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MSTER- merous canals, forming what may be termed small regular troops that were mustered by the burgo- AMSTERDAM. islands, and communicating with each other by no masters; but being completely surrounded, were all of DAM.

less than 290 bridges; none of them, however, with them put to death. From this period, it gradually the exception of that which crosses the Amstel, are increased in size and general importance, till, in the worthy of particular notice. This is handsomely built seventeenth century, it was one of the first commercial of brick, and has thirty arches; it is 600 feet long, cities in Europe; particularly after the shutting of the and 70 broad, and is protected by a handsome iron Scheldt and the reduction of Antwerp, by successive ballustrade, which joins the terrace or promenade in wars with the Spaniards. The stability of its commerce front of the admiralty, a noble building, enclosing its was, however, finally fixed by the erection of the bank, Bank.

own dock-yard and the warehouses of the East India which was instituted by the states of Holland on the canals

. company. The water of the canals is, in general, about 31st of January, 1609, which rendered Amsterdam the eight or nine feet deep, and the mud at the bottom grand central point of European exchange; and susabout six more. Many of them are offensively impure, tained, with the highest reputation, its bill transactions and there is a uniform greenness spread over the to an immense extent, with every trading town of note surface. But it is contended, by the medical prac- in the world. This, however, has considerably detitioners of Amsterdam, that these stagnant waters clined. The invasion of this city by the French in the are by no means unwholesome to the city. Several year 1795, led to the discovery, that the deposits in of the streets are lined with trees, forming very agree- the Dutch bank consisted not so much in specie as had able walks and promenades; they are paved with brick, always been held out, but in bonds, which the directors but have no raised pathways; and the houses are re had received from different public bodies, in lieu of markably narrow. The Heeren-gragt and Prissen- cash. This circumstance shook the credit of the bank gragt, however, contain some noble buildings; and, of Amsterdam to a degree, which it has not, and never the river Amstel running into the very bosom of the will, entirely survive; so that a great part of its former city, the port formed by the Y capable of receiving a profitable exchanges have found their way to London thousand vessels, the bustle of its mercantile pursuits, and Hamburgh. Prior, indeed, to this event, the with the general appearance of wealth and industry, Dutch commerce had begun to decline ; but the merconspire to give Amsterdam a degree of importance chants of Amsterdam may justly attribute their greatest superior to many other larger cities in Europe. The disasters to the revolutionists of France. harbour, when viewed from a distance, has the appear In the year 1787, this city was taken by the Prus- Modern ance of a thick forest of masts; but the entrance from sians ; but they left it the year following. It was octhe Texel requires some experience to pass in safety. cupied by the French from the year 1810, till the The dock-yards and arsenals, both of the city and overthrow of Napoleon Buonaparte, during which time admiralty, are extensive and well contrived for busi- it was the chief town of the department of

the Zuyder

Zee, and was deemed the third city in the French emAmsterdam yields to the Dutch government a revenue pire. In 1785 there were 230,000 inhabitants; but in of a million and a half per annum, and is, in every 1812, they did not exceed 200,000. In 1815, they are aspect of it, a monument of Batavian industry. The stated to have been only 180,179; but this, we think, surrounding country through which the Wye has its must be greatly below the truth. course, is four or five feet below the level of the stream, This city is defended, on the land side, by a wall Means of from which it is preserved by immense embankments; and twenty-six bastions, with a capacious and deep defence. and the city itself is built upon many thousands of im- ditch, or fosse. On the side next the sea, however, mense piles, driven into the natural swamp on which it has no fortifications ; but the entrance to the harbour it stands. It was formerly only a small fishing village; is guarded by a double row of piles, which have openbut in the year 1370 it began to be known as a trading ings at intervals to admit vessels. These openings are town. More than another century, however, elapsed always closed during the night. There is a sort of before it was encompassed with walls or any species of basin outside of the piles, called the Laag, in which fortifications. But at this time Mary of Burgundy lie the heavy laden ships. In case of invasion, the intook it under her protection, and encircled it with a habitants could, if they chose, lay the whole city under substantial wall of brick. This was afterwards de- water in a very short time, by means of enormous stroyed by the Guelderlinders, and never wholly re-sluices in the neighbourhood. The city is entered by newed. In the earlier records of the Reformation we eight noble gates of stone. Some of the streets have

find this city exposed to the plots of the Anabaptist a very splendid and magnificent appearance, rendered - leaders. The deputies of John of Leyden, who asserted more pleasing by the avenues of stately elms which

that God had made him a present of the cities of adorn the fronts of the houses. The shops are also Amsterdam, Devinter, and Wesel, assembled twelve very handsome, particularly those belonging to the of their associates at midnight, in 1535, five of whom jewellers and print-sellers, of which there are great were women, and running naked at the head of them numbers. into the streets, exclaimed, “Woe, woe; the wrath Among the public buildings, the stadthouse is by far Public of God; woe to Babylon? This outrage, though the most elegant and splendid: it stands nearly in the buildings. soon quelled, was but the precursor of a more formidable centre of the town, on a foundation of 13,659 piles, conspiracy, headed by one Von Gellen, and conducted and occupies a spacious quadrangular area: it is a with considerable adroitness and inviolable secrecy. square building, 282 feet in front, 235 feet in depth, This fanatic raised a sufficient number of proselytes to and in height 116, without the tower : it has seven attack and take the town-house, to which they marched small porticoes, representative of the seven united prowith drums beating and colours flying, and there fixed vinces ; but has not any grand entrance,--an architheir head quarters, sustaining a severe siege from the tectural omission which is said to have been occasioned



3 v

AMSTER. by the prudence of the magistrates, who had the super- in wet' weather; they are supported by forty-six large AMSTE DAM.

intendance of the building, for the purpose of preventing pillars, each marked with a particular number; and DAY free access to a mob, in case of tumult. The whole under each is a place for the merchandize of the

persons building, with the exception of the ground floor, which who frequent it. These lower apartments are generally is brick-work, is of freestone, and is said to have cost appropriated to foreigners. 300,0001. sterling; some say the enormous sum of Besides these buildings, we may notice the corntwo millions. The principal architect was John Van exchange; the four houses of charity; the hospital ; Kempen, who acted under the controul of four burgo- the lazaretto, or house for old men; nine houses for masters. The first of the numerous piles on which it orphans; and the foundation of Van Brienen. Here are is erected was driven on the 20th of January, 1648, four houses of correction, and other minor prisons. The and the last on the 6th of October following, when the admiralty-office, or, as it was formerly called, the first stone was laid. It was finally completed in 1655. court of the princes of Orange; the houses of the East The interior is in every way worthy the former great- and West India companies ; the colleges, and public ness of the Batavian republic. The burgo-masters' schools; the botanic garden; the theatres, and the cabinet and retiring rooms, the treasury chamber, superb gate, called the Harlaem-gate, are all worthy painter's chamber, and the council of war chamber, are the notice of the visitor; as also is the arsenal for the splendid apartments. The bugher's hall is a magnifi- men of war, and several other public establishments : cent room, with sides of marble, 120 feet long, 57 nor should we omit to notice the workhouse, an estabroad, and 80 high, having galleries 21 feet in width. blishment of the kind which has no parallel in the world. It is entered under a Corinthian colonnade of red and It is capable of holding 1,000 persons. white marble, by massy bronze gates and railing finely Among the literary institutions, we may particularize Literary executed. On the floor are the singular ornaments of the following:- The society of Felix Meritis, an in- stitctius the terrestrial and celestial globes, delineated in circles stitution devoted to philosophy and the fine arts; the of 22 feet in diameter, by inlaid work of brass and Academy of Design; the Poetic Society; the Illustrious variegated marbles. There are three of these circles; School, or Athenæum Illustre; and the School for two of which are devoted to the hemispheres of the Seamen. earth, and one between them to the planisphere of the The churches are not very numerous. The old Charches heavens. At one end is a colossal Atlas, supported by church, called Oudekerk, has a chapel, with windows &c. Vigilance and Wisdom, and bearing the globe on his of painted glass; the new church, called St. Katherynenshoulders. From this hall a noble double staircase kerk, contains the tomb of the celebrated Admiral De leads to the tribunal, another principal apartment of Ruyter, who died in the year 1676; the tomb of Adthe stadthouse, which occupies a large portion of the miral Bentinck, who died in 1781, at the battle of ground floor. Its walls are also of white marble, Dogger's-bank; and the monument of the Dutch poet adorned with figures in bass relief, symbolical of the Vondel

. Here also are the southern church, called purposes to which it is devoted.

Zuider-kerk, and some others. These churches of the The statues and paintings with which the interior of the establishment are Calvinistic; but all other denominastadthouse is adorned, are numerous and costly. tions are tolerated. There are two French, one English Among the pictures we may briefly notice, The Signing one Scotch, one Armenian, two Lutheran, and three of the Peace of Munster, by Vanderhelft; An Assembly Baptist churches; besides twenty-four Roman Catholic of the States, a capital picture, by Vandyke; and The chapels, one Quakers' meeting, and two very splendid Assembly of the Confederates, by Rembrandt. The centre Jewish synagogues, one for the German, and the other of the grand saloon was drawn by Huygens; but, un- for the Portuguese Jews. fortunately, its basement has been injured.

We must not omit to notice the amiable sisterhood The exterior is richly decorated with basso and alto of the Beguines amongst the best conducted establishrelievos. On the front is a marble pediment, on which ments of Amsterdam, and forming an institution peis a female figure supporting the city arms. The figure culiar to that place, as a Protestant town. These is in a sitting posture, her chair being supported by ladies reside in a large isolated building, contiguous to two lions, bearing an olive branch in the right hand. which is a church and numerous inferior offices approOn each side are four Naiads, presenting her with a priated to their own order; the whole being surrounded crown of palm and laurel; and two other marine god- with a wall and a ditch. Any female may enter into desses, presenting her with different sorts of fruits. There this society, being unmarried, or without children, upon is also Neptune, accompanied by tritons, a sea unicorn, a certificate of good character, and of her having an and a sea horse. Over these are three bronze statues, adequate income for her own support. Each sister is representing Justice, Strength, and Plenty; and on the required to attend stated prayers, and to be within the top of the whole structure is a round tower, adorned walls at a given hour at night : she has a small flower with statues, and containing a chime of bells. garden devoted to her own use; she is not distin

This magnificent edifice formerly contained prisons guished by any dress, is free to pursue her own former both for criminals and debtors ; but these have been habits during the day, and may marry from, or leave lately transferred to more suitable abodes; and the the establishment when she pleases. stadthouse is now converted into a royal palace. Amsterdam, on the other hand, has always been

The bank, which, as we have already noticed, was disgraced by the gross profligacy of its licensed brothels established in 1609, has nothing peculiarly worthy of or spiel-houses, whose keepers are ever on the watch notice in its structure. The public course, or exchange, to entrap unemployed or unwary females into their estabuilt of freestone, and measuring 230 feet in length_blishments, and obtain the connivance of the police by by 130 feet in breadth, is a very commodious building. the payment of a small fine. There are two galleries, where the merchants may retire The government of Amsterdam is vested in a senate


on Amster

AMSTER. or council of thirty-six members, and twelve burgo- no doubt of the harbour itself having once formed an AMSTERDAM. masters. The members of the council sit during life, immense crater.

and fill up the vacancies that occur in their numbers by This island is inaccessible on every side but the E., foreni their own suffrages. The burgo-masters, who are through the narrow strait by which the basin communi- Volcanic

formations chosen by the citizens out of a double number first cates with the sea; it stands 200 feet out of the water, nominated by the council, sustain the active magistracy as seen from the outward shores, and the land slopes damn island. of the city in rotation, the government of each lasting upward all round to its internal edge, or the mouth of only three months, and the four who are to preside the crater, which is formed of layers of lava rising during the year being annually appointed burgo-masters' about 730 feet from the water below. On the western regent, an office very similar to that of the lord mayor side of the island, which is nearly perpendicular, the of London. These magistrates have the keys of the depositions of successive eruptions may be distinctly bank deposited with them. There is also a court of traced; a glassy layer being lowest, the compost next, burgo-masters, which decides all criminal cases; but in the cellular next above it, and over it volcanic ashes civil causes there is an appeal to the provincial council. and lighter substances, covered by a layer of vegetable The senate of Amsterdam formerly appointed the de- mould. In the same quarter, and toward the S. W. puties to the states-general, in which this city only are four small volcanoes, with regularly formed craters, held the fifth rank, although it sent four representa- containing lava of recent formation, and constantly tives, or double the number of any other of the cities emitting elastic vapours. The ground in this part of of Holland.

the island is tremulous under the feet, which cannot Ianufac Amsterdam has several extensive manufactures, be kept in one place for a quarter of a minute together,

particularly in all sorts of stuffs, serges, woollen cloths, and stones thrown sharply on the surface return a damasks, lace, galloons, velvets, carpets, and leather; hollow sound. The island generally is penetrated by jewellery, gold and silver articles, sugar refining, toys, fissures, from which smoke issues in the day, and flames distilleries, and japan and china ware. Here also is at night; the latter giving an awful appearance to the an extensive Lombard, or pawn-house, in which busi- surrounding scenery, as seen from our ships in the ness is transacted to a very great amount. The water offing. Several springs of hot water were visited by in this part of Holland is so brackish and feculent, that our countrymen on the occasion above mentioned, of it is not used for common culinary purposes : hence which the average heat was about 212° Fahrenheit's there are water-merchants, who are constantly occu- thermometer; and a large party regaled themselves pied in supplying the city with water that is fit for with tench, bream, and perch, taken with a hook and drinking. This they bring in boats from Utrecht and line from the basin, and boiled in about fifteen minutes Germany, in large stone bottles, containing about a in the water of the adjacent springs, as it flowed from gallon each. Those who cannot afford to buy it, use the ground. The soil is evidently a decomposition of rain-water.

lava, which is continually increasing and spreading a AMSTERDAM, New, a town in Dutch Guiana, situ- rich mould over all parts of the island for the tall rank ated between the rivers Berbice and Canje. It is the grass that abounds in it; the putrefaction of vegetable seat of the government of Berbice. The allotments of matters mixes with this lava and with the mouldering land on which the houses stand that face the waters, ashes, while the long roots of the grass form the have trenches all round them, which are filled and principal tie of the whole. So light, indeed, is the soil, emptied with every tide; each lot occupying about a that the foot breaks in at every step, as into sand, and quarter of an acre of land. Here is a neat garden; the short walk across the island becomes a fatiguing the circulation of air is kept up; and the cleanli- and dangerous journey. One gentleman in the suite ness of every establishment within these precincts of Lord Macartney accidentally plunged his foot through is promoted. It stands W. lon. 57°, 15'. `N. lat. the layer of mould on the western side, and it was 6°, 20'.

severely scalded. The holes that have been made by AMSTERDAM, an island of the South Pacific Ocean, various visitors have been built in by the sea-birds that in E. lon. 76°, 54', and lat. 38°, 42', visited by Von abound in the neighbourhood; which, in no small deVlaming, a Dutch commander, in 1697; and in 1793, gree, increases the annoyance of the walk. by the British ships which took out Lord Macartney on Near the centre of the island is an area of about 200 his embassy to China. It is of the shape of a horse- yards square, where the heat of the soil is so great, as shoe, nearly closed at the points, containing a harbour to admit of no vegetation. Here one of the hot springs or basou in the centre, the entrance to which might is supposed to take its rise, and to break through the easily be made navigable to vessels of any burden. interstices of lava to its mouth, which is just above the The length of the island, from N. to S., is upwards of water in the great basin below. All the springs of hot four miles; its breadth, from E. to W., about two water, except one, are brackish; this is a pretty strong miles and a half; and its circuit, about eleven miles. chalybeate, and flows to some distance in a small colThe harbour, with its surrounding rocks, is of the lected stream, through a crust of ochre which it has shape of an elliptical funnel, or inverted cone, whose deposited. Its temperature is not above 112°, and the longest diameter at the water's edge is 1,100 yards, water is very safe for use. Large beds of moss of the and the shortest 850; its circumference being 3,000 marctantia and lycopodium species, variegate the suryards, or about a mile and a half. At the top it is face of the island in some places, and on part of it being about two miles round. A fertile but very soft and torn away, it disclosed, in 1793, a thin hot mud, in spungy soil covers the island, which bears every where which a thermometer rose immediately to the boiling such unquestionable marks of a volcanic origin, that point. The same substance overspreads the barren the scientific gentlemen attached to the embassy had spot in the centre of the island, and on removing it,

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AMSTER- copious streams of vapour arise, while the sound of AMSTERDAM, an uninhabited island, in the Frozen AMSTER DAM. bubbling water may be heard in applying the ear to the sea, near the western coast of Spitzbergen. There is DAM. ground. Veins of vitrified matter, in a liquid state, are also an island of this name in the Chinese sea, between

AMULET seen running down in many places into the basin. Japan and the island of Formosa.

This great reservoir, which, if once the crater of a AMTSHITKA, one of the Aleutian Islands, 60 volcano, was one of the largest in the world, now re- miles in length, but very little cultivated, and consistceives the tide regularly through the mouth, or entrance ing greatly of rocky mountains, particularly on the we have mentioned, where it runs at the rate of about eastern side, where they branch out into the sea, and three miles an hour. Within the bason it rises per- form several distinct islets, with which the whole island pendicularly eight or nine feet at the full and change of indeed is more or less surrounded. the moon. During the winter months, all kinds of AMTSZELL, a parish, market-town, and castle, storms and agitations pervade this place. Sometimes the kingdom of Wirtemberg, district of the lake in the whole mass of waters seem to heave upward from Constance, and upper bailiwic of Ravensburg, between the bottoin, and whirlwinds scatter them in immense that place and Wargen. It has a population of about sheets above the surface of the surrounding rocks. The 2,130 inhabitants. entrance appears to have been formed by a recent AMUCHTA, one of the volcanic Aleutian Islands, irruption of the sea; for, in 1697, Von Vlaming noticed about 27 miles long. a low bar across it, upwards of five feet above the AMUDARSA, in Ancient Geography, a town of surface of the ocean; it is still shallow, and accessible Bizacium, in Africa Propria, mentioned by Antonine, only to boats.

and placed north of Septimunicia by M. d'Anville. It The seal On the shores of the island immense numbers of seals was formerly a bishopric. fishery of are taken, of the phocaursina species. The ships of the AMUL, å town of Persia, giving name to a district Amsterdam.

embassy, in fact, were induced to stop here by the ap- in the province of Mazanderan. It is situated in a pearance of two men making signs from the immense pleasant plain, at the foot of a hill, on the river Arasprecipices, and who proved to be part of an American bei. This was formerly one of the best fortified towns crew who were left to procure seal skins for the Canton in Persia ; and there are still some remains of a castle, market. The whole party consisted of five, two Ame- which the inhabitants say is 4,000 years old. The rican sailors (originally from England), and two French- building of the town itself is ascribed to Shah Suhak, men, commanded by a native of France. They had been a celebrated Persian chief, in the 17th century, who here about five months, and had gathered 8,000 skins; named it after a favourite daughter. The Arasbei is calculating upon finding 17,000 more before the return crossed by a fine bridge of stone, erected in the year of their vessel from Nookta Sound. These are worth 1680, by a priest of the Mahometan religion, in comat Canton, from one to three dollars each. The animal is miseration of the fate of those who lost their lives in killed as it is found basking in the sun, and the carcase passing the stream at high water. After it was finished, is left to putrefy before the skin is taken off. Our people, at his sole expence, he is said to have pronounced an who were here early in the year, found these disgusto anathema against all those of elevated rank who should ing objects scattered all round the island, and the stench cross it on horseback, which to this day is religiously from them almost intolerable. The summer is the avoided. Persons of this description always dismount season for their appearance, when they come ashore in on approaching it, and walk over in reverential obedroves of from 800 to 1,000; sometimes plunging in- dience and fear. In the suburbs of the town,

there stantly back at the sight of man, at other times erecting is a palace, two stories in height, said to have been themselves into a menacing posture, and remaining built by Shah Abbas. There are also three sepulbarking on the rocks until struck down. This is ac- chral towers, supposed to have been fire temples complished by a slight blow on the nose with a stick; of the ancient Guebres. The population amounts to and if 100 could thus be taken during the day, the ad- about 800, who subsist by the cultivation of rice and venturers above-mentioned were content, as it was the cotton; or by working at the several iron founderies full employ of five men to pin them down afterwards in and forges in the neighbourhood of the town. Amul a proper manner. Some of the oil they yield was is distant from Casbin about 120 miles. gathered, and served their people as butter. It is AM'ULET. Amuletum ; from amolior, amolitus ; remarkable, that the proportion of female to male from a and moles, a heap or mass; to heave away, to seals which came ashore here, is more than thirty to one. drive away, to repel. In winter, these animals keep in deep water, and Amulets, made up of relics, with certain letters and crosses; to amongst the weeds, which seem to shelter them from make him that wears them invulnerable. its inclemencies; while the sea lions (phoca leonina of

Bp. Hall's Cases of Conscience. Linnæus), appear in great numbers, and take their In that day will the Lord take from them the ornaments, place upon the rocks. They are as large as from 11 to

Of the feet-rings, and the net-works, and the crescents;

The pendents, and the bracelets, and the thin vails;
18 feet long, and make such a prodigious howling round The tires, and the fetters, and the zones,
the shore, that the British ships could distinctly hear And the perfuzne-boxes, and the amulets.
them at their anchorage, a mile distant. Whales and

Louth's Isaiah. sharks also abound in the neighbourhood at this part of Amulets, in the Customs of almost all the nations the year; but none of these latter animals appear to of Antiquity, were favourite and sometimes very imhave been objects of commerce with the visitors of the portant instruments of superstition and empiricism, istand. Cod and cray fish are caught in every direction. They were most frequently suspended from the neck.

AMSTERDAM, an island in the Pacific ocean, ge, and contained the name or exploits of some deity; nerally called Tongataboo. See TONGATABOO, . whose protection they were supposed to ensure, and of

An quæ

ULET. whose service they were the token or badge. They be the specific virtues of certain stones worn as amulets AMULET.

were formed of all sorts of materials, though precious in the “elder time.”
stones were naturally preferred, and thus they often “ An agat (they saie) hath vertue against the biting
added to the elegance of dress, what was meant for the of scorpions or serpents. It is written (but I will not
safety of the person. In their formation, or their being

stand to it) that it maketh a man eloquent, and promade into amulets, particular times were imagined cureth the favour of princes ; yea, that the fume thereof to be very propitious, especially after the reveries of dooth turn awaie tempests. Alectorius is a stone the astrologers succeeded the early discoveries of about the bignesse of a beane, as cleere as the christall, astronomy. Various herbs and plants, gathered at taken out of a cock's bellie which hath been gelt or these times, of which the full age of the moon was

made a capon foure yeares.

If it be held in one's considered one of the most important, were presented mouth, it assuageth thirst, it maketh the husband to as sovereign remedies for many fatal disorders, the bite love the wife, and the bearer invincible :--Chelidonius of venomous reptiles, &c. The Egyptians had a great is a stone taken out of a swallowe, which cureth mevariety of them, of which the most popular was the lancholie; howbeit, some authors saie, it is the hearbe ABRAXAS (which see), a cabalistic word engraven on whereby the swallowes recover the sight of their young, a stone, to which it gave name.

The Jews had an even if their eies be picked out with an instrument. early propensity to using them for similar purposes. Geranites is taken out of a crane, and Draconites out Compare Deut. xviii. 10–12, with Jer. viii. 17. In of a dragon. But it is to be noted, that such stones. later times the Mishna allowed an amulet to be worn must be taken out of the bellies of the serpents, beasts, which had previously been three times successful in the or birds, (wherein they are) whiles they live : othercure of any disease.

wise, they vanish awaie with the life, and so they reThe Chaldeans, Persians, and oriental nations, also teine the vertues of those starres under which they are. held them in the highest estimation. Amongst the

Amethysus maketh a droonken man sober, and reGreeks, parts of animals, minerals, and herbs, were fresheth the wit. The corall preserveth such as beare used as amulets, especially in exciting and conquering it from fascination or bewitching, and in this respect the passion of love; and Pliny mentions many that they are hanged about children's necks. But from were in use among the Romans. Ovid speaks of whence that superstition is derived, and who invented Mount Caucasus as celebrated for yielding the neces

the lie, I knowe not; but I see how redie the people sary plants,

are to give credit thereunto, by the multitude of coralls

that waie emploied. Heliotropius stancheth bloud, Lecta Prometheis dividit herba jugis,

driveth awaie poisons, preserveth health; yea, and

some write that it provoketh raine, and darkeneth the supposed to spring from the blood of Prometheus; sunne, suffering not him that beareth it to be abused. and Colchis is mentioned by other poets as noted for Hyacinthus dooth all that the other dooth, and also similar productions. Amulets were also sometimes preserveth from lightning. Dinothera hanged about appended to the bodies of beasts, for medical and other the necke, collar, or yoke of any creature, tameth it purposes. They are still commonly worn in the East, presentlie. A topase healeth the lunatike person of and among the Turks, with whom magical words, num- his passion of lunacie. Aitites, if it be shaken, soundbers, and figures, sentences of the Alcoran, prayers, eth as if there where a little stone in the bellie thereof: &c. inscribed on scrolls of paper or silk, are in great it is good for the falling sicknesse, and to prevent unrequest in time of war.

timelie birth. Chalcedonius maketh the bearer luckie Christianity, in the decline of the Roman empire, in lawe, quickeneth the power of the bodie, and is of supplied numerous amulets to her nominal converts force also against the illusions of the divell, and phanfrom paganism, in crosses, agnus dei's, relics of the tasticall cogitations arising of melancholie. Corneolus saints and martyrs, &c. The pope is said still to mitigath the heate of the mind, and qualifieth malice, claim a prerogative of creating them. (See the article it stancheth bloudie Auxes. Iris helpeth a woman to AGNUS Dei.) Their connection with ancient British speedie deliverance, and maketh rainebows to appeere. customs is also important, Burton prescribing some, A saphire preserveth the members, and maketh them while he deprecates the use of others, as cures for livelie, and helpeth agues and gowts, and suffereth not melancholy-“ I say with Renodeus, they are not al- the bearer to be afraid: it hath vertue against venome, together to be rejected;" he adds--“ Piony doth cure and staieth bleeding at the nose, being often put epilepsie; pretious stones most diseases; a wolf's dung, thereto. A smarag is good for the eiesight, and born with one, helps the colick; a spider an ague, maketh one rich and eloquent.. Mephis (as Aaron and &c. The celebrated Mr. Bayle mentions the applica- Hermes report out of Albertus Magnus) being broken tion of some amulets, as a proof of the power of ex into powder, and droonke with water, maketh insensiternal effluvia over the corporeal system; and states bilitie of torture. Heereby you may understand, that the fact of having cured himself of a tendency to as God hath bestowed upon these stones, and such bleeding at the nose, by the application of the moss of other like bodies, most excellent and woonderful verof a dead man's skull. Several physicians have noticed tues: so according to the abundance of humane supersimilar phenomena ; and it is well known, from the stitions and follies, manie ascribe unto them either wearing of camphor and other substances, that the more yertues, or others than they have." See also effluvia of various bodies is very powerful in preventing Drayton's Muse's Elysium, 9th Nymphal; CHALMER'S contagior. It

may be some assistance to the readers Poets, vol. iv. which is, in fact, a sort of parody of of our early poets, to subjoin a curious extract from the the above. scarce work of Regnald Scot, On the Discoverie of AMULETIC MEDIcines is a term that has been someWitchcraft, with respect to what was even thought to times given to sympathetic applications of various de

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