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*** After place where he angles, by beating about the bushes and hedges of the neighbourhood;

open when caught, and observing what food is contained in the intestines.



places in this work. We shall, therefore, not parti. ANGLE. AN'GLED,

cularize them in this place, but confine our remarks AN'GULAR,

Lat. Angulus, a corner. Gr. to one or two cases which more properly belong to
ANGULAR'ITY, Ayyudov, ayyulow, to curve, to this article.

Angle of contact is that made by a curve line and a

tangent to it, at the point of contact, as the angle IHK AN'GULOUS.

(fig 6. MISCEL. pl. V.)
Another answerd, and said, it might wel be

It is demonstrated by Euclid, that the angle of con-
Naturelly by compositions

tact formed between a right line, or tangent, and the
Of angles, and of slie reflections ;

arc of a circle, is less than any right lined angle whatAnd saide that in Rome was swiche on.

ever, although it does not, therefore, follow, that is
Chaucer. The Squieres Tale, v. i. p. 428.

of no magnitude or quantity. This has been a subject
A master-cook! why, he's the man of men,
For a professor ! he designs, he draws,

of great dispute amongst certain geometricians, in
He paints, he carves, he builds, he fortifies,

which Peletarius, Ozaram, Clavius, Jacquet, Wallis, Makes citadels of curious fowl and fish,

&c. bore a considerable part; the two former and the
Some he dry-ditches, some motes round with broths; latter contending that it was no angle at all, against
Mounts marrow-bones; cuts fifty-angled custards.

Clavius, who rightly, in our opinion, maintained, that
Ben Jonson's Mas. Nep. Tri.
If neither the regard of himself, nor the reverence of his elders

it was not an actual nullity, although it was incomand friends prevail with him, to leave his vitious appetite ; then as parable with a rectilinear angle ; but that its incomthe time urges, such engines of terror God hath given into the hand parability consisted, not in its being nothing, but in of the minister, as to search the tenderest angles of the heart. its being a quantity of a different kind; a surface is

Milton's Reason on Church-Govern. incomparable with a solid ; but it would be absurd, on There are also virtues, wherein smallness of quantity has the that account, to say that a surface has no magnitude. greatest effect, as a sharp point penetrates easier than a blunt one,

Sir Isaac Newton himself did not disdain taking and as the angular point of a diamond cuts glass.

Bacon's Novum Organum.

some part in this controversy; he proved that angles Nor doth the frog, though stretched out, or swimming, attain of contact, although incomparable with rectilinear the rectitude of man, or carry its thigh without all angularity.

angles, might be compared with each other, showing,

Brown's Vulgar Errours. at the same time, the measure of those comparisons. The anti-face to this is your lawyer's face, a contracted, sublime, Thus the circular angles of contact IHK, IHL, are and intricate face, full of quirks and turnings, a labyrinthean face, to each other reciprocally, as the square roots of the now angularly, now every way aspected.

diameters HM, HN. And hence the circular angle of Ben Jonson's Cynthia's Revels.

contact may be divided by describing internediate
The cyclops follow'd; but he sent before

circles, into any number of parts, and into any pro-
A rib, which from the living rock he tore :
Though but an angle reach'd him of the stone,

The mighty fragment was enough alone

If, instead of circles, the curves were parabolas, and
To crush all Acis.

Dryden's Ovid's Met. the point of contact II, the common vertex of their axis,
I do not find any natural object which is angular, and at the the angles of contact would then be reciprocally as the
same time beautiful. Indeed few natural objects are entirely square roots of their parameters ; but in elliptical and
Burke, on the Sublime and Beautiful.

hyperbolic angles of contact, these will be reciprocally Solid bodies are held together by hooks, and angulous involu as the square roots of the ratios compounded of the tions.


ratios of the parameters and of the transverse axis. Emeralds, which grow in the fissures, are ordinarily crystallized, Solid ANGLE. We have already stated that a solid Solid anglo. or shot into angulated figures.


angle is that made by the meeting of three or more ANGLE is generally the opening or mutual inclina- plane angles which are not in the same plane. It may tion of two lines meeting in a point, or the mutual otherwise be defined, as the angular space included inclination and intersection of three or more planes between several plane surfaces, or one or more curve meeting in one common point or vertex. The latter surfaces, meeting in the point which forms the summit is denominated a solid angle.

of the angle. If the two lines referred to above be both straight, Adopting the latter definition, it has been shown the angle is said to be rectilinear ; if one be a curve and by Dr. Gregory, in the third volume of Dr. Hutton's the other a right line, it is a mixtilinear angle; if they Course of Mathematics, that solid angles bear just the both be curves, a curvilinear angle; and if they both same relation to the spherical surfaces which form their be arcs of circles, a spherical angle.

base, as a plane angle does to the arc of the circle by Angles are further distinguished by their quantities which it is subtended. That is, supposing a sphere to or measures, or the purposes to which these measures be described about the vertex of the solid angle as a or angles are applied, or the sciences into which they centre, and the planes by which it is comprised to be are introduced; hence we have a variety of different produced, these will cut off a certain portion of the angles in geometry, trigonometry, optics, astronomy, spherical surfaces, which is assumed as the measure of fortification, &c., which will be defined in their proper the solid angle. A similar idea was suggested by

square base

ANGLE. Albert Girard, in his Inventions Nouvelles en l'Algebra; 4th of the hemispherical surfaee. In like manner, a ANGLE

but it seems wholly to have escaped the notice of ma- right prism 'with a square base will cut off one-fourth ANGLESEA. thematicians ; and the incomparability of solid angles of the hemispherical surface; and in the same way

ANGLE with each other has been obstinately maintained by may the measures of the solid angles of the following

SE.. many celebrated geometricians.

figures be determined :
Nothing is, however, more obvious than that with
respect to their absolute magnitude ; these angles are Right-angled prism, with
as simply measured as plane angles, and that they

triangular base

+. 1000, may be divided, multiplied, &c. after the same manner,

1. 1000, whether they form on the sphere itself a triangle, poly

pentagonal base

ra. 1000, gon, or circle: all that can be objected is, that they

hexagonal base

1r. 1000, may be equal, and not similar ; but this is no more


Tj. 1000, than happens to every quantity which has reference to


.. 1000, three dimensions.


7. 1000, If we assume the whole surface of any sphere de


75. 1000, scribed about the vertex of a solid angle as a centre,


s. 1000, as 1000, or that of the hemisphere 1000, or any other


*4.1000, number at pleasure, and then compute the area of the


2. 1000. spherical base of that angle on the sphere, we shall have the specific value of the solid angle in question ; Hence, it may be deduced, that each angle of a and as the surface thus cut off by the planes, containing regular prism, with a triangular base, is half each solid certain solid angles, is readily computed, it may not angle of a prism, with a regular hexagonal base. Each be amiss to state a few of the principal results, as they with a regular are given in the work above referred to.

square base= { of each, with regular octangular base, Thus, with respect to the right prism, with an equi- pentagonal= 4 of each, with decagonal lateral triangular base, each solid angle is formed by hexagonal = of each, with duodecagonal planes which make, respectively, angles of 90', 90', and

m-4 60°; consequently 90° + 90° + 60° – 180° = 60° is

+ m-gonal = of each, with m-gonal the measure of such an angle, compared with 360°, as For other measures and properties of these angles, the maximum, and is therefore one-sixth of the maxi- we refer to the volume of Dr. Hutton's Course of Mainum angle ; or, which is the same, it will cut off thematics before quoted.

ANGLES, a town of France, in the department of ments were toward the north of the Elbe, and the the Tarn, Lower Languedoc, arondissement of Castres. district of Anglen, in the duchy of Sleswick, seems It is the head of a canton, 19 leagues W. of Montpe- still to retain their name. This is the tribe which, lier, and contains 2,500 inhabitants.

according to Rapin and many other writers, gave the Angles, or Angli, in Ancient History, a tribe of name of England to the subjects of our Egbert, early the Suevi, mentioned by Cæsar, as the most daring and in the ninth century. noble spirited of all the Germans. Their final settle


ANGLESEA, an island of the Irish sea, now forin Anglesea is of an irregular triangular form, indented ing one of the six counties of North Wales, from which throughout with bays and creeks. Its greatest length, it is separated by the narrow strait of Menai. Its from north-west to south-east, is about 20 miles, and Roman name was Mona, from the ancient British, Môn, its breadth, from north-east to south-west, 16 miles, which is conjectured by Rowland, in his Mona Antiqua containing upwards of 200,000 acres of land. It is Restaurata, "to allude to its forming the terminating divided into six hundreds, Llyfon, Maltraeth, Menai, point of the British territories in this direction. It Talybolion, Twicelyn, and Tyndaethwy, which comwas also called, by the ancient Britons, Ynys Dowyll, prise twenty-four parishes, and four market-towns. or the Shady Island, and Ynys y Cedeirn, from its Beaumaris, Holyhead, Lanerchymedd, and Newburyh. powerful chiefs ; and seems tó have received its pre- By the latest population returns, it appears to contain sent name, Anglesca, on its conquest by Egbert. Bede 33,806 inhabitants, 9,766 of whom are employed in calls this island and that of Man, the Menavian isles. agriculture, and 2,614 in trade or manufactures. The channel of Menai, both at the time of the Roman This island has no streams of any importance, or and English conquests of this island, appears to have that are navigable for vessels of burden ; but its barbeen much narrower than at present, and there are bours are both numerous and convenient. That of traces of an isthmus near Porthaeth-'hwy, which Beaumaris, with its two creeks, Holyhead and Ainwould induce the supposition of its having once joined wiek, is taken as a member of the port of Chester. the main land of Caernarvonshire.

Red-wharf bay, to the north of Beaumaris, is said to


SANGLE- be capable of being made very safe and commodious rude, and rises into enormous rocks of coarse white ANGLESEA. at a small expense, and Dulas bay is 'a considerable quartz. The ore is lodged in a basin, or hollow; and

SEA. outlet for the lead-mines in its vicinity. Aberfraw was has on one side a small lake, on whose waters, disanciently a port of consequence, and the chief seat of tasteful as those of Avernus, no bird is ever known to the princes of North Wales. The other harbours are alight. The whole aspect of this tract has, by the miPerth-Ilangdy, Cemlyn, or Crooked Pool bay, and neral operations, assumed a most savage appearance. Maldraeth, or Maltraeth, on the western side. The Suffocating fumes of the burning heaps of copper arise climate is considerably milder than in the adjacent coun- in all parts, and extend their baleful influence for miles ties of North Wales; but is rendered unhealthy, in the around. In the adjacent parts, vegetation is nearly autumn, by the frequent fogs that hang over the destroyed : even the mosses and lichens of the rocks island, and which subject the inhabitants to agues. have perished; and nothing seems capable of resisting The general aspect of the country, which was certainly the fumes but the purple Melic grass (Melica cærulea), once remarkable for its woods, is naked and uninviting, which flourishes in abundance. I have little doubt but

with the exception of a small portion of it, bordering that the ore has been worked at in a very distant pe1

on the Menai straits. There are no considerable riod. Vestiges of the ancient operations appear in
mountains, hills, or vallies, to diversify the scenery; several parts, carried on by trenching, and by heating
and the greater part of the lands are unenclosed. Even the rocks intensely, then suddenly pouring on water,
on the shores of the strait, the trees are considerably so as to cause them to crack or scale, thus awkwardly
stinted in their growth, under the south-west winds. supplying the place of gunpowder. Pieces of charcoal
"May the inhabitants," says Fuller, “ be like the are also found, which prove that wood was made use
land they live in, which appears worse than it is; seem of for that purpose.”

It is certain that the Romans ing barren but really fruitful, and affording plenty of were the undertakers of these mines; and it is very good wheat."

probable, that they sent the ore to Caer Hen to be The soil is, upon the whole, remarkably productive, smelted, the place where the famous cake of copper and amply watered by natural rivulets for the purposes was discovered.” Further on, he says, The body of of vegetation. “ Mon Mam Cymbry,” Anglesea is the copper ore is of unknown extent. The thickness has mother of Wales, was a proverb of former times, ac been ascertained in some places, by the driving of a cording to Fuller, “ because when other counties faile, level under it, several years ago, and it was found to she plentifully feedeth them with provision; and is said be in some places twenty-four yards. The ore is mostly to afford corn enough to sustain all Wales.” But it of the kind called by Cronstead, Pyrites cupri favo appears to have been considerably neglected until a viridescens; and contains vast quantities of sulphur. very recent period, and even now large marshes remain It varies in degrees of goodness; some of it is rich, but undrained, which would promise to afford rich grazing the greater part poor in quality. There are other spepastures. The soil is principally a fine loamy sand, cies of copper ore found here. Of late, a vein of Pyand, though sometimes shallow, will yield very heavy rites cupri griseus, of Cronstead, about seven yards crops; the marine sand of the mouth of the creeks wide, has been discovered, near the west end of the forms an excellent manure. Wheat, barley, and oats mountain; some is of an iron gray, some quite black ; are its principal productions, of which, in good seasons, the first contains 16 lbs. of copper for 100 lbs. the last 10,000 quarters are exported to the main land. The 40. An ore has been lately found in form of loose black cattle of Anglesea have also long been distin- earth, of a dark purplish colour, and the best of it guished. In the middle of the sixteenth century, there has produced better than 8 in 20. Some years ago, are accounts of three thousand head being sent off the above 30 lbs. of native copper was found in driving a island in one year; and, by the latest returns, this level through a turbary ; some was in form of moss, number has been increased to twelve, thirteen, and some in very thin leaves. It is quarried out of the bed fifteen thousand. To these exports are added annually, in vast masses; is broken into small pieces, and the about five thousand hogs; sheep, large quantities of most pure part is sold raw, at the rate of about 31. to wax, honey, tailow, and hides. In turning up the soil, 6l. per ton, or sent to the smelting-houses of the renumerous trees are found, in a remarkable state of pre- spective companies, to be melted into metal.” servation, and generally so black and hard as to form “Nature hath been profuse in bestowing her mineral

very neat and serviceable articles of household use. favours on this spot; for above the copper ore, and not als.

The mineral productions of Anglesea are both valuable more than three-quarters of a yard beneath the comand curious. Quarries, yielding excellent breccia for mon soil, is a bed of yellowish greasy clay, from one to mill-stones, and some few marble quarries, are worked four yards thick, containing lead ore ; and yielding with success; the latter principally of the gray and from 600 to 1,000 lbs. weight of lead from one ton; white marble. Pennant speaks of a green amianthus, and one ton of the metal yields not less than 57 ounces or brittle asbestos, found in great plenty, in a marble of of silver. Mixed with the earth are frequently certain that colour, near Rhoscolin. Some good coal-mines parts of the colour of cinnabar; whether these are have been opened in various parts of the island, and symptomatic of the sulphureous arsenical silver ores, particularly on the western shores. Lead ore is also or of quicksilver, I will not pretend to decide.” found here, in and around the Parys' mountain, the The history of the modern discovery of the value of History of copper of which is the most important mineral of the this mountain is curious :-A Mr. Alexander Frazier, the Parys' island. “ I visited Tryselwyn mountain,” says Mr. visiting Anglesea to explore the mines, in 1762, so con

mines. Pennant, on part of which, called Parys' mountain fidently represented to Sir Nicholas Bailey, the then pro(probably from a Rob. Parys' who was chamberlain prietor, his expectations of the metal that might be obof North Wales in the reign of Henry IV.), is the tained there, as to induce him to sink several shafts. All most considerable body of copper ore perhaps ever of them, however, were quickly overflowed withwater. In known. The external aspect of the hill is extremely 1764, Sir Nicholas insisted upon the lease of this moun, VOL. XVII.

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