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ANCYRA, of Galatia, in Asia Minor, belonging to the Tectosagi, Brazil; from the kernels of its fruit the natives extract AND

near the river Halys and lake Cenaxis. It is now called a purgative medicine, and an oil, which they use for ANDA.

ANDA Angouri by the Turks. Pausanias states, that it de- anointing themselves. rived its name from an anchor which was found there, ANDABAT E, in Antiquity (from araBauw, to and preserved in the temple of Jupiter. Augustus ascend), a term applied to those wrestlers who fought in added considerably to the beauty of this city, which chariots with their eyes blind-folded, and having albecame the metropolis of Galatia during the reign of most all their face concealed by a peculiar kind of helNero. Suidas denominates the inhabitants, who are met. From this circumstance the expression andubastill numerous, Hellenogalatæ, or Græco Galli. Also tarum more, indicative of rashness, originated. a town of Phrygia, mentioned as Ancyra Abasitidis, by ANDACOLLO, a town in the province of Coquimbo, Pliny, and another in Sicily. Paus. i. Plin. v. c. 32. Chili, the seat of the gold mines of the district.

AND, the imperative An-ad of the verb, Anan-ad, ANDAHUAILAS, a province of Peru, in South Ame. dare congeriem! Tooke, v. i. p. 135.

rica, bounded on the N. E. by the provinces of Abancay A singular combination certainly, and not supported and Aimaraez; on the S. E. by Parinacocha; on the by any authority. It appears to be given as a conjec. S. by Lucanas; on the W. by Vilcas Huaman; and on ture, for want of something better. An is used by R. the N. by the Andes. It contains a population of about Gloucester, and other writers, exactly as they use And. 12,000 inhabitants; and is said to have an annual proAnd is also not unfrequently used as An; If, Gif, duce of sugar, amounting to between 30,000 and Give. They may be the same word, merely the im- 40,000 arrobos, of 25 pounds each. The entire length perative An. The addition of the d must remain un of the province is 24 leagues from N. W. to S. E. and accounted for.

15 broad. It abounds with thick forests; but produces
He nome wýþ hým of Engelond god knygt menyon, considerable quantities of wheat, maize, and fruits of
An myd gret poer & muche folc puderward vende anon, various kinds.
So pat he sone come bysyde hys fon echon,

ANDALUSIA, or VANDALUSIA, an extensive dis-
An býleuede hym þer al nygt, & al hýs ost al so,

trict of Spain, comprising the provinces, or kingdoms, An pogte anon amorwe strong batayle do.

R. Gloucester, p. 319.

of Seville, Cordova, Jaen, and formerly Granada. It is

bounded on the W. by the Portuguese provinces of pys kyng Knout was tuentų ger köng of Engelond, An in a pousend ger of grace & prýtty, ých vnderstonde,

Alentejo and Algarve; on the N. by Spanish EstreAn syxe he deyde at Ssastebury, & at Wynchestre mýd gret prute madura and La Mancha, from which it is separated by At Seyn Swythynes lie was y bured, pere as be lyp gut.

the Sierra Morena mountains; on the S. by Granada, Id. p. 32-1.

frequently called Upper Andalusia, the straits of Me reweth sore I am unto hire teyde;

Gibraltar, and the ocean; and on the E. by Murcia,
For and I shulde rekene every vice,
Which that she hath, ywis I were to nice.

and part of Granada. The Guadalquiver river waters Chaucer. The Squieres Prologue, v. i, p. 418. this fine district through nearly its whole extent; while swete and wel beloved spouse dere,

the Guadiana, separating it from Portugal, fertilizes its Ther is a conseil, and ye wol it bere,

Jands on the west.
Which that right fayn I wold unto you saie,

Notwithstanding a considerable inequality of surface,
So that ye swere, ye wol it not bewraie.

and a material difference in the fertility of its respecId. The Second Nonnes Tale, v. ii. p. 207. What, quod the protectour thou seruest me I wene wittes & gether, as one of the richest portions of that country;

tive provinces, this part of Spain is deemed, taken altowith andes, I tel the thei haue so done, & that I will make good on thy body traitour.

and has been not unfrequently pronounced the most The Workes of Sir Thomas More, fol. 54. c. 2. fruitful and luxuriant part of Europe. It does not, Maister Masker goeth as wylily to woorke to take me, as a man however, exceed 250 miles in length, nor more than mýghte send a child about with salt in his hand, and bidde him goe 160 in breadth. Very large districts are found covered catch a byrde, by laying a little salte on her tayle, and when the with woods of olive-trees, growing wild, and yielding byrde is howen, coumfort bym then to goe catche another, and tell annually immense quantities of oil. Corn is grown in hym he hadde caughte that and it had tarried a little.

Id. fo. 1108. c. 2.

such abundance, that large quantities are exported by Cym. Bow

the inhabitants to various parts of the neighbouring knees : your Arise my Knights o' th' Battle, I create you

countries and districts. Honey, silk, sugar, and wine, Companions to our person, an will fit you

are produced here in great plenty; as also quickWith dignities becoming your estates.

silver, cinnabar, and antimony. Cattle of various kinds, Shakespeare's Cymbeline, act v.

and in great herds, are to be found almost all over the Ben. And I were so apt to quarrell as thou art

, any man should provinces. The horses are esteemed the best in the buy the fee-simple of my life, for an houre and a quarter.

Id. Romeo and Juliet. kingdom, and the bulls are always preferred at the And, in the beginning of a sentence, serveth instead of an ad bull-fights during the carnivals, so long observed in miration : And, what a notable sign of patience was it in Job, not this country. Their sheep produce a coarse kind of to murmur against the Lord !

wool, which is exported to various parts of Enrope, Ben Jonson's English Grammar.

chiefly from the populous and busy city of Cadiz, Secondly, Sir Launcelot,

which is situated in this province, or district. The Sir lowsie Launcelot, ye have suffer'd him, Against my power first, then against my precept,

climate of Andalusia is remarkably wholesome, and the To keep that simp’ring sort of people company,

inhabitants are, for the most part, reckoned much That sober men call civil: mark ye that, Sir ?

more active and enterprizing than the other natives of Lau. And't please your worship

Spain. They are said to combine, in their persons and
Seb. It does not please my worship.
Beau. and Fletch. Mons. Thomas, act ii. sc. 2.

character, a mixture of the art and cunning, with the

zeal and alertness of their Arabic ancestors. They ANDA, in Botany, a tree found in the forests of are thought to have originally sprung from a German



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DALU. colony of Vandals; and that hence the name of Anda. weapons consist of bows, arrows, and sharply-pointed ANDASIA. lusia, or Vandalusia is derived: their faces and dispo- spears; and they carry a shield made of the bark of a DIAN sitions differing very materially from those of the natives tree.

ISLANDS. * of Castile and other parts of Spain.

It is not certain whether they have any idea of reThe soil is capable of maintaining a much greater ligion. It bas been thought, however, that they worpopulation than at present occupies these provinces; but ship the sun and moon; and entertain a sort of dread this remark will apply to almost every other part of of the existence of an evil being, whom they call The this tine kingdom. In the year 1787, the three pro- Demon of Tempests: but their language is very singular, vinces did not contain more than 738,153 inhabitants; and imperfectly understood. They amuse themselves and of this number, Cadiz alone had 80,000.

by singing wild songs, the music of which is said to be Before the year 1243, Andalusia was in the hands of somewhat sweet and melodious; and their mirth is the Arabs; but between that year and 1250, Frederick attended with much gesticulation. the Third, or, as he was generally called, Frederick In the year 1791, a British settlement was formed the Saint, then king of Castile, took it from them, and on an islet in the south extremity of the Great Andaannexed it to the crown of Spain. During the late man; but on account of the insalubrity of the air, and peninsular war, Andalusia was the scene of many im- the frequent disputes with the surrounding savages, it portant engagements, and was subject to numerous was removed about two years afterwards to Port Cornchanges. For an account of New ANDALUSIA, see wallis, on the east side, about fifteen miles from the the article GUIANA.

opposite extremity of the same district. This was inANDALUSICUS, in Ornithology, a species of Tetrao, tended for the reception of the Bengal convicts; and which is denominated the Andalusian quail by Latham. as there is a fine harbour at the first place it was de

ANDAMAN ISLANDS, the name of several islands, sirable, on account of the shelter which it would have called the Great and Little Andaman, lying on the east afforded during the blowing of the monsoons. It has side of the bay of Bengal, in E. lon. 92°, and N. lat. been thought, that an allusion is made to these islands 10°, 32', containing a population of about 2,500 per- in the travels of two Mahometans during the ninth cen

The Great Andaman, being divided by narrow tury; but their early history is involved in great obstraits, besides the four principal islands, of which it scurity. consists, embraces several inconsiderable islets, com ANDANCE, a town of France, in Languedoc, deprehending, in the whole, an area of about 150 miles partment of Ardeche, arrondissement of Tournon. It in length, and from 18 to 30 in breadth. The Little is, though very small, containing not more than 860, or Andaman, which lies about 30 miles south of the 1,000 inhabitants, the head of a canton, and was, at one former, is only 28 miles long, and 17 broad.

time, the station of a provincial tax-office. It is about The air and climate of these islands are more mild soven leagues from Vienne, and 134 from Paris, situand temperate than on the Indian coast; some parts, ated at the conflux of the Deaume and the Rhone. however, are insalubrious; and the native inhabitants ANDANIA, in Ancient Geography, a city of Arcaare an extremely savage, artful, and mischievous race, dia, celebrated as the place where Aristomenes received perhaps, with the exception of the natives of New Hol- his education. It derived its name from gulf in its land, the most uncivilized tribe of human beings hitherto vicinity. Paus. iv. c. 1–33. discovered. Their stature is low, their skins dead black, ANDANTE, in Music, from the Italian andare, to their hair woolly, their noses flat, their lips thick, and walk, a medium between very quick and very slow their eyes small and red. Their whole persons exhibit movement. It also denotes tender or soothing. evident marks of the scantiness of their subsistence. It ANDANTINO, the diminitive of andante, relates to has been proved, however, contrary to what was thought movements rather quicker, and approaching to alleof them in early times, that they are not cannibals. gretto, or graziosa. Their food is principally procured from the sea; and ANDAYE, a town of France, in Gascony, department they devour, with greediness, rats, lizards, and snakes. of the Lower Pyrennees, arrondissement of Bayonne, Having no means of cooking their victuals in vessels, two leagues and a quarter from St. Jean de Luz; situated they cannot avail themselves of the rice, and some other on the river Bidussea, in the Terre de Labour, a part of seeds and plants, to be found on their islands; they the Pas de Basques, opposite to the Spanish fortress nevertheless cultivate rice, and some other fruits, which of Fontarabia. It contains only 110 houses, and a they dispose of to the Europeans who visit them from small port, but carries on a considerable trade in time to time. They half broil their fish on the embers, brandy. and then devour it with characteristic eagerness.

ANDEB. See Aintas. They wear no kind of clothing whatever, and live in ANDEGARIA, in Ancient Geography, a country rudely-constructed huts, consisting of four posts stuck upon the sea coast of Gaul, near the 'Turones. Tacit. in the ground, bound together at the top, and covered Ann. iii. c. 41. with branches. Their beds consist of the leaves of trees ANDEGAST, a hamlet in the grand duchy of Baden, thrown together in heaps on the ground Insects infest circle of the Thinzig, bailiwick of Oberkirch, standing these islands in great numbers, against which the natives on a lake of the same name, near the town of Oppenan. protect themselves by a thick plaster of mud, with It is now celebrated only on account of a famous chalywhich they every morning bedaub their whole bodies, beate spring that is found here. It formerly belonged leaving it to encrust by the rays of the sun. Their to the bishop of Strasburgh. hair they clot by a composition of red ochre and ANDELAT, a town of France, in Champagne, devater; and thus they are completely dressed for the partment of Upper Marne, arrondissement of Chaulay; giving to their naturally deformed bodies the mont, from which place it is distant only four leagues nost frightfal and horrid appearance imaginable. Their and a half. It is the head of a canton, and is situated on

ANDE- the banks of the Rougnon. Population 850 in ANDERNACH, a town of Germany, situated on the ANDE? LAT. habitants.

Rhine, between Coblentz and Rouen, being distant Juli ANDELFINGEN, a district and market-town of from the former about six miles, and 25 from Cologne, ANDER

AVEC J.ECHT. Switzerland, in the canton of Zurich, circle of Winter to the elector of which it formerly belonged; but it is

TDI thur, between the town of that name, and that of now included in the grand duchy of the Lower Rhine, care Schaffhausen, on the banks of the Thur. It has a and belongs to Prussia. The white tower, which once population of 2,000 inhabitants; and the adjoining formed the boundary between the territories of Cleves country abounds with corn and fruits, and produces and Cologne, is still to be seen here. The population considerable quantities of wine. The Val de Flaach is amounts to about 2,020 persons, who derive considerparticularly fruitful. This is also the name of a small able pecuniary advantages from a very productive toll parochial village of Suabia, in the kingdom of Wir on the Rhine, the vineyards that adorn its banks, and temberg.

a manufactory of China ware. The great junction of ANDELYS, a town of France, in Upper Normandy, small timber floats that navigate the Rhine in this district of Vexin. It consists of two divisions, called neighbourhood, is near Andernach; where they ultithe Great and Little Andeli, both formerly bearing the mately form the great float of 1,000 feet in length, and title of viscomte, and is now at the head of an arron 90 in breadth, commonly destined for the town of Dort, dissement, in the modern department of the Eure, in Holland. This raft employs four hundred men to eight leagues from Rouen, and the same distance from

manage and pilot it, and produces, when sold, from Evreux. The arrondissement forms the N. E. portion 80,000 to 100,000 forins. They also export very large of the department, bordering on the departments of mill-stones to Holland. Near the town is found an the Seine and Oise; the Oise, the Somme, and the excellent kind of terras-stone, with which the houses Seine Inferieure, containing a population of 62,200 in this part of Germany are usually built. There is a inhabitants; the Great and Little Andeli having them strong castle here; and not far from the town formerly selves 5,256 inhabitants. A considerable manufacture stood the rich Augustine nunnery of St. Thomas. of stuff, called rateen, is carried on here, and the ANDERO, ST. or SANTANDER, a sea-port town of inhabitants also cultivate apples for cider in great Spain, on the bay of Biscay, standing on a peninsula in quantities.

W. lon. 4°, and N. lat. 43°, 20. It once was a conANDEN, a village of Namur, containing 2,450 inha- siderable rendezvous of the Spanish navy, and conbitants, and once famous for a nunnery, which is now tained a royal arsenal and dock-yard, where ships of suppressed.

war were built. The harbour, however, is gradually ANDENES, an island and town, near the coast of filling up with sand-banks, so that no large vessels can Norway, in the North sea.

enter; but the town still preserves a brisk trade for a ANDERA, in Ancient Geography, a town in Phry- Spanish port. Here are two parish churches, four gia where stones were found which, by the action of monasteries, and from 700 to 800 houses. A good fire, might be transmuted into iron. Cybele was wor road leads from St. Andero to the interior of Spain. shipped here under the name of Anderina. STRABO, The Spanish troops from the north of Europe were disxii.

embarked at this place in 1808. Population 4,900. ANDERAB, a town of Usbeck Tartary, distant from ANDERSON'S ISLAND, an island in the North Bulkh about 130 miles, and situated in the only pass of Pacific ocean, so called by Captain Cooke, in honour those mountains which separate the Great Bukharia of Mr. Anderson, surgeon of the Resolution, who died from Hindostan.

near it, in the year 1778. It lies in W. lon. 1670, 40, ANDERLECHT, a town of the kingdom of the and N. lat. 63°, 10', near the north-western coast of Netherlands, adjoining the city of Brussels. It is a America. very neat and well-built place, having a population of ANDERVILLE CAPE, a promontory on the coast 1,930 inhabitants, with a collegiate chapter of twenty of Normandy, in France, 13 miles W. Ń, W. of Chercanons, and a provost.




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Andes, a chain of mountains in America, commonly parallel lines, the western one being a continuation of ANDES. considered as commencing in N. lat. 8°, at the isth- the mountains which rise almost imperceptibly in the mus of Panama, and running south in a line parallel province of Darien, and which never exceed the altito the coast of the Pacific ocean as far as Cape Pilares, tude of 4,500 feet in this direction. This ridge divides in S. lat. 53°, at the mouth of the straits of Magellan, the province of Choco on the west, from the river a distance of about 4,200 miles. M. Humbolt and Cauca eastward. The middle ridge, which is the some other writers extend the parent ridge northward loftiest of the three, runs between the latter stream into New Spain, and consider the Rocky or Stony and the waters of the great river Magdalena. In its mountains of North America as forming a continuation highest altitude it rises into the region of perpetual of the Andes; but their nct mineralogical charac- frost; and, clothe with the rays of the rising sun, it ter, and the almost entire disappearance of the ridge presents a most imposing spectacle from the city of in the northern parts of the isthmus of Panama, have Santa Fe. The three most elevated points are the generally, and, as we think, justly confined this name Guanacas, the Baragan, and the Quindiu mountains.

to the unparalleled ranges of the southern continent. The eastern ridge divides the Magdalena from the eral Thus restricted, this is by far the most important plains of the Meta, but possesses no very lofty mounistures of chain of mountains in the world. Penetrating almost tains. In the province of Popyan, at the latitude alnese bloun- all the climates of the earth in its course from north to ready named, these ridges re-unite. Across the equa

south, it presents also in some of its single heights, tor the Andes form but a single line; but in the properpendicularly, an equal variety of temperature, and vince of Quito they separate, at about half their an epitome of all the seasons. Under the equator the altitude, into their two most remarkable and most Andes attain their greatest altitude, and the majestic elevated chains, comprising the Chimborazo, the Cay- The central Chimborazo exhibits its masses of everlasting snow at ambe Ureu, the Pichincha, Cotopaxi, &c. At Cuenza, group. an elevation, according to the latest accounts, of up- in about S. lat. 39, these central ridges terminate in wards of 21,000 feet from the level of the ocean. Far the parent stem, and from this place to their southern below this amazing height human respiration is difficult, extremity, the great line of the Andes is but little and the cold more piercing than in any known region known. It seems, however, according to D'Anville, of the Arctic seas; but in no portion of the globe is frequently to consist of two or three pointed ridges, vegetation more luxuriant than towards the base and from 100 to 150 miles in breadth, with immense plains in the plains of the Andes: here a temperate and un of various elevationts between and around them. Ulloa changing climate has invited European opulence to fix speaks of the average height of these plains as being its seat; whilst the Lower Savannahs glow occasionally from 8,000 to 10,000 feet from the level of the sea. with the utmost heat of the tropics. In nothing are In the neighbourhood of the town of Cuzco, in Peru, the Andes more distinguished than in the surprising the Andes assume, with the coast, a S. E. direction, elevation of the plains at their base, and between them, and diverge into many subordinate branches, which which exceed the height of some of the loftiest mountains form prodigious plains of what has been called tableof the Old World. They are also remarkable for their land." Here, and amongst the highest uplands, the numerous volcanic peaks in every stage of destructive Apurimac, the Beni, and other streams that finally activity, and pouring forth inexhaustible fires in regions form the majestic river Maragnon, have their sources. of perpetual frost; for the horrid crevices with which Further south, in lat. 16°, the remarkable lake Titithey are interspersed reaching sometimes to the depth caca, or Chucuito, is embosomed between two parallel of several thousand feet; and for the mighty streams ridges of the Andes, and receives the waters of from that rush from them in every direction into the sur ten to twelve large rivers. This noble basin is 240 rounding seas. Desolating earthquakes, which have miles in circumference, and navigable for the largest occasionally engulphed whole mountains and cities, vessels; it contains the island of Titicaca, supposed are also common to these regions, which seem almost to have been once the residence of Manco Capac, and designed to present the extremes of earthly peace and formerly adorned by the incas of Peru, with the celeinsecurity, and to unite everything charming with brated temple of the Sun. In these regions the great every thing appalling to man in the operations of river La Plata finds its source. nature.

The Andes of Chili form three parallel ranges, of Andes of The principal chain of the Andes preserves a medium which the centre is by far the loftiest, and contains Chili. distance of 150 miles from the western shore of South several single mountains, upwards of 20,000 feet in America, and traverses successively the kingdoms of height. The principal ones which are known are the New Granada, Quito, Peru, Chili, and Patagonia. It Manflos, in S. lat. 28°, 45'; the Tupungato, in 33°, is rich in precious metals, and contains, from Cotopaxi 24'; the Descabesado, in 35°; the Blanquillo, in 350, 4';

to the straits of Magellan, not less than forty volcanoes, the Longavi, in 35°, 30'; the Chillan, in 36°; and the various which are constantly burning. The first separation of Corcobado, in 43° The eastern and westen ridges

this main chain, as it descends toward the south, into are from 20 to 30 miles distant from this amazing stem. distinct ridges, is in New Granada, and extends from Fourteen volcanoes have been reckoned on this part of N. lat. 5o, 15' to 2°, 30'. It consists of three nearly the Andes, from one of which, in December 1760, a




ANDES. considerable eruption took place, rending one of the beds of gneiss and mica slate, and a sort of detached ANDES

mountains completely asunder, and forming a chain at Capellum is formed of a mass of sand-stone,
lake. Throughout the province this cordillera main- resting on a calcareous base. At Barcelona immense
tains an unaltered elevation, and a breadth with its plains unite with those of the Caraccas, and extend
plains of nearly 120 miles. Between the 24o and 32° southward to the Oronoco.
of S. lat. the Andes are wholly desert; at the latter The second division, called the Cordillera of the Seando
point, and to lat. 45', they begin to be inhabited by Cataracts of the Oronoco, which branches out from the vision
various barbarous tribes in alliance with the Arauca- main Andes between the third and sixth degress of N.
nians. The Andes of Patagonia, or Terra Magellanica, lat., displays a range of primitive mountains, which
are wholly in the possession of unconquered and savage have been accurately surveyed by Humboldt for upwards

of 600 miles, i.e. from the Black river to the borders Tiree sub From the principal chain of the Andes, which we of the Grand Para. It runs eastward from the Panamo, ordinate di- have thus traced from its rise in the isthmus of Panaina or lofty plains of Tuquillo and St. Martin, near the visions of Humbolt.

to its termination in the strait of wlagellan, Humbolt sources of the Guaviari, and gives rise to the noble describes, the three subordinate chains, or cordilleras, streams of the Meta, Zama, and Ymerida, which form with which we are (chiefly by his own recent travels) in their course, the cataracts of Maypure and Aturé. best acquainted, as branching out at right angles, in The greatest altitude of this chain is found beyond the following directions :

tiese cataracts, in the southern direction which it First divi. The first of these inferior divisions, called some takes into the Portuguese territories, a portion of the siou. times the Cordillera of New Granada, is on the coast Andes which is only known to us from the accounts of

of Venezuela. Though this chain is higher in point mercantile adventurers into its boundless forests for of general elevation than the others, it is inferior sarsaparilla and other productions of the soil. Here, in breadth, and irregularly bends from the river as far as conjecture may supply the fact, the sources of Atrato to the east, until it reaches the stream of Mag- the Oronoco are supposed to exist, for they never have dalena, which flows through the province of St. Martha, been traced; the whole country being occupied by forming in its course the Sierra of Abibe and of Cauca, barbarous tribes. Further cast the Andes are occaand the lofty plains of Tolu. On its approach towards sionally seen to break through the forests which surthe gulf of Mexico, it becomes contracted progressively, round the lake of Parime and the Amazons, by the until it reaches the vicinity of Cape Veta. Here the name of the Sierrade Quineropaca and Pacaraimo. They chain divides itself into two ridges, which run in a are here about 200 miles broad, and, after a short parallel direction to each other, and are re-united by course to the east, bend southward along the banks two arms, enclosing three lofty vallies, which rise gra- of the Mao to the Sierra Ucucuamo, or El Dorado dually one above the other, attaining their highest (Golden mountain), of the first visitors of South Amepoint towards the east, in the government of Caraccas. rica, a hill which is entirely composed of shining yellow Humboldt ascertained the elevation of the plain of the mica. Stretching across the country from this point, Caraccas to be 2,660 feet above the level of the sea. eastward, the chain now meets the mountains of Dutch This chain finally enters the sea at Cape Paria, and and French Guiana, supplying in its course the sources may be considered as terminating off the Galley Point of the Essequibo, Marony, Surinam, and Berbice rivers. of the island of Trinidad. In its course it gives rise to The highest known point of this chain is the active

those rivers that enter the left bank of the Oronoco, volcano of the Sierra Duida, in lat. 3°, 13', about
· and northward to various streams that enter the Ca- 8,465 feet in altitude, which is surrounded by a rich

ribbean sea. The loftiest summits of this chain are savannah, thickly set with the tropical palm and anana,
the Nevada of St. Martha and Merida, the former of and regularly discharges, at the close of the rainy
which is between fifteen and sixteen, and the latter season, enormous voluines of fame. This chain,
between fourteen and fifteen thousand feet in altitude. as far as it was seen by Humboldt, .contained no al-
At their base are the elevated deserts of Mucacha and luvial formations, petrifáction, or organic remains, but
Rosa, and west of the lake Maracabo, several noble was composed wholly of granite, gneiss, mica slate,
forests, occupying the long narrow vallies which run in and hornblende. The rest of the chain is principally
a parallel direction from N. to S. The Silla de Ca- known to us from the accounts of Don Ant. Santo, who
raccas, on the shore of the Caribbean sea, is an abrupt disguising himself as an Indian, entered it at the river
precipice of 8,420 feet; but the average height of the Carones, one of the minor streams of the Oronoco,
cordillera of the coast does not exceed 5,000 feet. and passed undiscovered through the savage tribes who
Many volcanic cones are interspersed among them, and inhabit its borders to the Maragnon. The cataracts of
the whole country presents the most striking traces Mayparé and Aturé present the only known opening
of past convulsions. Lofty and extensive vallies ap- from the plains of the Maragnon to the interior of the
pear to have been the basins of lakes that have been South American continent. The whole of this chain is
drained or drawn suddenly off, while existing sheets of remarkable for the abrupt precipices which it presents
water and marslıy grounds extend themselves at various towards the south.
altitudes below them: thus, while Humbolt found the No part of the third chain mentioned by Humboldt Tu
plain of the Caraccas of the height we have stated, the was surveyed by his party, but only became known to sin.
basin of Aragua is only 1,350, and the Llanos, or them by the report of those who had passed the im-
marshy plains of Monai, only 600 feet above the level mense dead flat, or Pampas, which separates it from
of the sea.

In the extreme eastern point of this chain the foregoing ridges. It is called the Cordillera of the independent mountains are found, in which the primitive Chiquitos, and is situated from the 15° to the 200 of rock of the original stem is much depressed, and finally S. latitude, between the waters of the Maragnon and the disappears ; secondary calcareous substances envelope Plata. Stretching from the main stem in a semicircular

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