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S AME clouds collected upon these mountains, uniting with succeeded by any very violent shocks of an earthquake. S. AMERICA. those which come from the north, occasion very heavy The quantity of lava and ashes was so great that it filled rains, accompanied with thunder, in all the provinces the neighbouring vallies, and occasioned a rise of the

Geographic le montant beyond the Andes, particularly in those of Tucuman waters of the l'ingeraca, which continued for many colore

and Cujo, while, at the same time, the atmosphere of days. At the same time the course of the Lontue, a Chili is constantly clear, and its inhabitants enjoy their very considerable river, was impeded for ten days, by finest season. The contrary takes place in winter, a part of the mountain which fell and filled its bed; the which is the fine season in these provinces, and the water at length forced itself a passage, overflowed all rainy in Chili. The south wind never continues blow- the neighbouring plains, and formed a lake which still ing during the whole day with the same force; as the remains. In the whole of the country not included in sun approaches the meridian, it falls very considerably, the Andes, there are but two volcanoes; the first, siand rises again in the afternoon. At noon, when this tuate at the mouth of the river Rapel, is small, and diswind is scarcely perceptible, a fresh breeze is felt from charges only a little smoke from time to time; the sethe sea, which continues about two or three hours; the cond is the great volcano of Villarica, in the country husbandmen give it the name of the twelve o'clock of Arauco. This volcano may be seen at the distance breer, or the countryman's watch, as it serves to regu- of 150 miles; and although it appears to be insulated, late them in determining that hour. This sea-breeze re it is said to be connected by its base with the Andes. turns regularly at midnight, and is supposed to be pro- The summit of the mountain is covered with snow, and duced by the tide ; it is stronger in autumn, and some is in a constant state of eruption; it is 14 miles in cirtimes accompanied with bail. The east winds rarely pre- cumference at its base, which is principally covered rail in Chili, their course being obstructed by the Andes. with pleasant forests: a great number of rivers derive Hurricanes, so common in the Antilles, are unknown their sources from it, and its perpetual verdure furnishes here; there exists, indeed, a solitary example of ahurri- a proof that its eruptions have never been very violent. cane, which, in 1633, did much injury to the fortress of The inhabitants usually calculate three or four earthCaremalpo, in the south part of Chili. The mild tem- quakes at Chili annually, but they are very slight, and perature which Chili almost always enjoys must depend little attention is paid to them. The great earthentirely upon the succession of these winds, as a situa- quakes happen but rarely, and of these not more than tion so near the tropic would naturally expose it to a five have occurred in a period of 244 years, from the more viclent degree of heat. In addition to these, the arrival of the Spaniards to the present period, 1818. tide, the abundant dews, and certain winds from the From a course of accurate observations, it has been asAndes, which are distinct from the east winds, cool the certained that earthquakes never occur unexpectedly air so much in summer, that in the shade no one is ever in this country, but are always announced by a hollow incommoded with perspiration. The dress of the in- sound proceeding from a vibration of the air; and as habitants of the sea-coast is the same in the winter as the shocks do not succeed each other rapidly, the inin the summer; and in the interior, where the heat is habitants have sufficient time to provide for their safety. more perceptible than elsewhere,

Reaumur's thermome. They have, however, in order to secure themselves at ter scarcely ever exceeds 25o. The nights, throughout all events, built their cities in a very judicious manner; the country, are generally of a very agreeable tempera- the streets are left so broad that the inhabitants would ture. Notwithstanding the moderate heat of Chili, all be safe in the middle of them, should even the houses the fruits of warm countries, and even those of the fall upon both sides. In addition to this, all the houses tropics, arrive to great perfection there, which renders it have spacious courts and gardens, which would serve probable that the warmth of the soil far exceeds that of as places of refuge; those who are wealthy have usually the atmosphere. The countries bordering on the E. of in their gardens several neat wooden barracks, where Chili do not enjoy these refreshing winds; the air there they pass the night whenever they are threatened with is suffocating, and as oppressive as in Africa under the an earthquake. Under these circumstances, the Chisame latitude.

lians live without apprehension, especially as the earthMeteors are very frequent in Chili, especially those quakes have never been hitherto attended with any called shooting stars, which are to be seen there almost considerable sinking of the earth, or falling of buildthe whole year; also balls of fire, that usually rise from ings; this is probably owing to subterraneous pasthe Andes, and fall into the sea. The aurora australis, sages communicating with the volcanoes of the Andes, on the contrary, is very uncommon; that which was which are so many vent-holes for the inflamed subobserved in 1640 was one of the largest; it was visi- stances, and serve to counteract their effects. Were ble, from the accounts that have been left us, from the it not for the number of these volcanoes, Chili would, month of February until April. During the last century in all probability, be rendered uninhabitable. they have appeared at four different times. This phe What has been said of the climate of Chili can in po nomenon is more frequently visible in the Archipelago great measure apply to that of the eastern parts of the of Chiloe, from the greater elevation of the pole in that continent, namely, of Buenos Ayres and Monte Video; part of the country.

for here the weather is generally more humid, and, in The greatest volcanic eruption ever known in Chili the winter months (June, July, and August), it is at was that of Peteroa, which happened on the 3d of De- times boisterous, and the air keen and piercing. In cember, 1750, when that volcano formed itself a new summer, also, the serenity of the atmosphere is fre

crater, and a neighbouring mountain was rent asunder quently interrupted by tremendous thunder-storms, . for many miles in extent; the eruption was accom- preceded by dreadful lightning, which frequently da

panied by a dreadful explosion, which was heard mages the shipping, and followed by heavy rain, which throughout the whole country; fortunately it was not sometimes destroys the harvest. The heat is trouble

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S. AN RICA

GOLD.

SILVIR.

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S. AME- some, and is rendered more so to strangers by the

Coinage of Potosi.
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swarms of mosquitoes, which it engenders in such
numbers that they infest every apartment.

Value in Dollars. Reals.
Geographic

Dollars. Reals. cal details. Mines.-By far the greater part of the precious

Annual average from Dines. metals used in the world are brought froin America,

1780 to 1790, 257,247 1 3,960,010 7 caldria and, with the exception of those from the mines of

Coinage of 1791, 257,526 0 4,365,175 0 Mexico, almost all from the southern continent. It is

Coinage of 1801, 481,278 0 7,700,448 0 impossible to give any adequate description of the The first person who examined this mine was Thomas treasures of these mines: many of them are inexhaust- Valaroel, in the year of its discovery. The mountain ible: on the other hand, many hundreds have ceased is three miles in cireumference, and 6,000 Castillian to be worked on account of the want of quicksilver, and yards high above the level of the sea, as it was meafrom their being filled with water. The former objec. sured by Don Luis Godin, of the academy of the lion is, in a great measure, owing to the government sciences of Paris. It is of a sharp conical figure, and monopolies, and the latter is likely to be overcome by resembles a great pavilion. In the interior it is nearly the enterprizing spirit of European capitalists, who, in hollow, from the excavations which have been made one or two instances, have already sent over steam- for so many years, and on the exterior it appears like engines of moderate power, which have effectually an ant-hill, from the multitude of mouths by which it is drained the pits, and attorded a lucrative return to the entered. projectors. The Spanish government has at all times, The silver-mines of Esquilache, in Peru, are so rich, since the discovery of this country, derived its principal that the bishop's yearly dues from the labourers amountresources from these metals, and to secure itself ed to 14,000 dollars; and one of the thirty-six which in the undivided enjoyment of them, it has passed lay close together in that neighbourhood, was not the most rigid laws, and prevented, as far as possible, long since sold for no less a consideration than a all intercourse of the nations with foreign powers. The rent of 1,040 dollars a day. These mines are neannual prodnce of the mines of New Granada, as cal- vertheless but half worked for want of mechanical culated from the amount of the royal duties, and there. power, though great quantities of silver are, in fact, exfore considerably under the truth, amounts to 18,000 tracted from them. `Alcedo observes, that if these Spanish marks of pure gold, and very few of silver; mines were to be emptied of their water, they would, the value in dollars is 2,624,760, the gold being esti- without doubt, yield twenty times as much ore as is mated at 1457. dollars, and the silver at 94. dollars usually produced from them. In Chili, there are mines the Spanish mark. Besides this we must add for con of silver, copper, lead, sulphur, white lime and salt, traband 1,735,240 dollars, and the total produce will but the most abundant of all are those of copper; then be 4,360,000.

large quantities of this metal having been sent to Spain In the northern parts of Peru, are the famous mines for founding artillery, and, indeed, from the saine source of Potosi, several of them of gold, but those of silver has been made all the artillery in this kingdom. This are found all over the country. The mines of Potosi metal is found of two sorts, one which is called are chiefly of silver, and never did nature afford to the campanel, and is only fit for founding, and the other, avidity of man, in any country on the globe, such end- which has a mixture of gold, and is called de labrar less sources of wealth. These mines were accidentally or working metal, and which is known only in this discovered in the year 1545, in this manner: An province. Indian, named Hualpa, one day following some deer, In the province of Santiago are some mines that can which made directly up the hill of Potosi, came to a only be worked in the summer months, namely, Decemsteep, craggy part of the hill, and the better to enable ber, January, February, and March ; but in the winter him to climb up, laid hold of a shrub, which came up time the rains and snow, and severity of the weather, by the roots, and laid open a mass of silver ore. He force the labourers to desist. for some time kept it a secret, but afterwards revealed Twenty leagues from the capital is the great mine of it to his friend Guanca, who, because he would not Kempú; some of the metals of which are founded, and discover to him the method of refining it, acquainted some otherwise prepared; but the working of this mine the Spaniard his master, named Valaroel, with the is not well established, notwithstanding it has sixteen discovery. Valaroel registered the mine in 1545; and veins. Further towards the S. is another mine, named from that time till 1638, these mines of Potosi had Maipo, the metals of which are lowered down by enyielded 95,619,000 pieces of eight, which is about gines from a very lofty mountain, discovered more than 4,255,000 pieces a year.

100 years ago, and called San Simon; and here also But the annual sum derived from these mines, ac are the mines of De San Pedro Nolasco, which render cording to the latest accounts, and as calculated from a considerable portion of massy silver. On the N. part, the produce of the royal duties, and therefore con- by the mountains of the curacy of Colina, are found siderably under the truth, amounts to 3,400 Spanish thirty-four gold-mines, which are actually worked, inmarks of pure gold, and 513,000 ditto of pure silver. dependently of 200 others, which are also worked: The value in dollars of both is 5,317,988; the gold Besides these mines, there are five lavaderos, or washing. being estimated at 145 Mon dollars, and the silver at places, in the mountain of Guindo, and some other 94, dollars the Spanish mark. Besides this, we must veins in the old asiento of Tiltil. The top of Calen is add for contraband 922,012 dollars ; and the total covered with lavaderos of the richest gold. produce will then be 6,240,000. The following will The total amount furnished by the mines of Spanish show what has been the increasing amount of the America, anmally, in gold and silver, may be reckoned produce of these mines of late years.

as follows : viz. by

SAJE
RICA

£ sterling. mountains and barren or stony rocks than in the vallies S. AMENew Spain

5,030,800 or on the banks of rivers. But in whatever place it RICA. New Granada

507,000 may have been gathered, it is of 235 carats on coining beraphi

Geographic Peru and Chili.

1,730,000

out of the mine, unless it be mixed with sulphur, silver, cal details. Buenos Ayres, or La Plata

882,000 iron, or mercury; a circumstance that rarely occurs,

except at Goyas and Arads. Making a total of 8,149,800 Every man who discovered a mine was obliged to to which may be added more than another million for give notice of it to the government. If it was conceived the contraband trade.

to be of little consequence by those persons appointed It was not till after the expulsion of the Dutch, that to examine its value, it was always given up to the the Portuguese began to be aware of the riches they public : but if, on the contrary, it was found to be a possessed in their mines. The minister of Portugal rich vein, the government never failed to reserve a well knew the utility that would be derived to his portion of it for themselves. Another share was given country by the territories of this kingdom being well to the commandant; a third to the intendant; and two allotted and cultivated ; and that by establishing the shares were awarded to the discoverers : the remainder capital in the bay of Todos Santos, it would be ex was divided amongst the miners of the district, in pro. tremely convenient and centrical for the purposes of portion to their circumstances, which were determined commerce ; but the rigour and cruelty with which the by the number of their slaves. The disputes to which first founders treated the poor Indians were a suffi this species of property gave rise fell under the cogni. ciont obstacle against his bringing about his laudable zance of the intendant, with the right of appeal from his designs. The mustees, who are the descendants of decrees to the supreme court established at Lisbon, the Spaniards and the natives, having kept on good under the title of council d'outremer. ternis with both parties, were the means by which all It is said that a slender vein of this metal runs through things were brought to a mutual reconciliation. The the whole country, at about twenty-four feet from the government was then vested in some priests of acknow surface; but it is too thin and poor to answer the ex. ledged virtue : these immediately scattered themselves pence of digging. Gold is always, however, to be col, over the whole coast, founding settlements, and pene

lected in the beds of rivers which have pursued the same trating into the interior; they first discovered the dif course for a considerable time; and, therefore, to be ferent gold-mines, which have been since worked to able to divert a stream from its usual channel is es. such prodigious emolument; as also the mines of dia teemed an infallible source of gain. monds, topazes, and other precious stones. The mines The employment of searching the bottoms of rivers of Cuiaba have been worked since the year 1740, and and torrents, and washing the gold from the mud and yielded great quantities of gold.

sand, is principally performed by slaves, who are chiefly Formerly Bahia de Todos Santos, or the bay of All negroes, of whom the Portuguese keep great numbers Saints, was the principal seat of the government, and for that purpose. By a particular regulation, these chief mart of the commerce of Brazil; but the disco. slaves are obliged to furnish their master every day very of the gold and diamond mines, within a short with the eighth part of an ounce of gold; and if, by distance of Rio de Janeiro, and communicating directly their industry or good fortune, they collect a larger with it, has given a decided superiority to the latter. quantity, the surplus is considered as their own proThe manner in which the former of these were disco, perty, and they are allowed to dispose of it as they vered is differently related; but the most common ihink fit; by which means, some negroes have, it is account is, that the Indians on the back of the Portu- said, purchased slaves of their own, and lived in great guese settlements were observed to make use of gold splendour; their original master having no other defor their fish-hooks; and inquiry being made as to mand upon them than the daily supply of an eighth of their manner of procuring this metal, it appeared that an ounce, which amounts to about nine shillings sterconsiderable quantities of it were annually washed ling; the Portuguese ounce being somewhat lighter from the mountains and left among the gravel and than our troy ounce. sand that remained in the vallies, after the running off The proprietors of the mines paid to the king of Poror evaporation of the water. From the time of this tugal, as above-mentioned, a fifth, part of the gold discovery, considerable quantities of gold were im- which they extracted by operations more or less sucported into Europe from Brazil ; and these imports cessful; and this fifth of the gold obtained from all the have gradually augmented, since new mines have been mines in Brazil was estimated, at an average, to amount wrought in many of the other provinces. The extrac- annually to about 300,0001. sterling: consequently tion of this precious metal is neither very laborious the whole capital must be nearly 1,500,0007, sternor attended with the smallest danger in this part of ling. If we add to this the gold exchanged with the the New World. The purest sort is generally found Spaniards for silver, and what was privately brought near the surface of the soil, though it is sometimes to Europe without paying the duty, which amounted to necessary to dig for it to the depth of three or four 500,0001. more, the annual produce of the Brazilian fathoms. It is usually incumbent on a bed of sandy mines was about 2,000,0001. sterling; an immense earth, termed by the natives saibro. Though, for the sum to be found in a country which a few years ago most part, the veins that are regular and run in the same was not known to produce a single grain. direction, are the richest, it has been observed that Among the many impediments thrown in the way of those spaces, the surface of which was most spangled trade, may be ranked the prohibition which prevented with crystals, were those which furnished the greatest the people of Brazil from working up the gold of their plenty of gold. It is found in larger pieces on the own mines. Even the tools and instruments used by

S. AME- the artificers for such purposes, were seized and con researches have shown this to be an unfounded suspi- S. Al RICA. fiscated by the strong hand of arbitrary power. cion. In Rio de Janeiro there exists a rich and copious RIC

It was only about the beginning of the last century mine of cupreous pyrites (pyrites cupri); one cwt. of Geographic that diamonds made a part of the exports from Brazil this mineral yields 25 lbs. of pure copper. Similar cal details.

to Europe. These valuable stones are, like the gold, mines of this metal have also been discovered in Minas
found frequently in the beds of rivers and torrents. Geraes, and other districts.
Before they were supposed to be of any value, they
were often perceived in washing the gold, and were

§ III. Political and Moral State of South America.
consequently thrown away with the sand and gravel; Amongst the inhabitants of South America, and Polis
and numbers of large stones, that would have enriched more particularly amongst the Peruvians and all classes and
the possessors, passed unregarded through the hands of the European Spaniards, pride and laziness are
of several persons wholly ignorant of their nature. said to be the predominant passions. Avarice may,

The diamonds sent from the New to the Old World likewise, be attributed to them with a great deal of were enclosed in a casket with three locks, the keys propriety. The Indians and negroes are forbidden, of which were separately put into the hands of the chief under the severest penalties, to intermarry; for dimembers of administration; and those keys were de- vision between these two classes is the greatest inposited in another casket, to which was aflixed the strument in which the Spaniards trust for the previceroy's seal. While the exclusive privilege subsisted, servation of the colonies. this precious deposit, on its arrival in Europe, was The INDIAN TRIBES that have not been reduced into The la remitted to government, which, according to a settled settlements by the different missionaries, are said to

tries regulation, retained the very scarce diamonds, which maintain their original character in the highest degree. exceeded twenty carats, and delivered every year, for They are described as valorous and hardy, but cruel, the profit of the company, to one, or to several con- stupid, and faithless, and incapable of being reduced tractors united, 40,000 carats, at prices which have under the laws of civil society. Several attempts apsuccessively varied. An engagement was made on pear to have been made to better the moral condition one hand to receive that quantity; and on the other of the Indians of Darien, but they were as often drawn not to distribute any more; and hatever might be the back to their idolatrous ways, nd retired into their produce of the mines, which necessarily varied, the native mountains. They live by tishing and the chase, contract was faithfully adhered to.

in which latter they are very dexterous, and extremely Before the recent changes in the Portuguese go- skilful in the use of the bow and arrow: their bows vernment, that court threw 60,000 carats of diamonds are made of a very strong but flexible kind of wood, into trade, which was monopolized by a single merchant, called chonta ; and their arrows of a species of light who paid for them at the rate of about 17. 11s. 6il. per cane called viruli, the point being of fish-bones, or of carat, amounting in the whole to 130,0001. sterling. the same chonta roasted or burnt. Their favourite The contraband trade in this article is said, by persons food is the flesh of monkies, and there are an increcompetent to form a just estimate on the subject, to dible variety of these animals here. They are much have amounted to a tenth more; so that the produce addicted to inebriety and sensual gratifications; for of these mines, the riches of which have been so much the former, they make use of a kind of drink called boasted of, did not exceed annually 143,0001. The mazato, which is a fermentation of maize and plantains: rough diamonds used to be purchased from the mer- they go almost naked, and wear only a cloth which chants in Lisbon, and other places in Portugal, by the serves to cover them in front, and which they call English and the Dutch, who, after cutting and polish- panequiri. They all deck themselves for dress-ornaing them with more or less perfection, disposed of ments with some small golden rings pendant from the what remained, after supplying the demand of their nose, the gristle of which is bored for this purpose diown countries, to other nations of Europe. In the rectly after their children are born: no less care is obdiamond and mine districts are found, between the served in cultivating the growth of the hair, and of parasitic stones, some very imperfect amethysts and permitting it to Aow down unconfined. The women topazes; as also sapphires and emeralds, and some adorn both their legs and arms with strings of coral, fine chrysolites. Jacinths or granites are sometimes beads of glass and of gold. The priests, who are called discovered in the interstices of tale, or micaceous stones; leres, and to whom singular respect is shown, paint these, as well as some other precious stones, never their faces of various colours, making incisions to insert having been subjected to a monopoly like diamonds; the bitumen that they use, and which never leaves those who discovered them were at perfect liberty to them, but renders them for ever after horrible and dedispose of them in the manner they deemed most con- formed. It has been affirmed by some that these ducive to their interest.

priests have communication with the devil, and that The annual exportation of these stones from Janeiro, they are, upon this account, confirmed in their unnaand some of the other ports, seldom exceeded 6,2501. tural and beastly customs. for which the government received a duty of one per When the Spaniards entered Cuzco, one of the chief Peru. cent. amounting in the whole to the trifling sum of cities of Peru, they were astonished by the grandeur 621. 10s. sterling. Mines of iron, sulphur, antimony, and magnificence of the edifices, of the fortress, and tin, lead, and quick silver, are likewise found in this the temple of the sun; and upon their entering the city, and other provinces of Brazil; but the pursuit of gold in 1534, when the same was taken possession of by has too much diverted the attention of the colonists Don Francisco Pizarro, for Charles V., it was then the from more useful speculations. It was long supposed capital of the whole empire of Peru, and the residence that copper had been withheld by nature from this vast of the emperors. Its streets. were large, wide, and and fruitful region of the new hemisphere; but later straight; though, at the present day, Lima stands in

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SAME- competition with it in regard to grandeur. The houses terior, and richly adorned,'having, almost all of them, S. AMERICA. are almost all built of stone, and of fine proportions. gardens and orchards attached. The city is divided RICA.

The cathedral, which has the title of La Assuncion, is into five parishes, besides two other churches, where Political

large, beautiful, rich, and of very good architecture, there is a priest, who acts also as a parish priest, and Political and has been thought even superior to the cathedral of another parish of Indians in the Cercado, with the title and Moral Lima.

of Santiago, administered formerly by the Jesuits. It The great fortress bears testimony to the powers of has nineteen convents of religious orders, nine public the Incas, and excites astonishment in the mind of hospitals, and an university with the title of San Marcos, every beholder, since the stones, so vast and shapeless, founded in 1549, by the bull of Pius V., having the same and of so irregular a superficies, are knit together, and privileges as the university of Salamanca ; also another laid one to fit into the other, with such nicety as to royal college, founded by the viceroy of Toledo; a want no mortar or other material whereby to fill up the tridentine seminary; and a beautiful college, with a interstices; and it is indeed difficult to imagine how house of retirement for noble families. In this metrothey could work them in this manner, when it is con- polis resides the viceroy, who is president of the tribusidered that they knew not the use of iron, steel, or nal of the royal audience founded in 1544, also of the machinery for the purpose. The other remarkable things consulate of commerce, founded in 1613. The pontiff are the baths; the one of warm and the other of cold Paul erected it into a bishopric in 1539, and three water; the ruins of a large stone-way, which was built years afterwards it was raised into an archbishopric, by order of the Incas, and which reached as far as and in 1571 declared a metropolitan, having been where Lima now 'stands; the vestiges of some sub- previously suffragan to the archbishopric of Sevilla. Its terraneous passages which led to the fortress from the titular was San Juan Evangelista, to distinguish it from houses or palaces of the Inca, and in which passages that of Cuzco, which has the titular of La Assuncion, the the walls were cut very crooked, admitting, for a certain same that was given to it by Francisco Pizarro. The space, only one person to pass åt a time, and this side- tribunal of the inquisition was erected in 1570, with a ways, and with great difficulty, when shortly afterwards jurisdiction extending as far as the river Mayo, which two might pass abreast. The exit was by a rock, divides the kingdom of Quito from the Neuvo Reyno worked in the same narrow manner, on the other side; de Granada, where the jurisdiction of the tribunal of and this was altogether a plan adopted through pru- Carthagena commences. Here are also the tribunal of dence, and for the better security against any sudden the holy crusade, established in 1574; the treasury, ássault, since here a single man might defend himself founded in 1607; and the royal mint, in 1565, and against a great number.

translated to Potosi in 1570, but afterwards re-estabLima, which may well be considered the emporium of lished in 1603. The ecclesiastical cabildo is composed the New World, is large, populous, rich, handsome, of five dignitaries, nine canons, six minor canons, and and superior to all the cities of South America. It was as many other inferior minor canons. The tribunal of founded on the 6th of January, 1535, by Don Francisco the protomedicato consists of a president, a fiscal, and Pizarro, marquis de los Charcas y Atavillos. The two examiners. This city is inhabited by many families Emperor Charles V. gave it the title of Royal City, on of the very first Spanish nobility, amongst which are the 7th of December, 1537; and for arms a shield, with reckoned forty-five titles of Castilla, many knights of the three crowns of gold on an azure field, and above a military orders, and twenty-four rich mayoralties. The star, with this motto, Hoc Signum rere Regum est;" house of Ampuero, which descends by the female line and for supporters two crowned eagles, and on their from the Incas of Peru, enjoys many distinctions and priheads a J and a C, initials of the name of Jane and vileges, conceded to them by the kings of Spain. In its Charles.

It is also called the city of Los Reyes (the cathedral five provincial councils have been celebrated, kings), in memory of the day of its foundation, and to two by Don Fr. Geronimo de Loaisa, in the years 1551 whom it was dedicated, and to which the three crowns and 1567; and three by Santo Toribio, in 1582, 1591, on the shield have an allusion. It is situate in an ex- and 1601. tensive llanura, called the Valley of Rimac; and from a : The ancient Indians called this country Tavantincorruption of the spelling we have its present name, suyu, which signifies the four parts. That of the E. in Lima. On the N. it is washed by the river of the which is the imperial city of Cuzco, they called Collasame name; and over this is a beautiful stone bridge suyu, or eastern part of the empire; that of the W. of five arches, built by order of the viceroy, the marquis Chinchay-suyu; that of the N. Anti-suyu; and that of of Montes Claros. "The plaza mayor is square and the S. Conti-suyu. This great country is divided into large; the buildings surrounding the same are magnifi- ninety-six provinces, in the district of the three aforesaid cent, and in the midst is a large brass fountain, made audiences; and, as to its spiritual and ecclesiastical with great taste, and at the order of the viceroy, the concerns, into an archbishopric and eleven bishoprics. count of Salvatierra. The episcopal palace is the The proper language of the natives is the Quechuan, loftiest and finest structure: the cathedral is of hand- commonly called Incan. some architecture, and was finished building on the 8th The ancient religion of Peru was the idolatrous worof December, 1758. This city is of a triangular figure, ship of the sun, from which they thought that their and the part facing the river is two-thirds of a league emperors, the Incas, were descended. They acknowlong. It is surrounded by a mud-wall, with 346 balus- ledged and adored an invisible and supreme Being, trades, the work of the viceroy, the duke of Plata, and whom they called Pachamac, that is, creator and preexecuted by the engineer Peter Ramon, a Fleming, in server of the universe. The founder of the monarchy of 1685. The streets are wide, although the houses are Peru was Manco Capac, in company with Mama Ocllo, low, to guard against mischief in earthquakes; these are, his sister; and this empire remained for a series of sevenhowever, of comely appearance, convenient in their in- teen Inca monarchs, until the reign of Sayri-Tupac, who

VOL. XVII,

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