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ANCES- posed to be rejected with indignation. Thus Sophocles misery by accident or ill health, has a claim on his ANCESTOR. makes Electra (v. 432) to dissuade Chrysothemis from kindred for relief. Manners, stronger far than laws, TOR offering Clytemnestra's gifts to Agamemnon.
and indeed inclination, produced and nurtured by in- ANCHO 8 γας σοι θεμις
tercourse and intimacy, secure assistance for him. Ουδ' όσιον 'εχθρας απο γυναικος ίςαναι
These habits and manners fully explain the fact already Κτερίσματ', εδε λέτα προσφέρειν πατρί.
mentioned, which unbiappily appears extraordinary to Since the infernal manes do detest
Europeans, that no spectacles of distress are seen to As heinous, rites paid by an enemy,
excite the compassion and implore the casual charity Barbarous nations of ancient and modern times, have of individuals. The natural sentiments o 'respect to also retained distinct traces of a strong attachment to age, united with affection to kindred, early taking root, the memory of their ancestors. Some of the African and strengthened by a daily sense of services received, hordes, are said regularly to offer oblations of rice and often bind the mind inore effectually, though with gentler wine to their honour before they undertake any thing ties, than the force of compulsory laws.” Embassy to of importance, and to keep with great ceremony the China, 3 vols. 8vo. anniversary of their deaths. The Highlanders, to a The Russians, who in various parts of their dress very recent period, revenged the quarrels of their an- and manners resemble the ancient Greeks, are also cestors, or the least reflection to their dishonour, as said to have anniversary feasts in honour of their an. their own.
cestors, which they call roditoli sabot, i. e. kinsfolk's Amongst the Chinese, their veneration for their an sabbath. On this occasion they visit the graves of the cestors constitutes the chief tie of the moral and re- deceased, with presents of eatables, flowers, &c. and ligious system. In all ages (see the article CONFUCIUS, aloud renew their lamentations over them. Historical and Biographical Division, vol. ix. p. 496,&c.), In English law a distinction is made between the this seems to have been a distinguishing feature of their ancestor as a natural antecessor, and a predecessor in character. Their family burial-places are preserved an office or dignity. Thus in the church of England, with the greatest care, and visited, at least annually, and in bodies corporate, there are no ancestors, but to repair any breaches that accident may have made in predecessors. them, and remove weeds or dirt from about their ANCHES MUS, in Ancient Geography, a mountain tombs. Every family of rank has a temple to the of Attica, where a statue of Jupiter Anchesmius was memory of its ancestry; and on the sudden elevation placed. Now Mount St. Georges. of any member of the community to new wealth or ANCHIALE, or ANCHIALA, in Ancient Geography, station, before he builds a new palace for liimself he is a city of Cilicia, upon the coast of Asia. It was built
, directed by the Lee-kee to be careful to erect a mau with its neighbouring city Tarsus, by Sardanapalus, the soleum to the honour of his ancestors, at the dedica- last of the Assyrian kings, who was buried here, and tion of which every branch of the family, near and had a statue with an inscription in the Syrian language
, remote, old and young, is invited to be present; and relating the extreme intenperance, extravagance, and the most aged presides at the oblations. Five or ten folly of his life. Athenodorus says, that the founder thousand persons are said to join, on some occasions, of this city was Anchiale, the daughter of Japhet. in these rites. The elderly part of a family generally ARISTOPH. in Ac. v. 1022. Plin. v. c. 27. Athen. resides with the young; and have great controul over vili. Also a city of Thrace, called Apollo's city; and their passions and affairs. “ The influence of age over another in Epirus. Plin. iv. c. 11. Ovid, Trist. i. youth,” says Sir Geo. Staunton, “ is supported by the El. x. v. 36. sentiments of nature, by the habit of obedience, by the ANCHILOPS, or ANCIYLOPS. See ÆGILOPS. precepts of morality engrafted in the law of the land, ANCHISES, in Fabulous History, was a prince of and by the unremitted policy and honest arts of parents Troy, son of Capys and Themis, a daughter of llus, reto that effect. They who are past labour deal out the ported to have been of so beautiful a countenance in rule which they had learned, and the wisdom which his youth as to have attracted the attention of Venus, experience taught them, to those who are rising to who came down to him on Mount Ida. She became manhood, or to those lately arrived at it. Plain sen pregnant by him of Æneas, the hero of the Æneid, but tences of morals are written up in the common hall, strictly forbade Anchises to disclose the amour, under where the male branches of the family assemble. Some the penalty of death. This injunction, according to one, at least, is capable of reading them to the rest. some ancient authors, he violated in a moment of In almost every house is hung up a table of the an- hilarity, and was struck with thunder, as the goddess cestors of the persons then residing in it. References had predicted; but whether this were the occasion of are often made, in conversations to their actions. Their his death, or only of a decrepitude of his body, is disexample, as far as it was good, serves as an incitement puted. On the taking of Troy, Anchises was carried to travel in the same path. The descendants from a by Eneas through the flames on his shoulders; and common stock, visit the tombs of their forefathers to- having accompanied his son into Sicily, died there in gether, at stated times. This joint care, and, indeed, the 80th year of his age. Pausanias states him to other occasions, collect and unite the most remote rela. have been buried on a mountain of Arcadia, called tions. The child is bound to labour and to provide for his after him Anchisia, viii. c. 12. Virg. Æneid, i. ii. parents' maintenance and comfort, and the brother for the DIONYSIUS, Hal. de Antiq. Rom. brothers and sisters that are in extreme want; the failure ANCHOE, ANCHOA, in Ancient Geography, a town of which duty would be followed by such detestation, of Bæotia, near the mouth of the Cephisus, where that it is not necessary to enforce it by any positive there is a lake of the same name. STRAE. law. Even the most distant kinsman, reduced to
ANCHOR AN CHOR, ".
which Vossius The use of anchors must be nearly coeval with na- ANCHOR. AN'CHOR, n. thinks is from (ykn, a crook, or vigation; a raft or a canoe could scarcely have been Ax'CHORABLE, hook.
invented before a method of securing it, in some such Antiquity of ANCHORAGE,
To hook, or hold fast as a way as this, would become desirable, and the means of the inven. ANCHORED. hook; to keep or hold fast, fixed, attaining this end are so simple, that they must have tour of anfirm, steady, safe, secure.
been discovered as soon as they were sought. The You eyes that woonted were
earliest anchors were, doubtless, large stones, logs of light louing lookes to cast,
heavy wood, or any ponderous substance that might I giue commauudment on bir hue
be at hand, secured to the vessel by the rough cordage that yee be ankred fast.
of the age: such are still used to fasten small boats,
and amongst many barbarous nations are the only form
of this implement which is yet known. But when They ben with tempest all fordrine.
vessels became increased in their magnitude, and more
refined in their construction ; when navigation, instead
of merely supplying the momentary wants of a few iso-
lated and naked savages, had gradually risen into one Into the brittle port,
of the most beneficial arts of life, every thing conWhere anker-hold doth faile,
nected with it, rose proportionally in importance. To such as do resort.
Amongst the earliest improvements which were the imAnd that litterall sense is the roote and grounde of all, and the mediate consequences of the rank navigation had asancre that never fayleth wherunto if thou cleave thou canst neuer
sumed, must be reckoned the change of form of the erre or go out of the way.
The Whole Works of Tyndal, 8c. f. 166. c. 1. anchor, which from a shapeless mass became a curved
instrument, capable of attaching itself to the bottom of
the sea, and of so depositing itself that any strain, Heere shall they make their ransome on the sand.
acting nearly horizontally upon it, would rather tend Shakespeare's Henry VI. part i.
to root it deeper, than to detach it from the earth.
Such a change was evidently a great step in the Improve-
it afforded in its new form, being in many cases more
than twenty times as great as could have been obtained Shakespeare's Henry VI. part iii.
from its mere weight. From the evidence of Pausanias,
and of Pliny, and from the word anchor itself, as
signifying crooked, it appears that this improvement
took place at a very early age. Subsequent invenTo resalute his country with his teares.
tion added a second barb, or crook, to the anchor, Shakespeare's Tit. And. act i.
changed the materials of which it was composed from From pole to pole she hears her acts resound,
hard wood and stone, to iron or copper, and gave it
also a transverse beam of wood, which, by being placed
in an opposite direction to the arms, kept them more
vertical' in their descent. At present, the shape of Rous'd from repose, aloft the sailors swarm,
anchors is pretty nearly the same in most parts of the
civilized world, and except in a few instances where
copper is used, iron is the material employed in their
construction. Up-torn reluctant from its oozy cave
What is here said, however, of their form, must only Common The pond'rous unchor rises o'er the wave.
be understood of those commonly employed; many form at Falconer's Shipwreck. alterations, both in their shape and construction, having
present, I sent Mr. Hicks, my first-lieutenant, before us in the pinnance up been proposed, but not generally adopted; except to the city, to acquaint the governor that we put in there to procure indeed in the method of fabrication, which as we shall water and refreshments : and to desire the assistance of a pilot to bring us into proper anchoring-ground.
directly see, has within a very short time undergone The Indian shore being all the way in view of us, and the sea every
a considerable change. The nature and mode of opewhere twenty leagues from land anchorable.
ration of a modern anchor, will be readily understood Sir T. Herbert's Travels.
from fig. 1, plate IV. MISCELLANEOUS; where it is'eviAnchor, in Navigation, is an instrument of iron, dent, that in the direction the strain is represented as or other beavy material, usually carried on the bows of acting, the anchor cannot be moved without ploughing ships, and made use of to secure the vessel in a road- up the ground in which it is imbedded ; an operation stead, port, or convenient station, where the depth of which sometimes takes place, and is technically called the water does not preclude the possibility of its being dragging the anchor: when, however, the anchorage is employed.
good, the hold is sufficient to insure the parting of
ANCHOR. the cable, or the rupture of the buried arm, rather than that of a portable one; how ponderous soever the for- ANCHOR any dragging of this kind.
mer may be made, it will be easy to find vessels capable In the present advanced state of naval science, of conveying it to its destined station ; whilst in the many different sorts of anchors are employed, and even latter, regard must always be had not to encroach upon those of the same kind have different denominations the properties of the vessel, or the labour of the crew, according to their size, or the service for which they by giving it undue weight. It is for this reason that are intended.
moorings are often nothing more than large stones, Those which are used on board of large ships, are such as (fig. 5), having an iron ring fastened through
all constructed of the same form as that shown in fig. their centre; several of these are sometimes secured toDifferent l; and are distinguished into sheet, best bower, small gether by a wooden frame. Large ship's anchors are kinds of
bower, spare, stream, and kedge anchors, according to also often made use of for this purpose, in which case, anchors.
their weight : the sheet anchor is, in ships of war, one of the arms is beat down close upon the shank;
will be found to include all the variety of moorings
anchor, so constructed as to be capable of maintaining In Europe, small vessels employ grapnels, (fig. 3. its position in the water: but eminently useful as such plate IV.), which act upon the same principle, and have an instrument would be, there are many reasons to fear the same advantages as the anchor last described. It it will always remain a desideratum. Many proposals would be endless to enumerate the various alterations and schemes for anchors of this kind have been laid of this useful instrument, which have from time to time before the public; but the little notice they have hitherto been proposed, and which have, in most instances, been met with from practical men, is a sufficient proof that either only partially employed, or wholly forgotten; nothing of this sort has been discovered that would we shall, therefore, protract this article only so far as decidedly prove useful. is necessary to mention two improvements which have The first project for a floating anchor that attracted Dr. Frauka lately attracted considerable notice.
much attention, was made by Dr. Franklin ; it con- liu's Mr.Stuard's The first of these was invented by Mr. Stuard; it is sisted of two cross bars, secured together in the middle, anchor. shown in fig. 3, and is so constructed as to require and having sail cloth fastened to them in the shape of
only one arm, the shortness and weight of which in a parallelogram ; to the centre of these bars the cable sures the certainty of its hold.
was attached, and the machine being thrown overMr. King.
The other is an invention of Mr. Kingston, of Ports- board, it was presumed that the resistance it met with, ston's. mouth dock-yard, and materially differs from any kind would be sufficient to maintain the ship in its station,
of anchor hitherto employed; for in the place of fasten- or, at least, to check the rapidity of its motion.
the upper extremity of the anchors, is a subject of considerable importance, and more on tube of which the shank is formed, is widened, until it would require for its full elucidation more room than chorsh! assumes a form similar to that of the mouth of a can be devoted to it in a work of this kind : in the the Bri trumpet.
following sketch we shall, therefore, confine ourselves to navý. Mooring Mooring Anchor. In ports where particular spots the description of the improved method which has very anchor. have been selected for the reception of ships, fixed recently come into general use in the royal dock-yards
, anchors are usually laid down to which they may more and which is due to Mr. Perring, clerk of the checque, conveniently be secured; these, though admitting of a at Plymouth. great variety of forms, are classed under the general In shape this anchor differs very little from that which appellation of moorings.
has hitherto been used in the navy, excepting that its The weight of a mooring, or fixed anchor, is evi- dimensions are better proportioned to the strain they dently not restricted by the considerations which govern are likely to receive. It is represented in fig. 9, and
HOR. in order to comprehend more distinctly what follows, the progress of its manufacture. Iron plates are then ANCHOR.
we have added an enumeration of its several parts. laid side by side upon the rod abc; the joint at the A is the shank, B the arm, or fluke, C the palm, D the middle is broken by another plate laid over it; the blade, E the square, F the nut, G the ring, and H the mass being wrought, the lower side is filled up by
similar plates, and the whole is then completely welded, In frabricating the shank, it was formerly the practice adding, if necessary, pieces at the sides to form the to form it of square iron rods, disposed in the form of angles of the palm. The blade is then shut on to the a cylinder, and encircled by other bars, which were palm, and afterwards, the part of the arm which is wrought into the shape of parts of sectors of circles; attached to the blade, is joined to that which is formed from which formation it followed, that the mass could not with the crown; and the anchor (as far as the smithery be sufficiently welded to unite firmly the interior bars, is concerned) is then complete. without, at the same time, spoiling the quality of the The uniting or shutting on, as it is termed by the exterior iron.
smiths, of the several parts of an anchor, is performed This difficulty was obviated by Mr. Perring, by by an instrument called a monkey, which is merely a using bars of the whole breadth of the shank (see mass of iron raised to a certain height, and let fall fig. a plate IV.), which are placed one upon another; and upon the work, which is previously brought to a weldbeing kept in their positions by iron hoops, are welded ing heat. together in two heats, until the whole is one compact The monkey, and the hercules, which is an instrument body, which, by this arrangement of the bars or plates, of the same nature, and adapted to the same use as is capable of being effected without over working the the former, are usually worked by hand; in the magiron.
nificent smithery now erecting at Woolwich dock-yard, The crown is composed of bars similarly disposed to steam will be the more effective moving power; in this those of which the shank was formed. The method of establishment steam will also be used to unite the rods, uniting the Aukes to the crown is, perhaps, the most which we have already mentioned, an operation which ingenious and useful part of the present improved will be performed under tilt hammers, weighing five plan; it is as follows:- The bars being made but half tons each, and having an extreme fall of sixteeen inches.
the bread of the anchor, are first separately welded, We have before observed, that the above is the mode i and then placed side by side, as in fig. 12, 'in which of manufacturing anchors now adopted in the royal . position the upper half A, is wrought into one mass; the yards; it may not, however, be amiss to mention, that
lower part B being left disunited, and having iron bars, besides the method of fabrication formerly used, numerous or porters (as they
are technically called), a a welded on plans and improvements have been from time to time to the extremity of each portion of it.
proposed; amongst the principal of these is the scheme The part B is then heated, and placed in the machine of Mr. Brunton, which consists of forging an anchor Mr. Brunrepresented at fig. 11, which consists of an iron plate, without welding the arms to the shank : and thereby ton's plan. firmly bolted down to a frame of timber, and having avoiding the danger of a bad joint. This is effected by upon its surface four iron pegs, or pins, bbe e. Be- making the arms in one piece, enlarging them at the tween the first of these, the end A of the crown is placed, crown, and piercing the part thus enlarged with a hole and passed under the strap c; the extremity B is the size of the shank, the latter part of the anchor (the brought between the pins e e, and by means of the shank) is made with a shoulder at the extremity near porters a a is bent into the form shown in the figure. the crown, in such a way, that when the lower part is
By this method of fabrication, part of the arm is brought through the above-mentioned aperture, the formed out of the crown, and thus affords much arms bear upon the shoulders. From this construction greater certainty of their being properly united, than it is evident, that to unite firmly the arms and the when they were merely joined by a short scarph. shank, it is merely necessary to form the extremity of
The angular opening a a (see fig. 10), is filled up the latter sufficiently long to enable the smiths to rivet by the chock, which is formed of short iron bars, placed it on the lower end of the crown. How far this anvertically; after this has been properly welded, the chor answers the end intended, we believe has not truss piece cc is brought over it; this is composed of been extensively tried; we may observe, however, plates similar to those before mentioned, except that that those who are acquainted with the astonishing here their edges are horizontal. The truss piece is power which rust exerts when formed within a joint or half the breadth of the arm; therefore, when it is joined a flaw, will not consider the shoulder as quite safe to the crown, it makes with the parts e, e, the whole from its influence. breadth of the arms at those places.
Anchor STOCKS.—The stocks of anchors are usually Anchor The shank is now shut on to the crown; the square formed of two large cheeks of oak, which are tapered
stocks. formed, and the nuts welded on to it; the hole punched gradually from the middle to the extremities. (See table for the ring, and the shank wrought and finished to of dimensions.) They are fayed close at the ends, but the shape shown in fig. 9.
gradually open as they approach the middle. A hole is The method of making the blade is very similar to cut through them for the square, and a mortice made what has been already described; we shall therefore in it to receive the nut. For large anchors, the side proceed to give an account of the mode of forming the cheeks are usually made in two pieces, tree-nailed topalm.
gether. (See figs. 14 and 15.) This is commenced by bending an iron rod into the When in their place they are secured by four bolts, form ab c(fig. 13), notching the bar at b and a, in order and four or six iron hoops; the bolts are clinched alterto make it assume the required shape more readily nately, and the hoops are driven equally on each side. and completely; to the extremity c à porter is fas- The length of the stock is regulated by that of the tened, by which the palm is carried and turned during shank, which it generally equals.
ANCHOR. In Mr. Stuard's anchor, and in all anchors under a purpose; the messenger is thus made into an endless akce
certain size, the stocks are of iron : the nature of the rope, which, by the heaving of the capstern, will be former is sufficiently shown in the figure, and the latter made to revolve round the rollers placed in the have been already described.
manger. In order, therefore, to communicate the Anchor, dropping the, or as it is usually termed in efforts of the men at the capstern to the cable, nothing Manage the navy, casting anchor, is the operation of letting fall more is necessary than to form a connection between ment of the the anchor attached to the cable, from the side of the the latter and the messenger, shifting it as the cable Casting.
ship into the sea. We have already described the way enters; for it is evident, that if this connection, of what-
The in which such a moveable fastening as is chor, the cable is arranged along the deck in long- here described is supplied on board of ship, is by short coils, called in the sea phraseology, a French flake; one ropes called nippers, which are interwoven between the end of it is secured to the bits, and the other to the cable and messenger, so that when the capstern is acted ring of the anchor. Every thing being prepared, the on, the nippers jamb, and force the cable to follow the stock-lashing is cast off, and the men stand ready to motion of the messenger. When any of the nippers come let go; this being communicated to the officer of the near the main hatchway, they are cast off, and carried watch, he gives the command, let go the anchor, the forward, where being secured, they act as before. The fastenings are then cast off, and the anchor falls into cable thus brought into the ship, is carried down the sea, the cable running off after it with such velo- the hatchway, and as it enters is coiled up in the city, that it is often necessary to throw water in the cable tier. Large ships are supplied with a jeer, as hawse-holes to prevent their taking fire.
well as a main capstern; and in case of this being used, RIDING AT ANCHOR, the state of the ship secured its operations would be communicated by the ti, in any particular station by the anchor. When a ship which acts much in the same way as the messenger
, is anchored, attention should be paid to see that she excepting that before being brought forward, it is has sufficient room to allow her swinging clear of other passed through the viol-block, which is lashed round vessels : and when more than one cable is out, it is re the main-mast: the viol also differs from the messenquisite to observe that the ship does not get a foul ger in acting on the midship side of the cable. It may, hawse.
however, be observed, that the jeer capstern is not Weighing ANCHOR, weighing the, is the operation of heaving often used.
up the anchor from the bottom of the sea into the ves When the anchor is brought above water, a tackle is sel. In small craft this is performed by attaching the got upon the shank, just within the flukes, and the cable itself to a windlass, and coiling it off as it is hove arms are hove up so as to lie upon the gunnel and up; but in large vessels the cable is too bulky to be anchor-boards; the stock is then made vertical
, by brought round a windlass or a capstern; it is therefore heaving upon it with a tackle, in which position it is acted upon by a rope of a aller kind, which is called secured by the stock-lashing. The ring is fastened to the messenger, and the operation is as follows : one end the cathead by the stopper, one end of which is fastened of the messenger is passed with several turns round the round the cathead, and the other is brought through capstern; the other is then taken forward, and after being the ring, then over the stopper cleat, and is belayed passed round the rollers in the fore part of the ship, is
round a timber head. To secure the shank at the again brought aft, and secured to the part at the cap- arms, a chain, called the shank painter chain, is passed stern, the two ends being formed with eyes for that round it, and fastened to a timber head.