« НазадПродовжити »
APIS. Smaller ones differing only in size from the larger, the queen will suffer no rival. Soon after she has
but have never been seen to lay eggs. The body of left her cell and has assumed the perfect state, she the queen bee is considerably larger than that of visits all the royal cells that contain the embryos of either the drone or worker. The prevailing colour in other queens; she furiously gnaws a hole in the coall is much the same, black-brown, or else nearly vering, inserts the end of the abdomen, and gives the black. The head of the female is not larger than enclosed larva, or pupa, a mortal wound. Should two that of the workers, the tongue is shorter, and the or more queens perfect their metamorphosis at the maxilla not so large. The wings reach only to the same time, the most violent combats take place betip of the third segment of the abdomen. The abdo- tween them, until one alone remains the undisputed men is longer than the head and tunnel together, possessor of the royal dignity. This was equally the somewhat conical, and rather sharp at the extremity. case where to a fertile mother-queen, a second was The sheath of the sting is curved, whilst in the purposely introduced by Huber, and the workers workers it is straight. The male, or drone on the were observed to use the most anxious efforts to procontrary is thick, short, and clumsy; the wings mote the duel which was to decide the right of emlonger than the body; the abdomen cordate, and very pire. Should the reigning queen die or be lost, the short. There are some males not larger than the community will not receive a stranger queen until workers, but generally they are twice as large. twenty-four hours have elapsed, after which they pay
It appears that the working bees, which have been her the accustomed homage and attention. generally believed to be true neuters, are in fact ste This destruction of the queens by each other would, rile females. The following discovery of Schirach, a but for a wonderful provision, prevent the existence Lusatian apiarist, is one of the most curious facts of other queens to lead the swarms; but previous to which the indefatigable attention of modern natural swarming, the mother queen, after laying the requiists has brought to light. From the statements of site number of male eggs in May, lays eggs in the this writer, which have been most amply confirmed by royal cells at distinct intervals, so as to afford time the accurate Huber, it is proved that if the queen of a enough between each for the formation of a new hive be lost, and the brood, or larvæ, consist of
The first swarm is therefore always led by workers only, one or more are selected to be educated the old queen. But should bad weather ensue to as queens, and by the following method; those larvæ prevent their emigration at the proper period, all the which without this treatment would have come into young queens are destroyed by the mother, and no the perfect state as workers, are on the contrary found swarm takes place. to be rendered perfect queens. Having chosen a grub, When a queen is once acknowledged as the gothe workers upon whom this charge devolves, remove vernor of a hive, or the leader of a colony, she immefrom around its cell, two of the cells which are in diately becomes the object of the incessant solicitude contact with it, with the larvæ inhabiting them, in and attention of her subjects. They are constantly order to enlarge the habitation of their future queen; offering her honey, licking her with their proboscis, and around the selected grub form a tubular cell, and paying every possible mark of respect and affecwhich like those which belong to the originally royal tion. This is, however, restricted to the fertile brood, is vertical. But the principal means of effect- queens ; previous to impregnation no notice whatever ing this wonderful transformation yet remains to be is taken of her, but the instant she returns to the stated. It consists in administering to this grub, a hive with the marks of impregnation the homage food totally unlike that prepared for the larvæ of the commences, and never ceases during her life. workers, of a more pungent taste, and of a different It is a fact that if impregnation be delayed beyond consistence. That circumstances, so trifling in them- the twenty-eighth day of the queen's existence, she selves, as the change from a horizontal to a vertical lays none but male eggs, and in this state she loses position of the cell, a greater degree of heat, and a all that animosity to other females which distinguish different kind of food, should produce a total change a truly fertile queen. in the habits, uses, labours, and dispositions of the
Huber has ascertained that impregnation always perfect insect, produced from the grub which is the takes place high in the air, and the queen, after it has subject of them, is a fact so extraordinary that nothing been effected, returns to the hive with indubitable short of repeated experiment, and the most irrefra- marks of the event. Schirach asserts that a queen gable testimony would be sufficient to establish it. will lay from 70,000 to 100,000 eggs in one season.
The future queen bee remains in the egg three The laying of eggs, which are to produce workers, days ; after leaving it she feeds in the larvæ state for takes place in January or February, and that of males five more ; she is then covered in by the workers, in the spring ; and during oviposition she is conspins her cocoon, which occupies another day; after stantly attended by a circle of bees, who pay her the this she remains in a state of rest for two days, and fondest, and apparently most affectionate attentions. sixteen hours, when having assumed the pupa in four The best season for swarming is said to be in May days and eight hours afterwards, making altogether and June. The first colony is always led by the reignsixteen days, she becomes a perfect insect. The ing queen, when she is sufficiently reduced in size by workers remain in these preparatory states twenty having laid her eggs, to be able to Ay readily. The days, and the males twenty-four. When the queen is signs of an approaching swarm are, according to Reready to emerge from her confinement, she eats her aumur, the following: first, if in favourable weather way through the covering in which the workers had the bees leave the hive only in very small numbers, and imprisoned her.
little pollen is collected. Another sign is a general The government of bees is not only a true gyneco- hum in the hive in an evening, which is often conticracy, but is also a strict and exclusive monarchy; for nued during the night. On examining the interior of
hives, admirably constructed for that purpose, Huber netrated only by passages large enough for the work. APIE.
posite directions. The comb is placed vertically, the The drones or male bees are only interesting from cells therefore are horizontal. The distance of the their being essential, by the impregnation of the queen, different cakes of comb from each other is sufficient to the perpetuation of the species. In the hive they for two bees to pass readily between them, and they do nothing but eat the food provided by the industri are here and there pierced with passages affording a ous labourers ; they are short lived, the eggs that communication between all parts of the hire. The produce them being laid in April and May, and their construction of the cells is such as to afford the greatest destruction taking place by the murderous weapons of possible number in a given space, with the least exthe workers in July and August.
penditure of the material. The base of each cell is There are four different substances elaborated by composed of three rhomboidal pieces placed so as to the working bees ; honey and wax from the nectar of form a pyramidal concavity. Thus the base of a cell flowers ; bee-bread, the food of the larvæ as well as on one side of the comb, is composed of part of the of the perfect insect, made from the pollen or farina bases of three on the other. The angles of the base of the anthers ; and a resinous substance for finishing are found by the most accurate geometrical calculathe combs, and in various ways giving security to their tions to be those by which the least possible expense habitations.
of wax would be employed, consistently with a given In their excursions they Ay in a direct line ; and quantum of space and strength. from the assurances of Butler and of Mr. Dobbs, it The cells built for the larvæ of the drones are would
appear that the observation of Aristotle is cor larger than those of the workers, and those for the rect, that in each journey an individual confines his la- reception of the royal larvæ are still more different. bours to one species of flower.
They are much larger than any of the others, of a pr. The honey, which is collected by the tubular tongue, riform shape, and placed in a vertical position, with is laid up in the first stomach, or honey bag. How the mouth downwards. The material of which they wax is secreted is at present merely conjectural. It is are composed is coarser than common wax, and one however known to be formed from the honey, and to hundred times more of it is required to form one be taken, when required for use, from what are called of them, than enters into the composition of a common wax pockets, on the four intermediate segments of the cell. The cells for the reception of honey and pollen, abdoinen. The bee-bread is elaborated from the and those which form the habitation of common pollen, which is laid up in little pellets, in a sort of larvæ, do not essentially differ. baskets forined by the hairs on the hind legs. When The old opinion that wax is formed from the pollen a bee returns laden to the hive, the honey is disgorged of flowers was first doubted by Reaumur, though he into the cells, one of which will contain the ladling of appears not to have gone farther than to argue fron. several individuals. Of these some are employed for the dissimilarity of the two substances. But the ex present use, others are sealed up for the supply of fu act truth appears to have been ascertained by Huber, ture want.
Schirach, and John Hunter, about the same period The bee-bread is used as circumstances require, and By following up the detail of Huber's experiments it what remains from the immediate wants of the com appears that the workers, and they only, have the pro· munity is stored up in vacant cells.
perty of producing wax from their food, as the nectar The rapidity with which the combs are built in a of flowers, sugar, honey, &c. so that in fact it is a new hive is astonishing. In twenty-four hours, ac secretion, not a mere modification of any substance. cording to Reaumur, a comb twenty inches long by This secretion takes place under the scales of the abseven or eight wide, will sometimes be constructed. domen, but the organs by which this is effected are
The ventilation of the hive is another most import- not known. ant and curious function which these little creatures The process of building the combs is a subject to most assiduously perform by ineans of their wings : which Huber has devoted a considerable portion of and this is found to be as much used in winter as in his attention ; and the following abstract of his obsersummer.
vations is principally extracted from the work already Amongst the many enemies to which bees are ex so often referred to, of Kirby and Spence. posed, one of the most singular is the sphinx atropos, There are two kinds of workers, which have differwhich has been repeatedly observed to attack hives in ent offices assigned to them in this process : the was the evening, and in consequence of whose depreda- makers having taken a due proportion of honey or tions considerable injury has sometimes been pro sugar, suspend themselves to each other; the claws duced. It is wonderful to observe the means of de- of the fore legs of the lower being attached to the fence to which these little industrious compatriots hind ones of the uppermost, and form themselves into have recourse, against the attacks of so large an in a cluster consisting of a number of festoons crossing sect. Without any foreign aid, says Huber, they each other in various directions. They remain immobarricaded themselves by a thick wall of propolis and veable for twenty-four hours, during which time the wax rising behind the entrance of the hive, and pe- secretion of wax is undoubtedly going on in a hidden
manner, and a thin lamina may now be found under This article cannot be better concluded than in the the abdomen. One of the bees then detaches itself, words of Kirby and Spence. “ After all,” say these makes its way to the top of the hive, turning itself excellent writers, “ there are mysteries as to the round till it has cleared a void space of about an inch primum mobile, amongst these social tribes, that with in diameter. It then seizes a layer of wax with its all our boasted reason we cannot fathom ; nor devehinder leg, draws it from the scale under the abdo- lope satisfactorily the motives that urge them to fulfil men, and carries it by one of the anterior feet to the in so remarkable, though diversified a way their difmouth. It is here exposed to the action of the man- ferent destinies. One thing is clear to demonstration, dibles, gnawed in pieces, and carried into one side of that by these creatures and their instincts, the power, the mouth, from which it issues in the form of a wisdom, and goodness, of the Great FATHER of the ribband. The tongue next impregnates it with a universe are loudly proclaimed. The atheist and infrothy liquid. This organ then returns it to the man fidel confuted ; the believer confirmed in his faith dibles, where it is worked up anew. The bee then and trust in Providence, which he thus beholds watchapplies these prepared portions of wax to the surface ing, with incessant care, over the welfare of the on which the comb is to be commenced, and this meanest of his creatures ; and from which he may maneuvre is continued till the whole of the laminæ conclude that He, the prince of the creation, will are thus prepared and fixed; she then leaves her never be overlooked or forsaken ; and from them work. The others succeed in the same manner, and what lessons may be learned of patriotism and selfthe result is the formation of a little uneven mass of devotion to the public good ; of loyalty, of prudence, wax, five or six lines long, two lines high, and half a temperance, diligence, and self denial.' line thick, descending perpendicularly into the hive. Apis, or Musca, a southern constellation, containThe remainder of the work is performed by the nurse ing four stars. bees. One of them places itself horizontally on the Apis, a deity of the Egyptians, worshipped at vault of the hive, its head placed on the centre of the Memphis, under the symbolical form of an ox, which little mass of wax, and with its mandibles, rapidly the soul of Osiris was supposed to inhabit. The moving its head, it moulds in that side of the wall of marks by which the sacred bull was distinguished, wax a cavity which is to form the base of one of the were his black colour, a square white mark upon his cells. After a few minutes labour it departs and is forehead, the figure of an eagle on his back, a lump succeeded by another. The cavity is gradually deep- under his tongue resembling a beetle, and a white ened, the sides raised, and an upright form given to it. spot, in the form of a crescent, on his right side. These When arrived at a certain point, others begin the same marks no doubt were produced by the contrivance work on the other side of the mass, and whilst they of those who were interested in the imposture. The are yet engaged in this labour, the wax makers re vulgar, of course, were not allowed to suppose that turn and add to the mass. After the bottoms of the the animal was produced by natural generation. At cells of the first row are finished, others begin the the end of 25 years he was drowned in the Nile, afteroutline of a second. The parietes of the cells are next wards embalmed, and privately deposited in a subterformed by adding to the sides of the cavities which ranean cavern destined to that purpose ; and which, have been hollowed out of the mass., The first row from recent discoveries, there is every reason to believe, of cells is pentagonal, the side next the hive being was in one of the pyramids; for which purpose, it broader than the others, and thus affording a firmer has been supposed, that they were originally built. attachment for the mass of comb.
In Ælian (de anim. lib. xi.) there is a full account of They never begin two masses of comb at the same the circumstances attending the birth and education time, but as soon as some rows of cells are constructed of the supposed god. As soon as a calf was produced in the first, two others, one on each side, parallel to with the appropriate marks, a temple was erected for it and equidistant from it, are commenced, and soon its accommodation ; and during four months it was after two more exterior to these.
fed only upon milk. At the end of this period, and at The male cells are generally in the middle of the the time of the new moon, the priests repaired to his combs or at their sides, never in the upper part. They habitation, and saluted him with the sacred name of are never insulated, but form a corresponding group A pis. He was then placed in a vessel richly decoon both sides of the comb. Their diameter is 3. lines, rated, and conducted to Heliopolis, a city of the Nile, those of the workers only 2.
with hymns and processions, and perfumes. Here he It appears that the particular species of cells that was kept 40 days, and suffered to be seen only by are to be constructed is determined by the laying of
After his inauguration, he was conveyed the queen. The bees never build those of males so with similar pomp to Memphis, and was afterwards long as she produces the eggs of workers. But as regarded with divine honours. His lodging was soon as she is ready to deposit the eggs of males, they superb; and the edifice appropriated to him is deare seen forming the cells irregularly, gradually giv- scribed by Strabo, (lib. xvii.) as being so constructed, ing them a greater diameter, and finally preparing as to have allowed of his being seen through a winthose for the reception of the male race. The size dow. He was supposed to predict events, and to of the cells is also increased where an unusually deliver oracles by certain signs and motions. He had favourable opportunity occurs for the collection of two “ beds," we are told by Pliny (lib. viii.); and, honey.
according as he went into the one or the other of them, For information on some other points of their his- the omen was supposed to be favourable or unfavourtory which belong rather to the general study of en- able. He also gave answers by eating food out of the tomology, the reader is referred to the treatise on that hand : in this manner, if we inay believe Ammianus, subject.
he foretold the death of Germanicus, by refusing the
APIS. food which that prince offered to him. In every part colour. The word aplanatic is derived from a, privativa, APLANA,
of Egypt feasts were instituted in honour of his birth, Tavèw, erro. APLANA
called Theophania, which lasted for seven days; and APLEDORE, partly within the liberty of Romney Apoc. TIC.
ancient writers have left a lively account of the rejoic- Marsh, and partly in the hundred of Blackbourn, LYPSE
raised by the parish rates in 1803 was £335. 158. 7d.
of Ellis. APITPAT, from pit, to sink; and pat, to strike. APLIGHT, perhaps In plight. In good plight or Applied to express the action of the heart in a moment condition; in readiness, already prepared; completely of anxiety.
equipped. SIR J. Witt. O here a' comes. Ay, my Hector of Troy, wel
Anon, fire she a-light, come, my bully, my backe ; egad my heart has gone apit-pat for
And warmed it well, aplighe;
She gave it suck upon her barm,
And siththen, laid it to sleep warm.
Lay de Fraine in Ellis's Romances, .ü.
Gif thou havest will to fight,
When ever thou wolt, let thee dight;
And thou shalt find me ready, aplight,
In the field to 'bide fight.
Sir Otuel, Id. Ib. T.ü.
Nou is Edward of Carnarvon
King of Engelond al aplight,
God lete him ner be worse man
Then his fader, ne lasse of myht. three varieties cultivated, viz. the common parsley,
Percy's Reliques, s. ü. the curled parsley, and the large-rooted or Hamburgh APLUSTRA, a name sometimes applied to the broad-leaved parsley.
rostrum, or beak of a ship in ancient naval architec2. A. GRAVEOLENS (snallage or celery), stem leaves
ture : it seems to have been an ornament in the shape cuneiform. This plant is a native of Britain, being of a shield, fixed to that part of the vessel : and to not unfrequently met with in salt marshes, and in
which a pennant was attached, and answering to the ditches near the sea. The sweet celery, Apium dulce, Greek aphlastum. or Celeri Italorum, is a variety produced by cultiva
APO, one of the smaller Philippine islands between tion. The plant when wild is very strong and nau Mindoro and the Calamianes. Long. 1230 10 E. seous, but by covering up the stalks, so as to prevent Lat. 9° 23' N. the access of light, it is at the same time deprived of
Apo Shoals, in the Indian sea. These lie between colour, and, in a great degree, of its naturally un- Mindoro and the Calamianes, extending about 28 pleasant taste.
miles in length from north to south, and 8 in breadth. APIVORUS, in Ornithology, a species of the Fal Long. 120° 36' E. Lat. 12° 27' N. co, known as the honey buzzard, but seldom met
APOBATANA, the metropolis of ancient Media, with in England. Donov. Brit. Birds, t. 30. APLACE. In place.
but more properly called Ecbatana.
APOCALYPSE, Αποκάλυψις from απο, from, For there is but o god of all,
APO'CALYPTICAL, and kaluatw to cover, to con-
APOCALYPTICK, adj. Disclosure, or discovery
of things—before close, or covered, hidden, or con
Gower. Con. A. book v. cealed. Revelation, Manifestation.
poside with the sone and the hooli goost to schewe hem that me
drede hem the lesse, and al the trynyte schewide it crist on his rects the aberration of the rays of light, and the
manheed, and crist to ioon bi an aungel, and ioon to hooli chirche, colour depending upon it; in contradistinction to the
of which reuelacioun ioon made this book, wherfore this book is word achroamatic, which has been applied to that re reid apocalips, that is to seie, reuelacioun. fraction in which there is only a partial correction of
Wiclif, Pref. to Apocalips, p. 143.
be divided into two principal parts. The first, after APOCAPSE. Was like that salowe horse of hewe
the title of the book, (ch. i. 1—3.) comprises the LYPSE. That in the apocalips is shewed
“things which are :” that is, the then present state That significth to folke beshrewed
APOCRYThat been all full of trecherie
of the Christian Church, including the epistolary in PHA. And pale, through hypocrisic
structions and admonitions to the angels or bishops of Fo on that horse no colour is
the seven churches of Ephesus, Smyrna, Pergamos,
Thyatira, Sardis, and Laodicea, situated in Asia
Minor. (ch. ii. 9.-iii.) The second part comprehends
a prediction of “ the things which shall be hereafter,"
or the future state of the church through succeeding Came furious down to be reveng'd on men,
ages, from the time when the apostle beheld the apoWoe to the inhabitants on earth!
calyptic visions to the grand consummation of all Milton's Par. Lost, book iv.
things. (ch. iv.-xxii.) The best helps to the correct Besides these properties, they (the Jews) are light and giddy- understanding of this prophetic book will be found in headed, much symbolizing in spirit with our apocalyptical zealots, Bishop Hurd's Sermons on Prophecy, Bishop Newton's and fiery interpreters of Daniel and other prophets.
Dissertations, (vol. ii.) ; Lownan, on the Revelation;
and, above all, Dean Woodhouse's Translation of the
Various apocryphal revelations are mentioned by comprehensive views of that sublime and interesting book, he was anxious to stimulate others to acquaint themselves with its con
ecclesiastical writers of the second and two following Hodgson's Life of Bishop Porteus. centuries, as the Apocalypses of Paul—of Peter-of It was concluded by some, that Providence designed him the
Cerinthus—of St. Thomas-of St.John, (different from apocalyptick angel, which should pour out one of the vials upon the genuine book,)-of Elias—of Moses-of Abraham the beast.
Spencer on Prodigies, p. 314. —and even of Adam ! But these spurious writings The divine apocalyptick, writing after Jerusalem was ruined, have long since perished, and were deservedly remight teach them what the second Jerusalem must be ; not on jected by the Christian Church, on account of the idle earth, but from heaven.
legends which they appear to have contained. Lightfoot's Miscellanies.
APOCENOSIS, from ano from, and kevow, to evaAPOCALYPSE, (amokaluptw, I reveal) signifies, cuate, in Medicine.
I reveal,) signifies, cuate, in Medicine. The name of an order, in the in general, a revelation ; but is particularly referred class Locales of Cullen's Nosology. Unusual flow of to the Revelation of St. John, the last canonical book blood, or other fluids ; without pyrexia or increased of the New Testament.
impetus of the fluids. The Apocalypse was written by the Apostle and APOCOPE, from ano, and KOTTW, I cut. A figure Evangelist St. John, A. D. 96 or 97, probably in the in grammar, by which part of the end of a word is cut isle of Patmos, whither he was banished by the off; as dic. for dice ; fuc. for face. A similar retrenchRoman Emperor, Domitian. The authenticity of this ment at the beginning of a word is called aphæresis. book was very generally, if not universally, acknow APOCRISIARIUS, from arokpiois, an answer ; an ledged during the first two centuries ; but in the officer appointed to carry or deliver the messages or third century it began to be questioned, in conse
answers of the prince or emperor, under the lower quence of some absurd notions concerning the mille- empire. The chancellor of the empire was afterwards nium, which a few well-meaning but fanciful exposi- known by this name, whose office seems to be the tors grounded on this book : which notions their op- origin of that of nuncio, at the court of Rome. ponents injudiciously and presumptuously endeavoured APOʻCRYPHA, Atoxpvon, from ano, from, and to discredit, by denying the authority of the book APO'CRYPHAL, -KPUTTW, to hide. Any thing hiditself. It was unquestionably cited by the apostolic APOCRY'PHICAL. den from ; secreted. fathers, Ignatius and Polycarp, (probably also by Hermas,) in the first century. In the second century
The other [bookes) folowynge, which are called apocripha (beit was cited or commented upon by Justin Martyr,
cause they were wot to be reade, not openly and in coinmen, but
as it were in secrete and aparte) are neyther founde in the Hebrue Melito, bishop of Sardis ; the epistle of the churches nor in the Chalde. of Vienne and Lyons, concerning the sufferings of
Bible, 1539. Pref. to Apochripha. their martyrs; Irenæus, bishop of Lyons, who per
My private judgment I should be loth to oppose against the sonally knew Polycarp; Athenagoras; Theophilus, force of their reverend authority, who rather considering the dibishop of Antioch; Apollonius; Clement of Alexan- vine excellency of some things in certain of those apocrypha which dria ; and Tertullian. In the third century it was
we publickly read, have thought it better to let them stand as a also quoted, or commentaries were written upon it, by divine, yet as human compositions, to grant at the least unto cer
list or marginal border unto the Old Testament, and tho' with Hippolytus, Portuensis, and Origen, and numerous
tain of them publick audience in the house of God. other Greek and Latin writers; and was recognised as
Hooker's Ecclesiastical Polity, fol. 138. canonical (with the exception of a few individuals) by Suat. This same duke is but the eastern and western churches : and all the fathers
Apocryphal, there's no creation of the fourth, fifth, and following ages quote the
That can stand where titles are not right. Apocalypse, as a book in their time acknowledged to
Beau. and Fletcher's Noble Gentleman, act iii. be canonical. The style and language also concur to
"Tis mine to wash a few light stains; but theirs prove this book to be the genuine production of St.
To deluge sin, and drown a court in tears. John.
Howe'er, what's now apocrypha, my wit,
In time to come, may pass for holy writ. The Apocalypse contains 22 chapters, which may
Pope's Satires of Donne. 4