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F in.

4 6 8 10

14 Lengtb. Troat. Small. Length. Breadth. Mid-Edge.


R FRF ft. in. in.

in. in.

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2 0 24 14

776 8 577 53 71 51 63 43

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In the above table, R and F are made to denote the the greatest diameter, and those under the latter in the
und and the flat of the anchor; the dimensions ar direction of the less.
nged under the first, being taken in the direction of In the same manner, D and d denote the diameters

of the ring, which is not circular, but elliptical.

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long past.

Anchor, in Heraldry, the emblematical representa ANCIENT, N. Lat. Antiquus or anticus ; It

. tion of Hope.

ANCIENT, adj. antico; Fr. ancien; from the Anchor, in Architecture, a common ornament upon ANCIENCY, Latin preposition ante, before. the ovolo of the capital, in the Ionic and Tuscan or ANCIENTLY, Menage has a different process. ders; and in the bed-moulding of the Ionic and Co AN'CIENTNES,

Ante, antius, antianus, ancien. rinthian cornices. Representations of eggs are gene ANCIENTRY,

That which has been, existed, rally intermingled with them.

ANCIENTY. lived ; in old times, in times
Anchor, in Commerce. See ANKER.
Anchor Island, an island of New Zealand, near

For sage wysdoms sake and for the vse of thynges, and also for the northern entrance of Dusky bay. There is a har- restrainyng thie wantonnes of youth, autoritie should be committed bour on the north coast, and a sunken rock at the

vnto the auncientes.

Udal. 1 Paul to Timothie, eb. r. west entrance. This island lies in E.lon. 166o, 16', and The anciant wourth y ciete donne is fall, N. lat 45°, 46'.

That iony zeris held hie seneory,

Strekit in stretis here and thare thay ly
ANCHORA, in Entomology, a species of Cimex, a

Feil corsis dede of mony vnweildy wicht,
native of Japan.

Doung doun in housis, fey thay fell al nycht, ANCHORA, in Ancient Geography, an island of Pe In sanctuariis and templis of Goddis eik, loponnesus, formerly called Fanaromini, and some Na qubare succoure nor mercy mycht thay seik. times Asine. It was near the gulf of Coron, or Modon.

Douglas, book ii. p. 51. Strabo. PTOLEMY.

The Citie falth, that ancient, long, and many a yeere the Crowne ANCHORAGE, Anchoragium, in Law, a duty And heapes in euery house there lyeth, and Temples all are filld

Hath borne, and euery street is strewed with bodies beaten downe, taken of ships, for the use of the haven where they cast With bodies dead.

Aeneidos by Thos. Phaer. Id.
anchor. The ground in havens, or ports appertaining An ancient and imperial City falls,
to the king, no ship can cast anchor therein without The Streets are fill'd with frequent Funerals:
paying a stated acknowledgment to the king's officers.

Houses and Holy Temples float in Blood,

And hostile Nations make a common Flood. Dryden. Id.

Of noble actes auncyently enrolde,
ANCHOVY, in Icthyology, the Clupea Encrasicolus

Of famous princis and lordes of astate,
of Linnæus, a fish caught in the Mediterranean during

By thy report ar wonte to be extold, the summer months, which, when salted, forms an ar

Regestringe trewly every forınare date. ticle of some importance in commerce.

Percy's Reliques, vol. i. p. 97. ANCHUSA, in Botany, a genus of plants, belong Honorable audience, all that here be present, eyther brethren, bo ing to the class Pentandria, and order Monogynia.

trade of our cuntrey, religion, eyther els by reason of auncientnes and

authoritie, fathers, geue eare to me in niy defence of innocencye, as From the root of this plant a beautiful red colour is

ye baue done to myne accusars paciently. procured.

Udal. Òn Actes of Apostles, ch. vii. ANCHYLOSIS, from ay vlopai, to bind, in Anato

And thus shall the .x. kinges shortly hate ye whore with her court, my, a stiffness or immobility of the joints.

& shal turne her naked out of the forishing & bewtiful rayment



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wherwith they & theyr quncientries haue garnisbed & annowrned sor, or disposed of by him, and not entered in the

ANENT. this w hore & her harlots.

Doomsday-book, are not ancient demesne, nor any CIENT.
Udal, on Reuelacion of S. John, ch. xvii. other but those here entered. If a question, therefore,
This well considered with the authoritie of the wryter, both au

ANCILE. arise, whether lands be a parcel of a manor which is excellent Prince, and also a great learned man, and was himselfe in

ancient demesne, this fact must go to a jury to decide. this Isle, it is not to be doubted but that he most diligently searched for the true knowledge of the auncientie thereof.

According to Fitzherbert, tenants in ancient demesne

Grafton, vol. i. p. 27. held their tenures for ploughing the king's land, and This sin of wresting of Scripture in the eye of some of the ancients, other work for the maintenance of the king's freehold, seemed so ugly, that they bave ranged it in the same rank with the on which account they had peculiar liberties. Tenants sin against the Holy Ghost.

Hale's Golden Remains. holding by charter, cannot be impleaded out of their
As for nobility in particular persons, it is a reverend thing to see an

manor; for, if they are, they may abate the writ by ancient castle or building not in decay, or to see a fair timber tree pleading their tenure; they are free from toll for all sound and perfect.

Bacon's Essay on Nobility.
It is anciently reported of the Leucadians, that out of superstition; substance; and may not be empannelled upon an in-

that they buy or sell, concerning their husbandry or
they used to precipitate a man from a high cliff into the sea; first
tving about him some large fowls; and fixing to his body various quest; if they are returned, they may have a writ de
feathers, expanded, to break the fall. Id. Sylva Sylvarum. non ponendis in assizes, &c. and attachment against

William Bishop of Winchester waved Pattin to wear Waynfeet, the sheriff; if disturbed by taking duties of toll, or though he was eldest son to Richard Pattin, an esquire of great distrained for unaccustomed services, &c. they may ancientry.

Fuller's General Worthies.

have writs of monstraverunt, to be discharged. A fine
But seren wise inen the ancient world did know,

in the king's courts will change ancient demesne to
We scarce know seven who think themselves not so.
Denham's Progress of Learning.

frank-fee at common law, so if the lord enfeoffs another

of the tenancy, or the land comes to the king, &c. 4 Inst.
Had ancient times conspir'd to disallow
What then was new, what had been ancient now?

270. Stats. 9 H. IV. c. 5. 811. VI. c. 26. But if the
Or what remain'd, so worthy to be read

lord be not a party, he may avoid the fine or recovery By learned critics, of the mighty dead.

by a writ of disceit; for formerly the jurisdiction of Pope's Im. of Horare.

Westminster did not extend to lands in ancient de. He [Diodorus Siculus] insists on the usage anciently in practice mesne, and one of the privileges of the tenants is not among the Persian kings, of naming their successors before they went

being liable to be called from the plough for any

fo.. to any dangerous war, and will have it, that when Xerxes again renewed the war against the Greeks, after the death of Pausanias, he reign service. then named Artaxerxes.

Prideaux's Connections. ANCIENTRY, in Law, eldership or seniority. The If modem learning be compared with ancient, a parallel between word occurs in the Stat. of Ireland, 14 Hen. III. both, which has hitherto produced only vain dispute, may contribute ANCIENTS, in English Law, a degree among gento anzusement, perhaps to instruction.

tlemen of the inns of court. In the Middle Temple, Goldsmith, on Polite Learning.

the ancients are those who have gone through or are The rest of the bishops follow him, in their due precedency, according to dignity and anciencies of their respective sees.

past their readings; in Gray's Inn, which consists of

Jura Cleri. benchers, ancients, barristers, and students under the Ancient, corrupted from cnsign; Skinner. Ancient, bar, the ancients are the oldest barristers; the inns of in war, Enseigne-bearer; Junius. Lat. Insigne. It chancery are comprised of ancients, and students, or insegna. Fr. Enseigne. Ensign. It is applied both to clerks; and their principal, or treasurer, is annually the sign or ensign, and to the bearer of it: also, more

elected from the ancients.

sacred anciently, to the bearer of the military (insignia) de

ANCILE, or ANCYLE, in Antiquity, a corations, or distinguishing ornaments of his com

shield, said to be that of the god Mars, which, accord3. mander.

ing to the Roman authors, fell from heaven during a

plague, in the reign of Numa. Ovid thus accounts for. GTIE. So please your grace, my ancient,

the name :
A man he is of honesty and trust :
To his conueyance I assigne my wife,

Idque ancyle vocat quod ab omni parte recisum est
With what else needfull, your good grace shall think

Quemque notes occulis angulus omnis abest.
To be sent after me.
Shakespeare's Othello, act i.

Fasti, I. iii. v. 377.
In the meane season, they which were besieged [in Calais) made The prosperity of the commonwealth was supposed to
knowne their state to the French king by signes and tokens, for at depend upon the security of this shield, and eleven were
his first coming, they within the towne set vp his ancient on the
chiefest tower of the castle, and also they set our banners of the

made exactly after its model by the order of Numa,. dukes and earles of France. Stowe's Chro. Horre's Ed. 1614.

that in case any attempt should be made to steal it, the [Edward the black prince) commanded his ancient bearer Sir thief might be unable to distinguish the original. The Walter Woodland, to march forward toward his enemies, and with a twelve shields were deposited in the temple of Vesta, a few fresh men he ioyned battell with the great armie of the French and an order of priests equal to their number appointed king.


to the care of them. These priests were called salii, ANCIENT DEMESNE, or DOMAIN; Vetus patrimo- and on the 1st of March bore their charge round the nium Domini, in Law, is a tenure by which all the walls, dancing, and singing hymns in praise of the god. manors belonging to the crown were held, in the reigns During this festival

, which lasted three days, all busiof St. Edward and William the Conqueror. After a ness was suspended, and it was held presumptious to regular survey, the names and numbers of all manors marry or undertake any thing of importance. The were entered in the Doomsday-book; and those which Emperor Otho commenced his expedition against Vitelappear to have belonged to the crown at that time, lus, during the celebration of the Ancyliorium festum, and contained under the title of terra regis, are called which Tacitus alleges as a reason for the misfortunes apcient demesne.

of that campaign. Tacit. i. VAL. Max.i.c. 1. PLUT. Lands which were possessed by Edward the Confes- in Num. Dioxys. HAL. ii. VOL. XVII.

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stuffs and soap.

ANCIL ANCILLARY, Lat. Ancilla, a maid servant, or hand- the Appennines and the Adriatic sea, bounded on the S. ancora una LARY.

maid. Of unsettled etymology. See Vossius. by the Marca di Fermo, and on the N. by the duchy ANCONA. Attending upon, in subservience to: aiding, assisting of Urbino. This province, with those of Marca di

Fermo, Urbino, and Fano, constitutes the papal pro-
O treasorere of bounty to mankind,

vince of La Marca. The residence of the vice-legate
The whom God chese to moder for humblesse,
From his ancelle he made thee maistresse

and chancery is at Macerata. The face of the counOf Heauen and Earth.

Chaucer. A. B. C.

try, though greatly diversified, and intersected by many For, as it is beneath the dignity of the king's courts 10 be ancil. lofty mountains, covered with thick forests, is, neverlary to other interior jurisdictions, the cause, when once brought theless, fertile in corn, wine, and fruit. There are there, receives there also its full determination.

abundant streanis of water traversing this province, Blackstone's Commentaries.

which includes, beside the city of Ancona, the towns ANCISTRUM, in Botany, a genus of plants belong- of Camerino, Arcoli, Fermo Jesi, Loretto, Macerata, ing to the class Diandria, and order Monogynia. Mont Alto, and Osimo. ANCLAM, formerly Tanklim, or Tanglim, a brisk Ancona (ayawr, a curve), a maritime city of Italy,

Lab maritime town of Upper Saxony, on the river Peene, 116 miles from Rome, the capital of a province or mar

ht in Hither Pomerania, eight leagues S. W. of Grips- quisate of the same name. It stands on a point of wald, and 14 N. W. of Stetin. It is dependant on the land that bends into the gulf of Venice, and forms a duchy of Stetin, and is environed on one side by high fine natural harbour; a circumstance from which its walls and deep moats, and on the other by extensive name is derived. It is supposed to have been first swamps and meadow ground. The town was built in founded by colonists from Syracuse, B. C. 408, during the year 1188, very near to the place where the castle the reign of Dionysius, and fell to the power of Rome of Groszwin stood, which was destroyed by the Danes; on the conquest of the Picentines by Sempronius, E.C. and is the capital of a territory which extends over a 267. The harbour was greatly improved by the Emspace of 12 miles in length, containing two farms, and peror Trajan, to whom the oldest mole now standing 17 villages. Its usual exports consist of wood, corn, is ascribed, and whose favours to the town were comand glass ware, and its home manufacture of silken memorated by a triumphal arch, in good preservation

until the period of the French revolution. Ancona sucANCLIFFE, a hamlet, in the county of Lancaster, cessfully resisted the Goths under Totola, A. D. 351; about two miles from Wigan, remarkable for a well, but was united to the kingdom of Lombardy by Arult, the water of which, though perfectly cold and taste- at the close of the century. It was taken and plunless, is capable of being ignited by the flame of a dered by the Saracens in 839; and remained in decay candle, and burns like ardent spirits, with a consider- during the civil wars of Italy and the long and splendid able heat.

career of the republic of Venice. In 1732, the papal ANCLOTE POINT, a point of land on the penin-government seems first to have become sensible of its sula of California, and coast of the North Pacific ocean, advantages as a port, and Clement XII. having aboin W. lon. 115°, 11', and N. lat. 29°, 17'.

lished all the considerable imposts formerly levied here, ANCOBER, or ANKOBRA, a river of Africa, on the declared it free to all nations and religions. The civil Gold coast, running from N. to S., and dividing Ahan- rights of the town were in like manner thrown open. tah from Apollonia. Unless when the sea is unusually His successor, Benedict XIV. following the same line calm, the mouth of this river is so much obstructed of policy with regard to this place, improved ad by rocks, that even small canoes cannot enter it. It strengthened the old works of the harbour, and shelformerly gave name to a neighbouring hamlet and tered it from the north winds. An immense influx of district.

enterprizing foreigners, particularly Jews, took place in ANCOCUS CREEK, a river of North America, in consequence, and Ancona rapidly became one of the the state of New Jersey, which falls into the river De- most important cities of modern Italy. Monuments to laware, about six miles from Burlington. It is navi- these pontiff's were also standing to a recent period. gable upwards of 16 miles.

The town, which has a very imposing appearance ANCON, a gulf, on the coast of South America, in from the sea, is situated between two hills, one of which the kingdom of Quito and province of Emeraldos, in is surmounted by an ancient fortress of some strength, W. lon. 78°, 50', and N. lat. 1o, 25'. On account of and the other by the cathedral. The former was 004its open situation, the currents are very rapid, and often structed, as a matter of friendship, by the papal see, fe? dangerous. There is a cape of this name in the Pacific the protection of Ancona against the corsairs, in the 16th ocean, on the north point of the island of Chiloe. century, but soon became the means of its subjugauge W. lon. 80°, and S. lat. 42o.

to the power of the pontiff's. The exchange is a hand Ancon, in Architecture, a term used to denote the some edifice; over the entrance is an equestrian statue of quoins, or corners of walls, rafters, or cross-beams. superior workinanship, and within a noble apartineat, Vitruvius uses it for a sort of mensula or table containing some fine statues of Faith, Hope, Chants, placed before doors, bent in the form of the letter S, and Religion. The commerce of Ancona, which is in which sense it is similar to the Greek #polupıčec, greatly conducted by Jews, consists principally in collie prothyrides; it also means shoulder-pieces or brackets, mission and agency business. The northern European now called corbells and consoles. The term 'ancon is nations import, however, considerable quantities of sometimes applied to the flexures or angles of rivers, goods to this place, and receive in return the prodizeand to the tops of mountains. Among the Cartha- tions of the south of Germany, Hungary, Italy, Eos, ginians we find a dungeon called by this name. and Turkey. Lead, tin, herrings, and camblets arrive

ANCONA, LA MARCA D', an extensive province from Great Britain; from Holland and its dependences, of Italy, forming part of the papal territories, between cocoa, sugar, coffee, spices, and raw materials of


SONA. various descriptions; from Rome, leather; and from ton, and have a manufactory of iron, which they work ancove.

Sweden, tar; the returns are principally iron from the into various kinds of trifling articles. They are said mines of Germany, and Turkey cotton. The exports also to have a method of making gunpowder without ANCYRA, from the neighbourhood are wool, silk, sail-cloth, skins, sulphur. grain, alum, soap, sulphur, and ship biscuits.

ANCRE, or ALBERT, a town of France, in Picardy, Ancona is so completely commercial, and the boast five leagues from Amiens, on the road from that city of heraldry so cheap in its vicinity, that it is no unusual to Bassaume. It is situated on the banks of a river of circumstance to see noblemen of the highest rank the same name. It is now the head of a canton, in among the merchants and tradesmen of the place. The the modern department of the Somme, arrondissement native manufactures are not very numerous; there is, of Perrone. It has the title of a marquisate, which it however, a sugar refinery, a manufactory of white paint acquired by Concino Concini, created Marshal D'Ancre, and lead, and some considerable soap-works. who was murdered in the year 1617. It is now but a

This city experienced numerous vicissitudes during the small place, having a population of only 1,940 inlate wars in Italy, occasioned by the French revolution. habitants, who carry on some business in the pressing It was taken in February 1797, by General Victor, after of calico and carpets, the bleaching of linen, and the the battle of Imola; but was stipulated to be restored manufacture of salt-petre. to the pope by the treaty of peace which took place ANCRUM, or AlN CROM, i.e. the Bend of the river between France and Italy on the 19th of the same Aln, is a village in the district of Jedburgh, and shire month. Little more than two years after this it was

of Roxburgh, Scotland, noticed in history as giving blockaded from the sea by a combined Russian and name to the famous battle of Ancrum-moor, which was Turkish squadron, and by land by a Russian corps. fought between the English and Scotch, in the year A regular siege of the place commenced on the 1st of 1544. This village is situated on the river Teviot, and November, when the allies were joined by an Austrian the remains of the Roman road, which led from York to force of 7,000 men, under the command of General the Frith of Forth, are still visible in the vicinity. Frolich. The siege lasted till the 13th of the same There is also a Roman camp on the declivity of a hill month, when the French general, Meunier, who de- eastward of the town. The high road to Edinburgh, fended the town, surrendered by capitulation. It was which runs over a ridge, in the parish of Ancrum, is again restored to the French, in 1801, and by them, denominated Liliard's Edge, from the romantic circum-. the following year, agreeably to the treaty of 1797, stance of a lady of that name having signalized herself delivered to the pope. Population 20,400.

in repulsing the English during an invasion in the Ancona, a river of Southern Abyssinia, which emp- regency of the earl of Arran. She fell covered with ties its waters into the river Hanazo.

wounds on this spot. Here is also a fragment of antiANCONEUS, or ANCONÆUS (aykwv), in Anatomy, quity, known by the name of the Maltan Walls, which a triangular muscle of the elbow, which aids in the ex was originally in the possession of the knights of Malta, tension of the fore arm. All the extensor muscles or knights hospitaliers of St. John of Jerusalem, and were at one time called anconai.

given them as a remuneration for their military achieveANCONY, see IRON, Manufactory of.

ments in the crusades. In the adjacent ground, vaults ANCOVE, a district in the island of Madagascar, and subterraneous arches have been discovered; and remarkable for the extent to which the slave trade is underneath the ground on which the building was pursued by the inhabitants, who employ all sorts of erected, human bones are occasionally dug up. Below tricks and stratagems to entrap their countrymen. the house of Ancrum are the remains of fifteen caves Their rapacity, indeed, is carried to such a length in this or recesses, which are conjectured to have been places nefarious traffic, that children will not unfrequently of concealment, or habitations for the poor orders of barter for their parents, and parents sell their own society. The vestiges of chimnies and fire-places, and children. Travellers cannot go through this district outlets for the egress of the smoke from the back part with any sort of safety; nor shepherds attend their of the caves to the outside of the bank, are, to flocks, for these avaricious dealers in men; and when this day, clearly discernible. The barony of Ancrum by no other means slaves can be procured, whole vil was originally included in the regality of Glasgow, and lages are surprised in the night, and every inhabitant gives the title of earl to the marquis of Lothian. carried off and sold. The country is divided between ANCY-LE-FRANC, a town of Champagne, in France, two chiefs, who are constantly at war with each other, 10 leagues from Auxerre, and formerly belonging to for the sole purpose of taking prisoners, whom they the celebrated Clermont-Tonnerre, who resided in the uniformly sell. There is a race of people to the south castle, which is environed with extensive gardens. This of this district, called the Andrantsaies, who are also place is the head of a canton, department of the Yonne, frequently attacked by the natives of Ancove; and arrondissement of Tonnerre. Population, about 1,240. many slaves are thus procured.

ANCYLOBLEPHARON, in Surgery (from aykvdoç, The inhabitants of this district are called Hovas, or a hook, and Blepapov, the eye-lid), an unnatural Amboilambs. Their principal town is Tanane Arrivon, adhesion either between the two eye-lids or between i. e. Thousands of Villages. It is an irregular dis- the eye-lids and the conjunctive membrane of the eyejointed place, containing, it is supposed, generally, ball. about 25,000 inhabitants; but the perpetual ravages of ANCYLOGLOSSUM, in Surgery (from aykoloc, the slave trade have always greatly kept under its and y/woon, the tongue), a peculiar kind of disease, in population. Ancove is situated near the centre of the which the frænulum of the tongue forms unnatural adisland, a little east of the great range of mountains. hesions with the circumjacent parts. The soil is extremely barren; the country, however, ANCYLOSIS, or ANCHYLOSIS.

See ANCHYLOSIS. yields silk-worms, and the natives cultivate some cot ANCYRA, ANCYRÆ, in Ancient Geography, a city

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