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od Moral



of 400 years,

X. ANC. General Oglethorpe, who was also forced to retire, so was joined by 200 infantry, eight horses, and supplies N. AMÉRICA. that the Floridas continued in the possession of Spain of ammunition from Hispaniola; he was assisted also by RICA.

until the year 1763, at which period, in consequence of thirteen small vessels on the lake of Mexico, as well as 1. Reliaical, the reduction of the Havannah by Lord Albemarle, by 150,000 Indian allies. By means of these forces he Political

and Moral Spain ceded the provinces of East and West Florida to was enabled to invest the city on every side. The new

Great Britain, in exchange for that settlement. Spain, en eror, Guatimozin, made a gallant, but ineflectual
Quaniske however, forcibly repossessed herself of these countries, resistance: in spite of all his exertions, the city was taken Spanish
1. desemons. during the struggle of Great Britain with her American on the 21st of August, 1521, after a siege of seventy- Possessions,

colonies; and, by the treaty of 1783, they were finally five days. The whole Mexican empire immediately
assigned to her. The United States have been lately yielded to the victorious Spaniards, and Cortez was con-
said to have purchased them, and an American general, stituted governor, with the title of Captain-general of
in the year 1818, seized upon Pensacola ; but whether New Spain. This country has continued under the domi-
with the sanction of his government, is not at present nion of European Spain from that period to the present,

and has been invariably ruled by a Spanish viceroy. With regard to the political history of Mexico, or ATTEMPTED REVOLUTION IN THE SPANISH PRO- Attempted New Spain, it will be sufficient to present the reader vinces.—Whether the existing struggle between the revolution with a few general facts, in the way of outline; minuter arbitrary power of Old Spain and the ill-defined objects nish prou details belong to another place. Hernando Cortez, a of the patriotic cause in her American provinces, will ever vinces.

native of Spain, was the first adventurer who explored merit attention among the dignified pursuits of history, 18

tinis portion of the North American continent, in the is a question we cannot here presume to solve. In the course of the year 1519. Montezuma, at that time present equivocal state of the contest, and amidst emperor of Mexico, hearing of the arrival of the Spa- many contradictory accounts of its progress, it may be niards, immediately dispatched ambassadors with mag- satisfactory to our readers, however, to be put in posnificent presents, with the view of inducing Cortez to session of the principal facts of its origin. quit the coast, instead of pursuing the resolution he Of the population of the Spanish colonies, the Euhad adopted of marching into the interior. The Spa- ropean Spaniards, and the Creoles, born of European nish commander, however, refused compliance with parents in America, principally claim our attention this request, and having first laid the foundation of in this sketch. The authority which the former had Vera Cruz, on the 16th of August, 1519, set out from maintained in these colonies for the space Zunpoalla, an Indian town, by whose cacique he together with the recollection of their original conquest, had been joined, with about 500 Spanish soldiers, and had not ameliorated in the minds of any of their sub600 troops furnished by the cacique. Having advanced sects those prejudices which were transmitted from their to the province of Tlascola, he subdued it after an ob- ancestors; and it is easy to guess how the colonists stinate contest of fourteen days, and not long after would be governed, when the supreme power was vested came in sight of the capital from the Chalco mountain. in nine European Spaniards and a viceroy, clothed by When Cortez entered Mexico, he was received in the law with the prerogatives of the king of Spain; only most courteous manner by Montezuma, notwithstand- accountable, when their commission expired, to the ing which he forcibly seized upon the emperor's person, council of the Indies at Madrid, a distance of 2,000 . conveyed bim to the Spanish quarters within the city, leagues from the scene of action. Numberless were the and put him into confinement for six months. Every grievances arising from the union of oppression and effort was made, both by his subjects and Montezuma, monopoly, which had become necessary to the support to accomplish his release, but in vain. Cortez having oc of each other; and the detail Mr. Walton gives of this casion to leave Mexico, stationed a garrison there, con system of exclusion on the part of Old Spain, would sisting of 150 men, to guard Montezuma; but no sooner alone satisfactorily account for the minds of the crcoles was he fairly departed than this garrison was attacked, being gradually given up to a spirit of disaffection. the news of which hastened back the Spanish chief, The Spaniards found no difficulty in keeping the Original when, assisted by 2,000 Tlascolan warriors, he entered Creoles in subjection, whilst the latter imagined that condition of the city without opposition, but was subsequently as- their protection against the Indians, negro slaves, and the Creoles, saulted with so much vigour, that he had recourse to the mixed casts, could only be secured by the union of the stratagem of presenting the emperor to his people, all Europe. Humboldt attributes the passive state of for the purpose of conciliating them. But this mea- the Spanish colonies, during the succession-war in sure totally failed; and the attack being renewed, the Spain, to this principle. The creole population, howunfortunate monarch was mortally wounded by an ever, had now much increased, and the Indians had arrow from the hand of one of his own subjects. After been so decidedly subdued, that it was not to be exthe death of Montezuma, the Spaniard found himself pected that the same degree of apathy and supineness under the necessity of retreating, by a stolen march should continue, when the shock of the Spanish throne effected by night, into the territories of the Tlascolans. discovered to them its weakness, and opened to them Six months after this evacuation of Mexico, he was en a prospect of amending their situation. abled again to take the field with about 600 Spanish in. Notwithstanding all the obstacles that can be op fantry, 40 cavalry, nine pieces of cannon, and with posed to it, human society will naturally approximate Indian allies amounting to 10,000, most of whom were towards civilization : a remark which will illustrate the Tlascolans. He put his army in motion on the 28th conduct both of the Creoles and the Indians in this conof December, 1520, and in a few days made his ap- test. However degraded the mental state of the latter, pearance before the capital, resolving to perish or their entire numbers have been estimated at 7,000,000, conquer, He fixed his head-quarters at Tezcuco, on and having little to lose, the chances of advantage the banks of the lake, about 20 miles distant, where he promised to make them a powerful instrument in the


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X AME- hands of any faction who could furnish them with com of Spain and the indies. It appears probable, froin N. AME RICA. manders to undertake a war against the mother-country. existing documents, that Mexico would have acceded KICA.

A desire of knowledge had been kindled by the es to the demands of the junta, if dispatches had not Political and Moral

tablishment of universities at Mexico and Lima. The arrived from London during the deliberation of the Political State. works of the French philosophers, on their arrival in constituted authorities, in which the deputies of the anú Noral

the colonies, were eagerly sought for, and excited junta of Asturias announced their installation, and Spanish a literary interest unparalleled in their history. It is warned the Mexicans against the pretended claims of Spezrish Possessions. easy to forsee the consequence in a country whose the Andalusian junta; a competition which had a pow

Possuasunt Thirst of

institutions tended to support every argument of those erful etfect upon the mind of the Americans. knowledge. bold assertors of anarchy and atheism; when even the Their enthusiasm for the mother-country was not at Enthusiasm

free and majestic fabric of our invaluable constitution all abated by the resignation of the royal family. The for the has been felt to tremble under their assault.

acclamations of - Ferdinand VII.” were as unbounded

country “ The words European and Spaniard have become as sincere; but the colonists hesitated to acknowledge synonymous," says Humboldt, “ in Mexico and Peru. the claim of Old Spain to chuse representatives for The inhabitants of the remote provinces have, there- them in the Peninsula. In Mexico, the cabildo, or town fore, a difficulty in conceiving that there can be Eu- corporation, had suggested the expediency of forming a ropeans who do not speak their language : and they junta, which should govern in the name of Ferdinand consider this ignorance as a mark of low extraction, VII.; and the viceroy was inclined to it, but he was because, everywhere around them, all, except the very without a fixed plan. An old man, and past his vigour, lowest class of the people, speak Spanish. Better he now fell a sacrifice to his want of promptness; for acquainted with the sixteenth century, than with that the Spaniards, who opposed the measure, resolved to of our own times, they imagine that Spain continues depose him, and at the head of the conspiracy placed to possess a decided preponderance over the rest of one of their wealthiest merchants. The soldiers who Europe. To them, the Peninsula appears the very were to command the guard on the appointed day, centre of European civilization:—it is otherwise with were bribed to their purpose; and, followed by about the Americans of the capital. Those of them who are 200 Spaniards taken from the shops of Mexico at mid- Viceros acquainted with French or English literature, fall easily night, they entered the palace of the viceroy without Mexico de into a contrary extreme, and have a still more un resistance, and seizing him and his lady, committed the posed. favourable opinion of the mother-country than the former to the prison of the inquisition, and the latter French lad, at a time when communication was less to a nunnery. The audencia, or supreme court of juisfrequent between Spain and the rest of Europe. They tice, privately approved the conspiracy, and the impriprefer strangers froin other countries to the Spaniards; sonment of the viceroy was announced to the public, and they fatter themselves with the idea, that intel- who, at the same time, were informed that they had lectual cultivation has made more rapid progress in elected a successor. Although the Creoles had no perthe colonies than in the Peninsula."

sonal attachment to the late viceroy, yet the power Effect of the

The whole population of South America were stul- which the Spaniards thus assumed in his deposition, invasion of tified upon the first hearing of the invasion of Spain was very displeasing to them, though, for the present, the French. by the French; of the captivity of their king, and the it was not manifest by any overt act.

resignations of Bayonne; but this was succeeded by The deposed viceroy was brought to Spain upon a an universal burst of loyalty, a detestation of the charge of treason, accompanied with the detail of these French, and a desire to support the Peninsula against transactions; and arrived in the Peninsula during the their manifest tyranny and usurpation. The confi- period when the central junta conceived themselves in dence with which the Americans looked for a speedy such perfect security at Seville, that they gave the and honourable issue to the Spanish cause, is a strong French, who had begun to look upon all as lost, an argument for the veracity of Humboldt's description. opportunity to recover their confidence, and to make The bulk of the people Hattered themselves with the large additions to their army. The junta congratuexpectation that the patriotic armies would soon reach lated themselves upon the captivity of the viceroy, Paris, take Buonaparte prisoner, and conduct him in without searching into the cause of that event. They triumph to Madrid; while the Spanish authorities and did not consider how contemptible that government the higher classes alone entertained the shadow of a must be, where so few persons, without any legitimate doubt of the event.

authority, could remove the chief magistrate, and take The French invasion, therefore, would have ce- upon themselves to substitute another. They felt their mented the union between Spain and her colonies if she imbecility, and were glad of an opportunity of display. had acted wisely. By a reciprocity of benefits it ing their power. might have been prolonged for ages. The discontented Dispatches, however, began to arrive with every Disał: Creoles had been long contemplating a revolt; but the packet, with intelligence of the general disaffection of in Laurence general feeling was so universal and decided for the the Americans. Their love for the mother-country had support of Spain, that not a single voice was heard to begun to abate, when they found themselves constantly the contrary,

deluded with vain proinises; and though the declaraTidings of the general insurrection in Spain reached tion of their original attachment was sincere, feeling Mexico on the 29th July, 1808; and the enthusiastic themselves unkindly treated, it gradually died away. sensation produced had not at all subsided when the By way of palliative, the central junta issued a proclaarrival of two deputies from the junta of Seville was mation, in which the colonies were declared equal to announced, who were come to claim the sovereign com- the mother-country, and the Spanish Americans told mand of Spanish America for that corporation, which expressly, that “they belonged to nobody; and were had assumed the title of Supreme Gubernative Junta masters of their own fate.”


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Political and Moral



During the early fluctuations of the Peninsular war, were not acquainted with each other's steps till some N. ANEKUCA. the Spanish Americans, prevented by the remoteness months after each had commenced the revolution.

of the situation from viewing the varied scene, fully The declarations that were published nearly at the Poditat, anticipated the restoration of Ferdinand VII. Even same period in distant places, bear a very striking resemsalarul when they received intelligence that the French had blance to each other, which proves them to be the real

entered Madrid; that the central junta had fled to and universal expression of the public mind. “ The suGarrich Andalusia ; that the troops had turned upon their preme government of the Peninsula (they said) has been Spanish Passapons, generals, and massacred several of them; that Morla declared infamous and treacherous: the members of it Pusscssions. and others had become traitors; and that confidence are even accused by the people of Spain of having be- Declara

tions. had ceased, having no one to depend upon-all this trayed the country into the hands of the enemy. Can could not shake the idea of Spanish superiority in we then trust to the suspicious offspring of such a corthe minds of the colonies: these reverses were attri- rupted stock? Shall we wait tili they choose to make buted to treachery; and, notwithstanding the great their peace with Bonaparte, by betraying us into his transition from hope to disappointment, not the least hands? It was owing to our decided determination that complaint was uttered: subscriptions were universally the orders sent from Bayonne by the French ruler were raised among the principal inhabitants, whose endea- not put into execution by our European governors. vours to support the mother-country increased in pro- They were then ready to submit to his treachery; they portion as her need of them increased.

will scarcely be less so now, when they have lost all The Austrian war again assured them that Spain hopes of succeeding in the Peninsula. But setting all would be triumphant, and the victory of Talavera ap- this aside, how can the ephemeral governments of peared to demonstrate it; but it was only as a flash Spain pretend to rule us, when they are manifestly of lightning, which for a moment illuminates the bori- incompetent to direct the people among whom they zon, and leaves the spectator in tenfold darkness. dwell! If they represent Ferdinand VII. let them exerThe next arrivals brought the information of the total cise their power over those who have elected them; defeat of the Spanish armies ; of the power of the central we will do the same in our own country--we will create government being protested against by the juntas of Se a government in the name of our beloved sovereign, ville and Valencia, and declared illegal by a manifesto of and that we will obey. Our brethren of the Peninsula the patriotic Romana. The discontented parties in the shall have our aid, our friendship, and our good wishes." Peninsula sedulously forwarded and diligently dispersed The language is similar in all the early proclamations in the colonies every circumstance that they conceived of the insurgents of Spanish America. That they did

likely to diminish their zeal and prejudice their minds. not at first contemplate a total alienation from the seduct of

The new regency appointed upon the dispersion of mother-country is certain. de regeley. the junta of Seville, drew upon themselves the hatred When informed of the insurrection in Caracas, the Resentment and scorn of the colonists by their first act with regard regency immediately declared them rebels, and block- of the

regency. to them; for they prevailed upon the merchants of aded their ports; and the governors of the surrounding Cadiz to sanction them by a manifesto before they districts were commanded to intercept all their supplies. thought it safe to announce their installation; which The declaration itself was couched in that gross and act, though it gave satisfaction to the Spanish factors, most insulting language, which only made the people disgusted the rest of the community.

despise a government that was threatening to avenge The intelligence was first received at Caracas, which themselves upon two millions of souls fighting at their province was the first to revolutionize. The same effect own doors for every thing that they esteemed valuable, was produced at Buenos Ayres about a month after, and separated from their tyrants by the Atlantic ocean, when the same tidings arrived. The whole of the South whilst it was constrained to shield itself under the continent was in a state of excitation: the old Spa- mercantile interest in the Peninsula. The regency was niards were much alarmed, and manifested their fears in reality,a mere automaton, made to move or stand by tyranny and oppression, instead of meeting the na still at the command of the merchants of Cadiz, and this tives and endeavouring to heal the wound in a spirit decree was the effect of their insatiable covetousness. of conciliation. A number of people who had as A single fact gave sufficient proof of this to the Spanish sembled unarmed to petition the governor of the pro- Americans. vince of Socorro, in the kingdom of Fé, was fired upon Soon after it had been installed, the minister of the by the military. The sanctuary of a convent could Indies had recommended to the regency the concinot protect the governor from the infuriated mob, who liatory step of allowing the colonies a free trade, and rose in a body to resent the atrocious outrage. In the was warınly seconded by his under-secretary, a man capital of Santa Fé a scene of the same nature oc whose ardent and patriotic mind had rendered him curred, from a native being insulted by an European. deservedly eminent during the Spanish revolution. In Quito was converted into an aceldama; a junta was the plotting and despicable manner of the old court, appointed at Carthagena, which wrested the authority the order was privately printed, signed by the minister, out of the hand of the governor ; Lima was menaced, and forwarded to America, that it might be out of the and every circumstance portended a general rebellion. power of the government to rescind it, when it should

Had these effects arisen from any premeditated plan, be discovered by the merchants. In spite of all these the commanders of each province would have encon- precautions, the transaction got wiord, and the fury raged their followers with the strength thus derived; excited at Cadiz was ungovernable. The members of but the cause lay deeper than any plan could reach, the regency were alarmed; they boldly taxed the mifor the same ideas appeared to pervade those provinces nister and his under-secretary with having promulwhich had very little communication with each other; gated a forged order; both were taken into custody, and the inhabitants of Caracas and Buenos Ayres and detained till a counter-order was procured, after

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N. AME- which they were liberated without undergoing any supported by Allende, now conducted the multitude to N. AMEexamination.

the town of St. Miguel el Grande, and gave them


RICA. The grand struggle in America now approached with mission to attack and plunder the habitations of the Political all its horrors. The Spanish government, except in Spaniards; the whole population of the kingdom of

Political one instance, bad increased the disaffection by every Mechoacan quickly recognized bis authority: three

new movement. That one was the act of the central regiments of veterans espoused his cause, and the Spanish junta in placing the archbishop of Mexico at the head town of Salamanca fell into his hands. The Indians Sperid Possessions. of the civil department of that kingdom; for, though joined him wherever he came. He was supplied with

Posscsatorna Diexico.

born in Europe, the wisdom and lenity of his govern- 5,000,000 of dollars by the town of Guanaxuato, not ment had rendered him a favourite of the Creoles, and far from which was the richest gold-mine in Mexico, under his administration the kingdom had possessed and nothing appeared to be wanted by the revolutionists the semblance of peace.

but experienced generals and strict discipline. News now arrived that the central junta had conferred Instead, however, of marching at once to Mexico, lo'ly of its highest honours upon the Spaniards of the city of Hidalgo now committed a fatal error by proceeding Hidalgo. Mexico. The most virulent foes of the Creoles, the to Valladolid, which he entered on the 20th of October, members of the high court of justice, were made tempo- and was immediately joined by two regiments of rary governors of the kingdom, until the viceroy Ve- veteran cavalry; his military chest was also enriched negas, appointed by the new regency of Cadiz, arrived, by 1,500,000 dollars from the royal treasury. The and the archbishop, who was the bond of union between whole province of Guadalaxara and the city of Zacathem and the old government, was superseded: this tecas were at this time at bis command, and imagining last stroke was too much.

that the viceroy would not venture to give him battle, The first The state of civilization to which the kingdom of and that the number of disaffected in the capital would Mexican Mexico has arrived, renders it, according to Humboldt, oblige it to surrender as soon as he appeared, he leader.

in every respect worthy to be placed at the head of marched to Toluco, while the royal army retreated to
the Spanish colonies ; and Hidalgo, a vicar of the Lerma.
interior of this province, was the first to apply the During the time that Hidalgo was proceding towards
torch to the kindling materials of revolt. He possessed Mexico, another corps was advancing through Apisco
a valuable living at Dolores, a considerable town in to Cuernavaca to occupy the adjacent coast of the
the province of Valladolid Machoacan: his natural Pacific ocean.
abilities were great, and well cultivated; and he had The capital being now in imminent danger, and His sne-
contrived to establish mines and manufactures of some neither the troops nor the people firm in the royal
considerable consequence to his neighbourhood. Hav- cause, Venegas resolved upon one of those happy ex-
ing extricated himself from the power of the inquisition, pedients for its preservation, which had perhaps been
before whom he had been already cited as a suspicious tried in vain in any other country of the world. He
person, and secured the attachment of the Indians to procured from the archbishop and the inquisition, a

person, he communicated his designs to three cap sentence of excommunication against Hidalgo and all tains of cavalry, stationed in the neighbourhood of Do- his troops and abettors; it made little immediate lores, named Allende, Aldama and Abasolo, of the regi- impression in the revolutionary camp, but it comment De la Regna, and who were natives of the place. pletely awed the disaffected in the town. The insurThese officers promptly joined in the views of Hidalgo, gents had reached the mountain of Las Cruzes, a few whom they much esteemed.

miles from Mexico; the pass was defended by a few Queratora Allende proceeded to Querataro, one of the most im- Spanish troops, who were easily dislodged, and they disaffected. portant towns of Mexico, where he had great success

arrived before its walls. But Hidalgo's great failing in procuring adherents, until the Spaniards discovered was want of decision: he now summoned

the viceroy a degree of excitation amongst the creoles, and deter- instead of storming the city, and declaring that his mined to proceed in regard of the corregidor of Quera- only desire was to see a junta established for the gotaro, as those in the capital had done towards their vernment of the kingdom, and to send immediate supviceroy. They arrested, and conveyed the corregidor plies of money to the Peninsula, he neither concito Mexico, where this magistrate clearing himself of liated the populace nor intimidated the authorities of all suspicion of his fidelity, the event was industriously the place. "Information now reached him of some adcirculated, as a proof of the tyranny to which all the in- vantages gained by the vice-royal army in his rear, stitutions of the country were exposed, and as pre- and he had no alternative but a retreat from an ill-sussenting a new reason for urging the creoles to throw off tained situation, which he accomplished in great disthe yoke.

order. The Spanish general Collejas had taken the First ex The arrival of Venegas at Vera Cruz, was the sig- town of Dolores, where the revolution commenced, plosion. nal of explosion ; and Hidalgo and his coadjutors con- and massacred all the inhabitants. He met the in- Defcal

cluded upon an immediate and decisive step. On the surgents at Aculco, and entirely defeated them: he 17th of September, 1810, the vicar assembled the then marched to Guanaxuato, which he entered on the Indians to a sermon, in which he dwelt upon the pusil- 25th of Noveinber, and wreaked his vengeance on the lanimity of the Spaniards in the Peninsula, and the miserable inhabitants. Another body of Spaniards, dangers through their being delivered over to the under General Cruz, entered the town of Irapurato, English or French, of the final extirpation of their holy devoting it to horrible carnage. The personal fate Catholic religion. The Indians, accustomed to be of Hidalgo was now quickly decided. He had problindly led by their priests, trembled at this represent- ceeded to the provincias internas with a numerous ation; and when Hidalgo, at the conclusion, invited army, who still retained their attachment to him, when them to arms, they obeyed with enthusiasm. Hidalgo, he received an offer of alliance from the governor of


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AME. that district, and consented to a meeting, at which he taineers form a distinct class, having very much the N. AMEICA. and his principal friends were basely siezed, and general character of gypsies. They reside in wigwams, RICA. executed immediately. or tents, covered with deer-skin and the rind of the

Political litical

birch-tree. The rein-deer constitutes their principal and Moral But detached corps of the Creoles and Indians were Moral already scattered over the whole kingdom. The Mexican food, and they also pursue foxes, martins, and beavers.

State. insurgents adopted the guerilla mode of warfare, and The interior is at present but little explored; but, so far niste daily improved in skill and hardihood. Large and as it is known, it contains some appearances of fertility, Uncon,

quered sunt, well-organized corps were formed, and commanded by and besides several species of trees, as elders, firs,

Regions, &c. leaders more skillul than Hidalgo. A revolutionary birch, &c. produces wild celery, scurvy-grass, and In

government was maintained at Zitaquaro, by a lawyer dian sallad. The Moravian missionaries, who formed ud named Rayon, who, when that town was likely to be some settlements in this country about the year 1766,

taken by the viceroy's troops, contrived to escape, and discovered what has been termed the Labrador stone, joined another large party of insurgents commanded by an iridesant felspar. The eastern coast presents a dethe priest Morelos. This chief afterwards obtained solate appearance: rocky mountains rise suddenly from considerable advantages, and made himself master of the borders of the sea, with spots of black peat earth the whole coast to the S., while his comrade, Sanchez, scattered with dwarf shrubs. Rivers and lakes are with 30,000 men, extended the revolutionary authority numerous, but springs uncommon. Multitudes of over the plains of Puebla, and throughout the moun- islands, occupied by sea-fowl, particularly eider-ducks, tainous districts of Orezava.

and by deer, foxes, and hares, abound on the coasts. The city of Orezava itself also fell into the hands of The birds are also numberless. The animals of Labrathe insurgents, and the communication with Vera Cruz dor are chiefly of the fur kind. There are both white was entirely cut off. According, however, to late ac

and black bears, besides rein-deer, beavers, porcucounts from Mexico, the northern features of the war pines, and wolverenes. The fish are principally seem to have turned considerably in favour of the old salmon, trout, pike, barbel, and eels. government. The consequences which have ensued The CountRY ABOUT Hudson's Bay, the eastern Country from it in Venezuela and the Southern continent, will part of which is termed East Maine, and the western round Hudmeet our attention in the sequel of this article. districts New - North and South Wales, constitutes son's bay.

another of the Unconquered Regions of America. Se

veral different tribes of natives resort to the factories CHAP. IV.

of the Hudson's-bay company, but their characteristics

have not been hitherto ascertained or defined. The UNCONQUERED REGIONS AND NATIVE TRIBES.

Iskimos are indigenes in the northern part. The chief

rivers of this district are the Saskashawin, or Nelson, A glance of the eye over the map of North America and the Severn: the latter is broad and deep, but its immediately suggests the melancholy sentiment, that course is not very considerable, being estimated at only * there are but two causes in general operation to check 400 English miles. To the southward the principal

the progress of ambition: the one, the frosty barrier rivers pass under the names of the Albany, Moose, [

which nature presents to the rapacity of man, and which Abitib, and Harricana, but they are all obstructed by renders conquest either hopeless or useless—the other, shoals and cataracts. The climate is excessively sethe tardy movements of discovery and adventure, which vere: in the winter the ice on the rivers attains to a have not brought to light nations weak enough to be thickness of eight feet, and the rocks are sometimes subdued, or wicked enough to sell the birthright of their rent asunder with the most tremendous noise. The liberties.

sun is invested with a large conical light of a yellowish If it seem, at first sight, contradictory to this repre hue both at his rising and setting; and what have been sentation, to speak as we are about to do, of some termed mock-suns are frequent. The aurora borealis few native tribes, known but unsubdued, be it ob- exhibits a most splendid appearance in this latitude, served, that their (at present) independent condition and the stars emit a fiery beam over this icy and chearmay be considered as resulting from the very partial less region. The quadrupeds and birds are the same information that has been obtained of their magnitude with those of Labrador and of Canada. Of trees, the and political capacities, and the circumstance of many dwarf larch, called here the juniper, is found the of these tribes perpetually receding into the more dis- wisha capuccha, called American tea, is drank in intant regions, to escape the servitude which is the fusion. price of their acquaintance with the civilized world. Mr. Pennant remarks, that “multitudes of birds Natural

The first of the countries which we propose to consi- retire to this remote country, to Labrador, and New- history. der under our general designation, is that which is foundland, from places most remotely south, perhaps situated on the north-eastern side of the American from the Antilles; and some even of the most delicate continent, and known by the name of LABRADOR. It little species. Most of them, with numbers of aquatic was discovered by a Portuguese navigator, from whom fowls, are seen returning southward, with their young it derived its present appellation, and who found its broods, to more favourable climates. The savages, in coasts inhabited by Iskimos, while the interior contained some respects, regulate their months by the appearwhat Europeans have termed American savages. The ance of birds; and have their goose-month from the Iskimos are, in reality, the same people with the Green- vernal appearance of geese from the south. All the landers. Their manners are offensive, and they make grous kind, ravens, cinereous crows, titmouse, and use of sledges drawn by dogs. They are, in general, Lapland finch, brave the severest winter; and several a peaceable

people, but, like all other barbarous tribes, of 'the falcons and owls seek shelter in the woods. sindictive and furious when much excited. The moun- The rein-deer pass in vast herds towards the north iu

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