of his lib. iv. cap. ii.
kyngedome was sore appallyd.
It was rather an execution, then a fight vpon them; insormuch APOTOME, in Music, is a small interval remaining after a limma is taken from a major tone, expressed by appalement to the rest.
as the furious slaughter of them was a great discouragement and . The ancients thought that the greater tone
Bacon's King Henry VII. could not be divided into two equal parts, for which A grieuous disease came upon Sercerus, being sore appalled reason they called the first apotome, and the second with age, so that he was constrained to keepe his chamber, and limma, (eruua,) the remainder.
send Antonius unto the warres.
Stow's Chronicles. APPAIR. The common word now is impair, from
The storms of sad confusion, that may grow
Up in the present for the coming times,
Appal not lim; that hath no side at all,
But of himself, and knows the worst can fall
Daniel's Poems ting sufficiently, accounts for all the usages of appaire ; to reduce the size or value of, to diminish it.
-The dreadfull sagittary
Appauls our numbers, haste we Diomed
To re-enforcement. or we perish all.
Shakespeare's Troylus and Cressida.
DOLP, Bastard of Orleans, thrice welcome to us.
Hath the late overthrow wrought this offence ?
Be not dismay'd, for succour is at hand.
Shakespeare, Henry VI. part i. fol. 98. R. Brunne, p. 290.
“ But why all this of avarice? I have none."
I wish you joy, sir, of a tyrant gone!
But does no other lord it at this hour,
As wild and mad? the ararice of power?
Does neither rage inflame, nor fear appall ?
Not the black fear of death that saddens all ?
Id. p. 58.
-If wearied nature sinks,
His sleep is troubled; visions of the night
Appal liis spirit; starting, he forsakes
A thorny pillow; rushes on the deck
With lamentations to the midnight moon.
Glover's Anthenaid, book i.
She came with speed in her steps, and eagerness in her eye, and Mickle apaired is your batail.
said, “Give me here Jolin the Baptist's head in a charger." This Richard Cæur De Lion, in Ellis, Romances, v. ii.
savage request appalled even the unfeeling heart of Herod himself. But whiche thingis weren to me wynnnyngis, I haue demed
Porteus's Lectures. these apeyryngis for crist. nethelesse I gesse alle thingis to be The appalled traveller arriving at the spot, surveys it with dis, peyrement for the cleer science of iesus crist my lord, for whom I
may.-Return, he dare not--for he knows what a variety of made alle thingis peyrement, and I deme as dryt, that I wynne terrors he has already passed. crist. Wiclif. Filipensis, c. 3.
Gilpin's Tour to the Lakes of Cumberland, &c. For what profitith it to a man, if he wynne al the world, and
And arm'd completely, as enormous Mars
Moves forth, when jarring mations, fir'd by Jove
With fellest hatred, meet, so mov'd the huge
Terrific Ajax, bulwark of the Greeks;
Smiling ferocious, with impatient haste
Striding, and brandishing his massy spear.
Him view'd the Greeks exulting ; with appal
The Trojans; and with palpitating heart
APPARATUS, from apparo, I prepare ; signifies
appropriated to the utensils and appendages of Of thought, whiche in mine herte falleth,
Cow per's Iliad, book ri.
APPARATUS CHEMICAL. See Treatise Chemistry, IS. Division i.
APPAR'EL, v. Fr. Appareiller, from the Latin ; PA
APPAR'EL, n. ICE.
apparare, to prepare. Junius. APPARAYL'MENT. To prepare, to provide, to furnish, to dress, to array.
be erle was fulle quaynte, did mak a rich galeie,
R. Brunne, p. 54.
Chaucer. Legend of Good Women. fol. 209.
Chaucer. Tale of Melibæus, v. ii. p. 101. And whanne sum men seiden of the temple that it was aparelid with goode stoones, and giftis he seide, &c.
Wiclif. Luk. c. xxi.
52. In þe parail of a pilgrim, and in a poure licknesse Holy seyntes hým sein, ac nevere in sette of riche.
The Vision of Peirs Plouhman, p. 208.
In a full rich aparaylment,
Morte Arthur. Ellis Romances, v. i.
The truth appeares so naked on my side,
That any purblind eye may find it out.
So cleare, so shining, and so euident,
Shakespeare's K. Henry VI. part i.
Denham's Essay on Virgil. Scarce vere they gone out of the inne, when the curate begann to dread a little that he had done ill, in apparelling himself in that wise, accounting it a very indecent thing, that a priest should dight himself so.
Shelton's Trans. Don Quir. ed. 1652. APPA'RENCE, Appareo, apparens; from ad, APPA'BENCY, and pareo; from the Gr. map-EW, APPARENT, adesse ; to be present. See ApAPPA'RENTLY, PEAR.
APPARITION. Any thing seen, perceived, ob. served; seeming to be.
Another rowned to his felaw low,
Chaucer. The Syuiere's Tale, y. i. p. 427. But we preache of a beauenly wisedom, which bath not an outeward apparance of that, which is not within it: but is inrardlye mighty and effectuall.
Udall. 1 Corin. c. 2.
Gower. Con, A. book i.
He made Edwyn his leutenant,
Id. ib. book ii. And yet yf the thyng ye thei require would content them : it hath not lacked. For there hath in euery country and in enery age apparisions bene had, & well knowen and testifycd, by whiche men haue had sufficient reuelacion and proofe of purgatorige.
Sir Thos. More's Workes, fol. 325.
I wold not spare my brother in this case,
Comedy of Errors, act iv. sc. I.
Daniel's Civil War, book vii.
And learn this lesson ;-Draw thy sword in right.
Ile draw it as apparant to the crowne;
Shakespeare's K. Henry VI. part iii.
Sackville's Ferrer and Porrer, act ii. sc. I. That blessed word hath wrought in me a sensible abatement of my corrupt affections; and bath produced an apparent renovation of my mind.
Bp. Hall's Temptations Repelled.
Hesperus, that led
Milton's Pur. Lost, book iv. When the minds of men strongly possess'd with fear, especially in the dark, raise up the plantasms of spectres, bug-bears, or affriglitful apparitions to them, they think them lo be objects really existing without them, and call them ghosts and spirits, whilst they are indeed nothing but their own phancies.
Cudworth's Intellectual System.
-The heavenly bands
Milton's Par. Lost, book xi. In the room of the frightful spectres, there now entered a second dance of apparitions very agreeably matched together, and made up of very amiable phantoms.
Spectator, No. 3. When there is no apparent cause in the sky, the water will sometimes appear dappled with large spots of shade.
Gilpin's Tour to the Lakes of Cumberland, &c. There is something captivating in spirit and intrepidity, to which we often yield, as to a resistless power; nor can be reasonably expect the confidence of others, who too apparently distrusts biniself.
Johnson's Rambler, No. l. In common language the word apparent, as applied to the heir of any estate or property, signifies the eldest son, in contradistinction from presumptive, or collateral heir. In Astronomy, it is an epithet applied to things, as they appear to the eye in distinction, from what they really are. Thus we say apparent conjunction, distance, time, &c.