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ANIMAL When the horse stands at his ease, this position of the 40 feet diameter would be preferable to either of the ANIMAL STRENGTH, traces is rather inclined upwards, from the direction former.
STRENGTH. ANIMOof the road ; but when he leans forward to draw the 29. Desaguliers states, in the 1st volume of his
ANISUM. SITY. load, the traces should then become nearly parallel to Experimental Philosophy, that a horse employed daily in
the plane over which the carriage is to be drawn; or, drawing nearly horizontal, can move,during eight hours Power of a if he be employed in drawing a sledge, or any thing in the day, about 200 lbs., at the rate of about 24 miles horse estiwithout wheels, the inclination of the traces with the an hour, or 33 feet per second. If the weight be aug- mated by road, supposing it to be horizontal, should be about mented to about 240 lbs., or 250lbs., the horse cannot Desaguliers
and others. 184, see (art. 159) DYNAMICS; and even when wheels move more than six hours in the day, and that with are employed, as we cannot conceive friction to be less velocity. And, in both cases, if he carry some wholly destroyed, it is obvious, that a slight inclina- weight, he will draw better than if he carried none. tion from the parallel position of the traces upwards Sauveur estimates the mean effort of a horse at 175 lbs. would be rather advantageous than the contrary; al- French, or 189lbs. English avoirdupoise, with a velocity though it is difficult, if not impossible, to estimate of rather more than two feet per second. But these are the degree of that inclination.
all probably too high to be continued for eight hours. What we have said above is with reference only to In another place Desaguliers states the mean work of one horse; when several are harnessed together in a a horse as equivalent to raising a hogshead of water line so as all to draw at the same load, and the slope 50 feet high in a minute. But Smeaton, who examined on which they are drawing changes, we must resolve every circumstance connected with his profession with the line of direction of each horse into two others, the great accuracy, reduces this effect to a height of 40 one parallel and the other perpendicular to the plane feet. And by certain experiments, made before the of the carriage, and thus estimate the ultimate result; Society for the Encouragement of Arts, it was concluded but this consideration leading to little or no practical that, a horse moving with a velocity of three miles per deductions, we shall not insist upon in this place, but hour, can continue to exert a force of 80 lbs. But we refer the reader who is desirous of following the in- do not find these experiments detailed at sufficient length vestigation, to the work of Prony, before referred to, to give us much satisfactory information on the subject. or to Gregory's Mechanics, vol. ii.
Indeed, it is an investigation so extremely difficult to lorse in a 28. We shall here only further observe, that when a ircul
carry on with mathematical accuracy, that we are not horse is made to move in a circular path, as is often surprised to find so great a variety of opinions ; much ath,
practised in mills and other machines, it is requisite to necessarily depends upon the size, strength, and con-
ANIMALLY, or ANIMALAYA (Elephant-hill), a town
moderation were pleased to excommunicate every man, who disin the district of Coimbetoor, Hindostan,on the west side agreed with them in the smallest article of their political creed. of the river Alima, 18 miles from Coimbetoor, and 35
Examiner, No. 19. from Daraporum. Great numbers of elephants are found What can be imagined more trivial than the difference between in the neighbourhood. It consists of about 400 houses.
one colour of livery and another in horse-races ? Yet this differ
ence begat two most inveterate factions in the Greek empire, the
the arsenic formerly used in the refinement of sugar.
ANIO, or Asien, in Ancient Geography, a river of
Italy, now the Teverone, supposed to have received
in its waters ; and which falls into the Tiber, five
miles north of Rome. Plin, iii. 12. Virg. Æn. vii. holiness, to raise and maintain animosities against those, whose
ANISUM, or ANISE-SEED, in Botany, a genus of
ANI ANITORGIS, in Ancient Geography, a city of And he toke bym by the ryght hande, & lyfte hym up. And in- Ate TORGIS. Hispania Bætica, in the vicinity of which a battle
mediatly his fete and ancle-bones receaued strēgth.
Bible, 1539, Actes üi.
was fought between Asdrubal and Scipio. Liv. xxv.
These manacles upon my arm
I, as my mistress' favours, wear;
And for to keep my ancles warm,
I have some iron shackles there.
Loyalty confined. Percy's Reliques, F. ii. p. 335.
a tolerable inan,
Now I distinctly read him.
SIR GR, Hum, bum, hum. rude and unpolished, and the place abounds with noxi
Niece. Say he be black, he's of a very good pitch,
Well ankled, two good confident calves. ous reptiles. Towards the latter end of the seventeenth
Beaumont and Fletcher. Wit at several Weapons. century, a most cruel and barbarous massacre of the
The next circumstance which I shall mention, under this bead of English settlers, by the Moplays, took place here, muscular
arrangement, is so decisive a mark of intention, that i during a visit of ceremony which they paid to the always appeared to me, to supersede, in some measure, the necesqueen of the Autinga.
sity of seeking for any other observation upon the subject : and ANJOU, an ancient province of France, now divided that circumstance is, the tendons, which pass from the leg to the into the departments of the Maine and Loire, the foot, being bound down by a ligament at the ancle.
Paley's Natural Theology, 156.
ANKOBER, the capital town of the province of
ANN,ST. a river of North America, in Lower Canada, was divided into two parts, the Upper and Lower which rises in the mountains of Quebec. Thence Anjou. The lands of this district are very fruitful in flowing in a southerly direction for some miles, it all sorts of grain, fruits, hemp, and flax ; there are also strikes off to the S. E. and after a course of 70 miles, excellent pastures and rich vineyards. A considerable falls into the St. Lawrence. It is 400 yards broad at portion of the wine produced from the latter is distilled its mouth ; but the navigation is much impeded by into brandy, which finds its principal markets at Nantes rapid falls. On the eastern bank, near its mouth, and Paris. Anjou contains likewise mines of coal there is a village of this name, and at its entrance (which are not, however, very productive from the into the St. Lawrence, are the fertile islands St. Marawkward situation of the strata), lead, and tin; and garet, St. Ignace, Dutarge, and Durable. There is also several marble quarries. The manufactures are camlets, another river of this name, flowing from the north, serges, wax, glass, saltpetre, refined sugar, leather, and falling into the St. Lawrence, opposite the island light stuffs of various kinds, and paper. The chief of Orleans, Also a lake in Upper Canada, N. of Lake town is Angers, and the population was taken, prior Superior, which empties itself into the James's bay, to the revolution, at upwards of 90,000 families. through the waters of Albany river. ANKER, or Anchor, in Commerce, a liquid mea
Ann, Sr. a town of Parana, in South America, in sure used in Holland, principally at Amsterdam. It the eastern division of Paraguay. It is the chief town is the fourth part of an awn, containing two stekans, of the province. or thirty-two mengles, the mengle being equivalent to
Ann, Cape, a small town of North America, in the two pints, Paris measure.
state of Massachusetts, 20 miles from Boston. ANKLAM, an important town of Sweden, in Pome. Ann, Fort, a fort of North America, in the state rania, 36 miles from Stralsund. It is the chief town
of New York, at the head of the Batteaux nani. of the circle of the same name. Here are two gation, on Wood creek; 10 miles from Fort Geort, churches, three hospitals, and an endowed grammar- and 12 from Fort Edward, on the Hudson, or Nord school. The minister of the church of St. Nicholas, is river. superintendant of the Anklam synod. The harbour of Ann ARUNDEL, a county of Maryland, United States
, Anklam is well adapted for commerce; there are se- lying between the rivers Patuxent and Patapsco, N.W. veral yearly fairs or markets here, which are much of the Chesapeak. Annapolis is the capital. frequented, and some flourishing woollen and stuff ANN, ANNAT, or ANNATES, an ecclesiastical tax of manufactories. In the year 1720, it was ceded to
the value of every spiritual benefice for one year, Prussia by the Swedes; and in 1762, its fortifications which the pope formerly levied throughout Christenwere entirely destroyed during the seven years war of dom, on issuing bulls to the new incumbent
. Its Frederic the Great. It belongs at present to Sweden. origin is very obscure ; some writers have traced it to Population 4,000.
Anthonine, bishop of Ephesus, in the fifth century, ubo ANʼKLE, n.
A.S. Ancleop, Ger. Enckel, which imposed a tax of this kind on all the prelaies be AN'KLED,
Wachter thinks is the diminutive consecrated. According to Hume, it was first lenied An'KLE-BONE.
of Anke ; the bone at the bottom of in England, by Clement V., in the reign of Edward .. the leg, by which it rests upon the foot.
but Blackstone ascribes the introduction of this impost As Haunch is the part by which the lower limbs are
to the usurpation of Pandulph, the pope's legate, is hankyd or hanged (from Hangan, A. S.) upon the body the reigns of King John and Henry III. In the exibeor trunk, so încle-bone may be the bone by which the quer is still preserved a valuation of them, by combi foot is hankyd or hanged to the leg.
sion, from Nicholas III., A.D. 1292. At this peria'
however, they would appear to have been but partialis In the name of Jesus Chryst of Nazareth, ryse vp and walke. levieil, principally in the see of Norwich. Blackstage
ANN. agrees with Mr. Hume, that it was only in the time of dictator, consul, or prætor drove annually into the AN
Clement V. that they were first attempted to be made temple of Jupiter, upon the ides of September, to inark NALIS, universal in England. Though, strictly, the annates the number of years.
ANNAwas only to amount to a year's income of the new in Annalis Lex, in Antiquity, a Roman law, appoint- MOOKA. cumbent, it frequently was increased by the efforts of ing the age at which a citizen should be eligible to the papal agents, and their accessibility to the intrigues exercise any office of state. This law was brought from of the clergy, to much more than the actual value ; Athens by the tribune L. Villius, on which account while, in other cases, it was comprised for much himself and posterity were distinguished by the surless. In the reign of Henry VIII. it was transferred name of Annalis. Liv. xl. c. 43. Quintil. vi. 86. by statute to the king, and regularly received by the ANNALIZE, v. Lat. Annalis, from Annus, a crown, under the name of first fruits, until the time AN'NALIST, year. of Queen Anne, when the entire amount of this tax AN'NAL.
To recite events chronologiwas appropriated to the augmentation of poor livings, cally, in the years in which they happened. under the name of Queen Anne's Bounty. See First
For among so many writers there hath yet none to my knowledge Fruits. In Scotland, the ann, or annat, is a half published any full, playne and meere Englishe historie. For some year's income of the benefice enjoyed by the widow, of them of purpose meaning to write short notes in maner of Anchildren, or representatives of a deceased clergyman. nales .cornmonly called Abridgementes, rather touch the tymes If he die without children, the widow receives one half when things were done, then declare the maner of the doyngs.
Grafton. Epistle to Sir Wm. Cecil. of the annat, and the nearest relatives of the deceased the other; if there are children, she receives one-third,
The miracle is deserving a Baronius to annalize it.
Sheldon, on Antichrist.
He that can prevail with himself to believe this, I do not see why
he may not as well admit, that if there were made innumerable
figures of the one and twenty letters, in gold, suppose, or any other Anna, in Ancient Geography, the name of a town
metal, and these well shaken and mixed together, and thrown down in the Holy Land, N. of Jericho, called by Josephus, from some light place to the ground, they when they lighted upon Aina. Also a town of Lydia, sometimes written Anaia. the earth, would be so disposed and ranked, that a man might see
Anna Liffey, or Liffen, a river of Ireland, which and read in them Ennius's Annals. runs in the county of Wicklow; and passing through
Ray's Wisdom of God in the Creation. Kildare, runs through the Leinster aqueduct, under The rapid progress of conquest, which we so much admire in the grand canal, and falls in a cascade down the rock ancient history, was here renewed in modern annals.
Hume's History of England. of Leixlip. Thence pursuing its course, it passes through the county and city of Dublin, and finally He [Ethelwolf) gave to Ethelstan his brother, or son, as some empties its waters into the Dublin bay.
write, the kingdom of Kent and Essex. But the Saxon annalist, ANNABERG, ST. a town of Saxony, in the circle of and Sussex, were bequeathed to Ethelstan by Ecbert his father.
whose authority is elder, saith plainly, that both these countries the Erzgeberg, in Misnia, 21 miles from Freyberg, and
Milton's Hist. of England. 36 from Dresden, with a population of about 4,500
Goddesse, should I from their original inhabitants, many of whom are employed in the mines,
Our sufferings tell, should you give eare to all which have long been famous in the neighbourhood : The Annals of our toyles; approaching Night but they are said to be now nearly exhausted. The First in Olympus would inclose the light. manufacture of lace also employs a great number
Sandys. Virgil's Æneis, book i. of women in this town. Here are a mint-office, a Could you with Patience peace, or I relate, public academy, an orphan-house, and a very large O Nymph! the tedions Annals of our Fate ! machine for the twisting of red silk. Not far from the
Thro’ such a train of Woes if I shou'd run, town there is an immense basaltic rock, called the Pil
The day would sooner than the tale be done !
Dryden. berg ; the Schreckenberg, another hill in the vicinity, at one time contained a mine of silver, now disused. A ANNAMABOE, a town of Africa, on the gold great part of the town was burnt down in the year 1731. coast, formerly the great market of the slave trade. ANNABON. See ANNOBON.
It is a strongly fortified place, having a port, which, ANNAH, a well-built town of Turkey, in Asia, in in 1808, with only a British garrison of 30 men, withthe government of Bagdad, situated on the E. bank of stood the attacks of 20,000 Ashantees, who were the river Euphrates, about 150 miles from Bagdad. compelled to raise the siege and retire.
ANNALE, in some authors of the middle ages, has ANNAMOOKA, or ROTTERDAM, an island in the the same meaning with anniversarium ; that is, a day South Pacific Ocean, being one of those called the held yearly in commemoration of the dead. But it is Friendly islands, in W. lon. 174°, 38', and S. lat. 20°. more peculiarly applicable to the masses for the dead It was discovered in the year 1643 by the celebrated celebrated for a year.
Dutch navigator, Tasman, and has been frequently ANNALES, in old writers, is a term used to denote visited by Europeans since. Captain Cook was here yearlings, or young cattle of a year old.
in 1774, and again in 1777 ; Captain Bligh, in the ANNALES Libri, in the Civil Law, are books con- Bounty, in 1789, and Captain Edwards twice in the taining the whole proceedings and acts of a year, in year 1791. It is of a triangular form, from 10 to 12 which it stands in opposition to semestres libri, which miles round, and of similar character and productions contain the constitution and acts of six months. with the whole group of the Friendly Islands, which
ANNALIS BACULI, a kind of almanack made of see. In the centre is a large salt water lake. The wood, used by our forefathers, who denominated them shores of this island are often dangerous to reach for clogs, or rumstocks.
the sand-banks and islets which surround them ; but ANNALIS Clavus, in Antiquity, the nail which hte the ships, in passing, generally call for wood, of which,
ANNA- and of yams and various useful vegetables, this island nally founded under the name of Severn, by the ANNAMOOKA. contains a great abundance. There is one tree here, remains of an army settled here in the reign of Queen POLIS
. however, called by the natives Faitanoo, of which the Anne. The French occupied it for a short time about
navigator should be warned. It is a species of pepper, the year 1605 ; but they were driven out of it by the POLIS.
and so inflammatory to the eyes and any of the part of English. The county of this name, which lies on the
ANNAN, a sea-port town of Scotland, in the county gold, the angles between the cross set with diamonds,
Whan it is fall downe to grounde
So as the fire it hatli aneled, of the river, across which there is a bridge of five
Like vnto slime, whiche is congeled.
Gower. Con. A. book vii.
Fuller's Worthies. Kent.
Haci been an emanation of the soul;
Which her own inward symmetry reveal'd,
And like a picture shone, in glass anneal d. be seen the ruins of a castle, built by the ancestors of
Dryden's Epitaph. xii. the celebrated King Robert Bruce, who acquired it, ANNEALING, or NEALING. See USEFUL ARTS, together with the neighbouring territory, as a fief. Div. ii. The river Annan, which contains abundance of salmon ANNECY, or Anneci, a town of the duchy of and trout, rises in the county of Peebles, and flowing Genevois, the largest of all the Savoy part of the through Dumfriesshire, falls into the Solway Frith, duchy, of which it is the capital. It is 30 miles from after a course of about 30 miles.
Chamberry, in a delightful country, at the extremity ANNANDALE, a district or stewartry, on the banks of a lake of the same name, on the road between of the above river, about 30 miles in length, and from Chamberry and Geneva, and contains a population of 15 to 18 in breadth. It is but partially cultivated, but about 3,440 inhabitants. The canal of Thioux runs contains abundant evidence of its former importance. through the town, in its passage from the lake to the During the Roman domination, it was comprehended river Sier. The lake of Annecy is about 13 miles in in the province of Valentia. Numerous fortresses were length, and above two in breadth. It is principally also erected upon it by the borderers, both English formed of the snows of the Alps, which rush into it in and Scotch.
copious streams, and is very deep and cold. ANNAPOLIS, a town of North America, on the river ANNERY, one of the Asiatic tribes of the desert Severn, in the state of Maryland, of which it is the W. of Palmyra, who rear some of the noblest horses capital. It is at present a small but thriving city, of those regions, and perhaps of the world. advantageously situated on the borders of the Chesa
ANNET, one of the Scilly isles, about a mile from peak bay; and the inhabitants are, for the most part, St. Agnes. It is at present entirely uninhabited ; but reckoned wealthy. The state-house is in the centre of the foundations of buildings are sometimes to be seen the town, from which well-built streets branch off in at low water, besides several stone basons; these are all directions. Distant 30 miles S. of Baltimore, and conjectured, but without any certain authority, to be 32 E. by N. of Washington.
Druidical remains. ANNAPOLIS ROYAL, originally called Port Royal, by ANNEX', v. the French, is a handsome town of Nova Scotia, stand ANNEX', n. Annecto, annexum; from ad, ing at the mouth of a sinall river of the same name, ANNEX'ARY, necto, to knit, or bind to. and having one of the finest natural ports in the world. ANNEXA'TION, To bind, fasten, or unite to; in The basin is large enough to contain several hundred ANNEX'ION, addition to. ships, being two miles in length by about one broad; Axxex'MENT. nor has it anywhere less than four or five fathoms of
If loue be searched well and sought water; in most places six or seven ; and on one side as It is a sicknesse of the thought much as 18 fathoms. In the centre is Goat island, Annexed and knedde betwixt tweine which, with the mouth of the harbour, is frequently
With male and female with o cheine.
Chaucer. The Romaunt of the Rose, fo. 138. c. 4. enveloped in fogs. There is a fort here, manned by
Perchaunce there bee manye that are desirous of dignitie, but for about 100 men. The city has some excellent houses, al that thei weigh not with theselfes, what carke and care dignitie but is at present rather small in extent. It was origi- hath annexed ynto it,
Udall. 1 Timothie, cap. iii.
structive rage of the barbarous nations, was the greatest, as well as ANNIHIWhose heart I thought I had, for she had mine,
the most beautiful city in Europe Robertson's State of Europe, LATE. AN NIHI. Which whilst it was mine, had annex't unto't
If it be allowed then that space is a substance, it is either created
or increated. Surely it cannot be a created substance, because we ANNOPack'd cards with Cæsar, and false playd my glory
cannot conceive it possible to be created, since we cannot conceive BON, Unto an enemy's triumph.
it as non-existent and creatable, which may be conceived concerning Shakespeare's Ant. and Cleo. act iv, sc. 12. every created being. Nor can we conceive it properly as annihi
lated or annihilable, which we may suppose of every creature.
Watts's Phil. Essays.
as difficult to human comprehension as creation itself,
its opposite. Hence, among the profoundest philoso-
was no part of their system. The Brahminical faith
Bp. Hall's Account of Himself, consider personal annihilation the greatest possible re-
ward of virtue.
Among Christian writers, the subject of annihilation
has been a fruitful source of controversy. Some writers
It is a massie wheele
to Deity; while others have contended that it must be
the easiest of all operations, or rather that it needs no Are mortiz'd and adioyn'd: which when it falles,
exertion whatever, on the part of God, all things havEach small annexment, pettie consequence
ing a tendency to destruction, and infinite power being Attends the boystrous ruine.
Id. Hamlet, act ii.
required to uphold them. Such speculations it would Industry hath annexed thereto, by divine appointment and pro
seem impossible, to finite minds, to set at rest. They mise, the fairest fruits, and the richest rewards.
arise out of that most unanswerable of all questions, [The lay people of all sorts] enroll themselves into one or more What is possible or impossible to Omnipotence? Mr. of these societies, approaching so much nearer to the state of the Evans, in his popular Sketch of the Denominations of clergy; unto which sundry of them are no other than annexaries.
the Christian World, has introduced an account of a sect
called Destructionists, who contend, with some learned
men of former times, for the annihilation of the wicked
Gilpin's Sermons. as their final punishment; and so understand all the
ANNIVER'SARY, n. Annus, a year ;
ANNIVER'SARY, adj. verto, to turn.
That which returns at
the end of the year ; or ANNIHILATION, take away the being or exist- yearly.
ANNI'HILABLE. ence ; to deprive of power And soon after dyed dame Blaunche, somtyme the wyfe of
Henry duke of Lācastre, and was buryed at Poules vpon the northe
Fabyan, p. 480.
We verily (as you know well enough) make feasts for the vic-
Id, Ib. fo. 189. - Spirits that live throughout
(upon that anniversary day) is full of sacrifices and due honours.
Holland's Plutarch's Morals.
Shall an anniverse
Be kept with ostentation to rehearse
A mortal prince's birth-day, or repeat
An eighty-eight, or powder-plot's defeat?
Hale, on Christmas Day, 1658.
I find, upon inquiry, that on the anniversary of the revolution in
1688, a club of dissenters, but of what denomination I know not, Bp. Hall's Satan's Fiery Darts Quenched.
have long had the custom of hearing a sermon in one of their
Burke, on the French Revolution.
When Nicanor, the deadly enemy of the Jews, was discomfited
and slain, a day was appointed by public authority, next before have been the maker or creator of them as well as the whole world; Mordekee's fcast, to be kept anniversarily sacred unto the memory and the only eternal and immortal God; all those other gods, as
of that deliverance and victory. Bp. Hall's Polemnical Works.
W. of Cape Lopez, on the coast of Congo, in E. lon.