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N. AME- 4,700 metres (12,794 and 15,419 feet), while the neigh- for a length of more than 1,000 kilometres, or 500 N. AME RICA. bouring plains in the canton of Berne are not more leagues. On the whole of this road there were few RICA than from 400 to 600 metres (1,312 and 1,968 feet) in

difficulties for art to surmount. Political

height. The former of these numbers (400), a very “ The table-land of Mexico is in general so little in- Portes and Moral State, moderate elevation, may be considered as that of the terrupted by vallies, and its declivity is so gentle, that and black

most part of plains of any considerable extent in as far as the city of Durango, in New Biscay, 140 leagues Spanish Suabia, Bavaria, and New Silesia, near the sources of from Mexico, the surface is continually elevated from Spa Possessions. the Wartha and Piliza. In Spain, the two Castilles 1,700 to 2,700 metres (5,576 to 8,856 feet) above the po

are elevated more than 580 metres (300 toises, or 1,902 level of the neighbouring ocean. This is equal to the feet). The highest level in France is Auvergne, on height of Mount Cenis, St. Gothard, or the Great St. which the Mont d'Or, the Cantal, and the Puy de Bernard. That I might examine this geological pheDôme repose. The elevation of this level, according nomenon with the attention which it deserves, I exeto the observations of M. de Buch, is 720 metres (370 cuted five barometrical surveys. The first was across toises, or 2,360 feet). These examples serve to prove the kingdom of New Spain, from the South sea to the that in general the elevated surfaces of Europe which Mexican gulf, from Acapulco to Mexico, and from exhibit the aspect of plains, are seldom more than Mexico to Vera Cruz. The second survey extended from 400 to 800 metres (200 to 400 toises, or 1,312 from Mexico by Tula, Queretaro, and Salamanca, to to 2,624 feet) higher than the level of the ocean.

Guanaxuato. The third comprehended the intendancy “ In Africa, perhaps, near the sources of the Nile, * of Valladolid, from Guanaxuato to the volcano of Joand in Asia, under the 34th and 37th degrees of N. lat. rullo at Pascuaro. The fourth extended from Vallathere are plains analogous to those of Mexico; but the dolid to Toluca, and from thence to Mexico. Lastly, travellers who have visited Asia have left us completely the fifth included the environs of Moran and Actopan. ignorant of the elevation of Thibet. The elevation of The number of points of which I determined the height, the great desert of Cobi, to the N. W. of China, ex either barometrically or trigonometrically, amounts to ceeds, according to Father Duhalde, 1,400 metres 208; and they are all distributed over a surface com(5,511 feet). Colonel Gordon assured M. Labillardiere, prehended between 16°, 50 and 21°, O N. lat. and that from the Cape of Good Hope to the 21st degree of 102°, 8 and 98°, 28' W. lon. from Paris. Beyond S. lat. the soil of Africa rose gradually to 2,000 metres these limits I know but of one place of which the length (6,561 feet) of elevation. This fact, as new as it is was accurately ascertained, and that is the city of Ducurious, has not been confirmed by other naturalists. rango, elevated, according to a deduction from a mea

“ The chain of mountains which form the vast plain barometrical altitude, 2,000 metres (6,561 feet) above
of Mexico is the same with what, under the name of the level of the sea. Thus the table-land of Mexico
the Andes, runs through all South America ; but the preserves its extraordinary elevation much farther X.
construction, I may say the skeleton (Charpente), of than the tropic of Cancer.”
this chain varies to the S. and N. of the equator. In The principal chain of mountains in the Spanish do- Prius
the southern hemisphere, the Cordillera is everywhere minions of North America, called Topia, or the Sierra
torn and interrupted by crevices like open furrows not Madre, or mother chain, commencing in the vicinity
filled with heterogeneous substances.

If there are of Guadalaxara, extends north to New Mexico 150
plains elevated from 2,700 to 3,000 metres (1,400 to leagues: it is overspread with a tolerably abundant
1,500 toises, or 10,629 to 11,811 feet), as in the king- vegetation of trees, which, the pines in particular,
dom of Quito, and, farther north, in the province of attain an extraordinary height and thickness. It con-
los Pastos, they are not to be compared in extent with tains also a quantity of silver, yielding a mark for each
those of New Spain, and are rather to be considered quintal of earth. Numerous rivers flow from this ce-
as longitudinal vallies, bounded by two branches of lebrated ridge. To the southward of the Topian ridge
the great Cordillera of the Andes : while in Mexico it another commences on the east in the neighbourhood
is the very ridge of the mountains which forms the of Mexico. In the kingdom of Guatima!a, in the dis-
plain, and it is the direction of the plain which desig- trict of Sonsonate, the great chain of Apaneca runs
nates, as it were, that of the whole chain. In Peru, many leagues E. and W.; but few other names of
the most elevated summits constitute the crest of the mountains have reached us. The Carratagua may be
Andes; but in Mexico these same summits, less co mentioned as running N. and S., and spreading so as to
lossal, it is true, but still from 4,900 to 5,400 metres divide Veragua from Panama-thatis, North from South
in height (2,500 to 2,770 toises, or 16,075 to 17,715 America. The Puebla, or Popocatepett, or mountain
feet), are either dispersed on the plain, or ranged in of smoke, so called from its being a volcano, has been
lines which bear no relation of parellelism with the considered as the highest in North America, and Ori-
direction of the Cordillera. Peru and the kingdom of zava the loftiest in Mexico. The snowy top of the
New Grenada contain transversal vallies, of which the latter is visible from the capital, a distance of sixty
perpendicular depth is sometimes 1,400 metres (4,854 miles; and D'Auteroche affirms that its conic form
feet). The existence of these vallies prevents the in- may be detected at sea at the distance of fifty leagues.
habitants from travelling, except on horseback, a-foot, Since the year 1565 it has exhibited no signs of in-
or carried on the shoulders of Indians (called carga Aammation, and though surmounted with a snowy co-
dores); but in the kingdom of New Spain carriages vering, its sides are adorned with beautiful trees.
roll on to Santa Fé, in the province of New Mexico, Volcanoes are very abundant in the mountainous

masses of these districts : five of them are to be found

in Mexico, Puebla, and Vera Cruz, whose summits are According to Bruce (vol. iii. p. 642, 652, and 712), the sources of the Nile, in Gogam, are more than 3,200 metres (10,500 feet)

enveloped in perpetual snows. Immense forests of higher than the level of the Mediterranean.

trees cover the sides of this great chain ; the pine and

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AME- fir occupy the upper regions, and the tropical produc- Panuco, although the Spanish charts apply this term to N. AMEICA. tions luxuriate in the lower. In these mountains are the Panuco. The river Tula, or Montezuma, is remark

RICA, also found the Mexican oak, which grows to maturity able for conducting the waters of the lakes of Mexico litical only at from 2,600 to 9,750 feet of elevation; piues and into the Atlantic: its rise is on the western side of the

Political Moral firs are to be found to the height of 13,000 feet, and Mexican chain. More southerly the river diminishes and ateral

grow as low as 6,000 feet. The banana-tree grows in in magnitude : but on the opposite side the Alvarado Frist å state of perfection no higher than 4,600 feet. Its is considerable: it originates in two fountains; the one Spanish tens. fruit forms chief part of the food of the natives. in the mountains of Zongolica, the other in those of Possessions.

Rivers.—The Rio Bravo del Norte,or Northern Star, Mirteca, which unite in the vicinity of Cuyotepec, and holds an unquestionable pre-eminence amongst the receive in their course many tributary streams. The rivers of Spanish North America. According to Açledo, river St. Juan is notorious for the proposed communiit divides the province of Coaquila from that of the cation between the two oceans, while others deem the Texas. There are considerable doubts at present with Chagre the more adapted to the purpose. regard to its source. Humboldt says it rises in Sierra The Apalichola, which rises in the United States, Verde, on the E. of the lake of Timpanogos, and its and fornis the boundary between the two Floridas, is course is estimated at 512 leagues. It receives in its the most considerable river of East Florida. Near course the waters of the Rio Conchos from the S. W., cape St. Blas it falls into the gulf of Mexico. and the Rio Puerco from the N., and forming the S. W. St. Mary's River is known chiefly as forming a part boundary of Louisiana, enters the gulf of Mexico in of the northern limit between Georgia and Florida. It about W. long. 97°, and N. lat. 26°.

runs into the Atlantic ocean in St. Mary's bay, in W. The Rio Colorado, or Red river, is a river of Cali- lon. 81°, 41', N. lat. 30°, 35'.

fornia, which flows into the gulf of that name. Its St. John's Riter rises in a swamp in the southern i

appellation is derived from the colour of its water, part of East Florida, and runs in a northerly direction.
which is to be ascribed to the rains falling upon a soil It afterwards turns its course to the E., and joins the
of red clay. Its course, which is generally from N. E. Atlantic in W. lon. 81', 42, N. lat. 30°, 22'. It is
to S. E. or w., may be estimated at 600 miles, and it situated within 10 leagues of the capital of East Flo-
is capable of a navigation to a considerable extent. rida, and is a fine broad river, but the mouth is ob-
The river Gille flows into it, between which and the structed with a bar of sand.
Colorado, previous to their junction, the country is de The rivers of West Florida are the St. Andrew's, and
scribed to be an upland desert; afterwards, and on the the Rio Perdido, or Lost river, so called by the Spa-
opposite side, it is considerably cultivated and fertile. niards, because it loses itself for some distance under

The Arkansaw, another noble river, we have before ground, and afterwards re-appears and empties itself named, is a branch of the Mississippi, and falls into it in Perdido bay, into the gulf of Mexico. The Rio by two mouths. It course, including its meanders, is Perdido was formerly considered as the boundary becomputed by Major Pike at 1,921 miles from its junc- tween the Spanish and French dominions in North tion with the Mississippi to the mountains, and thence America, and is now the limit between the Mississippi to its source 192. The cotton-wood abounds on this territory and West Florida, by the treaty of 1783. river. La Platte proceeds from the same chain of LAKES.--Of Florida the principal lake is Lake Lakes mountains with the Arkansaw, whence issue also the George, or the Great Lake, which is formed by the Red river, the Yellow-stone river, and the great south- river St. Juan flowing into an extensive valley ; its westeru branch of the Missouri. The St. Antonio rises breadth is about 15 miles, and its surface is adorned about a league to the N. E. of the capital of the pro- with many islands, beautiful in appearance and fertile vince of that name, and furnishes a good navigation in character. It is said to be from 15 to 20 feet in the for canoes to its very source: it is joined by the Ma- depth of its waters. riana from the W., and discharges itself into the Gua Other lakes have been mentioned, as the Lake Mayaco, dalupe, 50 miles from the sea. There are others in the and one which, if it be not nameless, must derive its same direction of inferior note.

distinguishing appellation from the bay of Apalachia, The Hiaqui is a fine river, which rises in the province near which it is situated. In New Spain the principal of Tauramara, and leaving or pervading the grand chain lake is that of Mexico, near the capital. In New Galof mountains, runs in a north-westerly direction for licia there is a large expanse of water, containing seabout one-half of its course, then turns to the S. W., veral islands, called Lake Chupala, the dimensions of and enters the gulf of California at the village of Hui- which have not been yet correctly ascertained. There ribis. On its banks are abundant growths of Indian is also a smaller lake, known by the name of lake Caycorn, French beans, peas, and lentiles. There are also man, in New Biscay; and lake Pascuero, near Vallaseveral inland rivers, which originate in the Topian dolid. Several others found in this part of the Ameridge, at present little explored : of these the Nazas, or rican continent are not of sufficient magnitude or imNasus, is the chief, whose course appears to be about portance to merit a particular enumeration. 200 miles, and whose banks are stated to produce ex SWAMPS.—Both the Floridas contain large tracts of Swamps.

The St. Jago, or Rio Grande, called marshy land, which are often extremely fertile. Among by D'Anville the Barania, proceeds from a small lake these ought to particularly specified the swamp of near Mexico, and pursues a north-western progress of Ekanfanska, called by the unpronounceable word Ouaabout 450 miles, passing through the large lake of quaphenogaw by the natives, which constitutes one of Chapala. In about the same latitude is the Panuco, the most remarkable features of East Florida, for to which has its source in the metallic mountains of Potosi, this province it may be referred, although it is situated and flows into the gulf of Mexico. The Tampico is partly in Georgia and partly in Florida. In circumproperly the estuary of the rivers Montezuma and ference it may be reckoned about 300 miles, and in the

cellent grapes,

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N. AME. rainy season resembles an extensive lake, having se- and Zacatecas, supply half as much again as all the rest x. Acesta RICA. veral large spots of land, which being nearly sur- together. The silver exported from New Spain to lodia Rita

rounded with water, may be distinguished by the name and Europe amounts, per annum, to 1,650,000 lbs. in Political, of islands. These islands are fertile; and one of them weight. Gold is generally obtained by washings in the Park and Moral is represented by the Indians as a celestial abode, sands of torrents. It it found abundantly in the allue en dan

peopled by a race who enjoy all the pleasures of savage vious grounds of Sonora ; and grains of a very large Spanisl life in perfection, and whose women are imagined to size have been detected in the sands of Hiaqui and Pussessivits. be the children of the sun. These islands are said, Pimeria. The mines of Oaxaca yield quantities of gold fiza

with less of romance, to be inhabited by some native in veins ; it is also found in most silver-mines, mixed Indian tribes who fed here for refuge, after having with the silver, crystallized and in plates. The amount been nearly exterminated in some predatory wars with of gold produced in New Spain is equal in value to a the Creeks. Some rivers, particularly the St. Mary, million of piastres, or 218,333 l. sterling; the produce spring from this celebrated swamp.

of silver to twenty-two millions of piastres, or 4,812,500%. Climate and CLDATE AND Soil.-- In the interior of the Floridas sterling. Native silver is sometimes found in masses soil.

the air is generally salubrious, and in no part can it be in the mines of Batopilas. The celebrated silver-mines deemed very unhealthy. The heat, however, in summer of Potosi, in South America, are said to be surpassed is intense; and the winters are proportionably severe, so by the mines of Guanaxuato, which produce twice much so that the rivers are frequently frozen. The their quantity of gold and silver. In Valenciana, the climate of New Spain varies to an astonishing degree, largest of the Guanaxuato mines, the great vein is 22 embracing not only either extremes, but almost every feet in breadth, the pits extend to the breadth of 4,900 intermediate temperature. In a journey of only a few feet, and the lowest is 1,640 feet deep. The number hours across the ridge of the Cordilleras, the traveller of labourers employed in these mines alone amounts to is exposed to these variations. On the sea-coasts the about 2,700, independently of 400 women and children, atmosphere is sultry; and the ports of Vera Cruz on and the sum total of the expence annually laid out in the E. and Acapulco on the W. are considered as par- working them is estimated at about 187,5901

. sterticularly insalubrious. The excessive heats spread ling. The proprietors reap an actual net profit of through the southern parts, and there is scarcely, if any from 82,5001. to 123,7591. per annum, alter the exemption from them during any part of the year. The deductions of the necessary expences and the king's plains, however, extending along the sides of the Cor- fifth. The mine of Sombrete, in Zacatecas, yielded, dilleras may be considered in general as healthy, and in a single year, a profit of more than 833,4001, sterthe climate mild. In the vast plain which crosses the ling. In San Luis Potosi, the mine of La Purissima entire province of Mexico, and which is in height about Catorce affords a profit annually of at least 43,7001, 2,700 yards above the level of the sea, the inhabitants As the process of smelting is not much used in the enjoy an eternal spring. The climate of the interior is so mining establishments, owing to the deficiency of fuel, temperate and agreeable, that the natives sleep almost most of the silver is separated from the ore by means uncovered in the open air. Similar variations of climate of mercury: the quantity made use of in the process of are observable in Guatimala. The provinces on the amalgamation is upwards of 2,000,100 pounds troy western coast are, in general, the most salubrious: an weight. In the mines of Valladolid and New Mexico, observation which may, in fact, be extended to the copper is found, of which the ancient Mexicans made whole continent of North America.

their tools and utensils. Tin is discovered in grains in The soil of the Floridas, on the sea-coast, is both the clayey soil of Zacatecas and Guanaxuato. Iron sandy and barren, but fertile and good on the banks of also exists in various parts of New Spain in great

abunthe rivers and in the interior. The soil of New Spain dance, but neither iron, tin, nor copper are brought in varies according to the situation. In some parts it is large quantities to market, as these metals are in lille .cold and clayey; on the eastern coast it is swampy and request. New Leon and Santander produce lead; marshy; while on the west and in the interior it is very and Mexico antimony, zinc, and arsenic. Mercury 13 rich. A general appearance of fertility overspreads the production of Mexico and Guanaxuato, but the the soil of Guatimala, with the exception of the tracts mines are wretchedly managed, and the mercury

for which border on the volcanoes, of which there are twenty the purpose of amalgamation is sent to the colonies of at least.

Spanish North America from the mother-country. Minerals. Minerals.—New Spain is richer in the treasures of Coal, which is seldom found in North America, esises

the mineral kingdom than any other portion of the in New Mexico; and salt is afforded by the lakes. globe; but, owing to a want of skill, the Spaniards New Spain also produces diamonds, topazes, emeralds, ħave never fully availed themselves of their natural ad- and various other gems; asphaltus, amber, jasper

, vantages. It is supposed, that the various mining alabaster, and the loadstone. The mines are wholly the stations of gold and silver in New Spain amount to property of individuals, but the affairs of the mining inupwards of 450. According to Mr. Humboldt, there terest are directed by a council-general, and the thirtyare, in these stations, nearly 3,000 actual mines, of seven districts depend upon the president and members which the principal are Guanaxnato, Zacatecas, San of the council. There exist a few silver-mines in the Luis Potosi, Mexico, Guadalaxara, Durango, Sonora, province of Nicaragua, in Guatimala, and gold is found Valladolid, Oaxaca, Puebla, Vera Cruz, and Old Cali- in lumps in the provinces, and also in the sands of the fornia. The veins of gold and silver are found chiefly rivers and torrents. The mountains of Honduras also in the primitive and transition rock. The most pro- possess some mines of gold and silver, which are very ductive silver-mides of New Spain are situated at an productive. It is said that there are several others in elevation of from 5,900 to 9,840 feet above the level the neighbourhood of Valladolid. The province of of the sea; and the three mines of Guanaxuato, Catorce, Costa Rico, or the Rich Coast, derives its name chitiy

and Moral

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X, AME- from its numerous valuable gold and silver mines; in Guatimala. The natives and Spaniards have ex• N. AMERICA. perhaps also, in part, from a pearl-fishery, which once tensive plantations of agave, for the purpose of forming. RICA.

existed here. The gold and silver mines of Veragua their favourite beverage, called pulque, procured by Political

Political are very rich, but they are not wrought, owing partly wounding the plant. Spain imports the finest vanilla to the rugged nature of the country, and partly to the from Mexico. Sarsaparilla and jalap are also lucrative

State, great expence that must be incurred in carrying the articles of its export trade. The indigo from the SpaSporneste ore to be smelted.

nish colonies is principally raised in Guatimala. Cochi- Spanish

Possessions, VEGETABLE PRODUCTIONS.—The chief productions neal is one of the most singular products of this conbegriable of West Florida are indigo and rice; and in East tinent, and is chiefly managed by the Indians, who are

Florida the land sometimes produces in a single year very skilful in the mode of collecting the harvests of three crops of Indian corn. A chain of hills runs across

this extraordinary dye. the interior of this province from N. to S., whose sides Some parts of the country of Guatimala, especially are covered with vast forests, and whose vallies afford the province of Chiapa, abound with vast forests of the richest pasture-land. Oranges and lemons spring cedar, cypress, fine oak and walnut trees. There are up without any cultivation, and are superior to the also all sorts of copal, and aromatic balsams, and rich same species of fruits in Europe. White and red oak gums. Fruits of almost every kind, too, adorn this trees, together with the magnolia, the cypress, the red province, as well as wild cochineal, maize, corn, cacao, and white cedar, the mulberry, the pine, the hickory, and cotton. Other parts of Guatimala abound in all Hourish prodigiously, and form most delightful shades. species of odoriferous plants, flax, hemp, balsams, cotThe vine also grows here, and produces excellent fruit. ton, sugar, long-pepper, turpentine, liquid amber, and These provinces likewise produce an abundance of Nicaragua wood, which is used in dyeing. Indian figs, chesnuts, palms, walnuts, peaches, plums, QUADRUPEDS, BIRDS, FISHES, &c.— In the woods Quadrucocoa-nuts, and melons. The best sassafras in Ame- and wildernesses are found wild animals of various peds, birds, rica is to be found in the two Floridas. Olives, which descriptions, amongst which are to be enumerated the fishes, &c. are indigenous, are plentiful. The native Indians de- cougar, or American tiger, the puma, the panther, rive their principal nutriment from the cabbage-tree: it racoon, buffalo, the bison, the tiger-cat, the wild boar; is wholesome and agreeable food. Flax, hemp, and together with the fox, hare, rabbit, goat, otter, flying cotton are produced in abundance; and among the squirrel, the opossum, armadillo, and numerous tribes exports cochineal forms a valuable article.

of apes and monkies. The alligator, or American The objects of agriculture in the southern part of crocodile, frequents the large rivers and lakes of the New Spain are principally wheat, maize, cotton, indigo, Floridas. There are also various species of snakes and pimento, sugar, tobacco, the agave, and cochineal plant. serpents; and the insects are both numerous and curious. Maize, or Indian wheat, is a plant of the utmost im- The silkworm is reared in some of the provinces, but portance to the colonies, and, being indigenous, thrives its elegant productions are not much cultivated, as the better here than elsewhere. It yields å hundred and increase of that article would interfere with the comfifty fold, and grows to the height of nine feet. It merce of the East Indian possessions of Spain. flourishes more in the southern than in the northern Large flocks of sheep and herds of cattle are fed in provinces, and forms the chief article of food to the Florida. The swine are much valued for the delicacy native inhabitants, to the mules, so much employed, of their flavour, which is said to result from their feedand to the poultry. It is eaten boiled and roasted, as ing upon the chesnuts and acorns of the forest. The well as in the shape of bread. The Indians, by means horse, the mule, and goats, are also common. The of fermentation, also make beer from it, and several birds which most abound are the heron, crane, wild intoxicating liquors; and, previous to the arrival of goose, duck (wild and tame), turkey, and domestic the Spaniards, the Mexicans made sugar of the stalks. fowls, partridges, pigeons, the macaw, hawk, thrush, In the most favourable situations it annually yields and jay. The coasts and rivers furnish fish of every dethree crops. Wheat, with other European grains, was scription; shell-fish, particularly oysters, are to be first introduced by the Spaniards, and has become one found in the shallows, and along the southern beach of of the principal articles of commerce. The potatoe- Florida; white amber is sometimes found. The pearlroot was also introduced by the European settlers, fisheries of the spacious gulf of California are not carried and thrives well. The capsicum, the tomatas, rice, on at present with as much spirit and activity as formerly, turnips, cabbages, sallads, onions, are cultivated with but pearls of very great value have been found upon its success. European fruits are grown in abundance: coasts ; and have been esteemed as equal, if not supeplums, apricots, figs, cherries, peaches, melons, pears, rior, to the celebrated produce of Ormus and Ceylon. and apples. The climate of New Spain is so favour POPULATION.---The population of the Spanish pro- Population able for the production of the vine and olive, that the vinces in North America is about 7,000,000, of which Spanish Government discourage its culture, on account the Indians are estimated at upwards of one-half; the of these plants being the staple commodity of the com- remainder consists of European Spaniards and creoles, merce of the Peninsula; nevertheless they are to be among all these the small-pox is well known to commit found in California, and some of the northern provinces. dreadful ravages. The black vomit is also very deThere are every species of tropical fruits in New Spain, structive; and yet upon the whole the population inguavas, ananas, sapotes, and mameis. Lemon and creases. The Spaniards from the mother country hold orange trees, of every species, abound. The sugar- the chief public offices of the government, whether cane is successfully cultivated, and sugar already con- civil or military, a monopoly of power which the stitutes one of the chief articles of export. Cotton and creoles regard with great jealousy. The whites in New coffee are both articles of commerce. Cocoa and cho- Spain are also generally placed in charge of the colate are celebrated, but the best chocolate is obtained mines; and their manners and customs differ, little

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Political and Moral

State.

N. AME- from those of their European brethren. The country interior. The domestic trade is pretty brisk, in maize, N. AME RICA. of the Floridas is thinly populated, and requires great ingots of metal, transferred from the mines to be coined RICA.

exertions, as in the United States, . to cultivate the or assayed, hides, flour, tallow, woollens, iron, maswamps.

hogany, and mercury. Also in the native productions of Polities! Religion.-Roman Catholicism is the well-known cocoa, chocolate, copper, variegated woods, cottons, State

religion of this district; the beneficed clergy and digni- wines, fermented liquors, tobacco, sugar, rum, pulque, Spanish taries are generally European Spaniards or creoles, and wax, and powder for the mines.

Sparist Possessions

. consist of an archbishop of Mexico, and eight bishops The foreign trade consists in coin, plate, ingots of Poseira Religion. of Puebla, Guadalaxara Valladolid, Durango, Monete- gold and silver, cochineal, sugar, flour, indigo, pro

zey, Oaxaca, Sonora, and Merida, with about 14,000 visions, hides, pimento, vanilla, jalap, sarsaparilla, clergy, parish priests, missionaries, monks, lay-brothers, mahogany, logwood, cabinet-woods, soap, and cocoa. and servants. Pike has recently informed us that New The imports of Europe are cottons, linens, woollens, Spain is divided into four archbishoprics, Mexico, Gua- silk goods, paper, brandy, rum, mercury, steel, iron, dalaxara, Durango, and San Luis Potosi; and that wines, wax, vinegar, raisins, almonds, olives, oil, saffron, there is no place where the inquisition is so oppressive corks, thread, crockery-ware, and cordage, together and cruel, and none where the human mind is so crushed with a variety of minor articles, in fruits, medicines, and abased. The revenues arising from the arch- and toys. The imports from the East Indies, at the bishopric of Mexico and the bishoprics, are valued at port of Acapulco, are linens, calicoes, silks, muslins, about 118,0001. per annum, out of which the arch- cottons, spices, gums, and jewellery. New Spain, in bishop receives yearly 27,000 1.

return, exports to the East Indies, coined silver, iron, of the Spanish settlers, it has been estimated that cochineal, cocoa, wine, oil, wool, and hats. The imone-fifth are ecclesiastics, monks, and nuns, to the ports from the other Spanish American colonies to great detriment of the country, both with regard to Acapulco principally consist of Jesuits' bark, Chili, or its habits and its faith. Industry is prevented, and long-pepper, oil, Chili wine, copper, sugar, cocoa, and the Christian religion exhibited to view in the dis- chocolate; in return for these articles, New Spain suptortion of frenzy, and in all the offensiveness of dis- plies them with woollens of her own manufacture, ease. The original Mexican inhabitants had a very cochineal, tea, and some East Indian commodities. different religion, consisting of fasts, penances, and But, notwithstanding this home and foreign commerce voluntary tortures. Captives in war were regularly carried on by New Spain, Mexico affords but little massacred as an acceptable service to their deities, towards the support of the mother-country. In fact, and human sacrifices presented without hesitation or not one of the Spanish American settlements, exceptpity. Clavigero has related that two hundred and ing the vice-royalties of Peru and Mexico, make any thirty-two human victims were sacrificed at the conse- regular remittances of money to Old Spain. Humboldt cration of two of their temples. There can be no states, from the public accounts, that New Spain only doubt that canabalism was practised among them; remits annually to Spain about a million and a quarter parts of the body of their captives, not devoted to the of money. gods, were feasted upon as a luxurious banquet. Their History.—The eastern line of coast belonging to Histary. supreme deity was the evil spirit, called, in their bar- these colonies was originally discovered at the close barous language, Klacatecolototh, or the “rational of the fifteenth century, by Sebastian Cabot, commonly owl,” who took pleasure in exciting alarm and spread- said to be the brother, but, probably, the son of John ing misery. The number of their deities was thirteen, Cabot, the discoverer of Newfoundland; it received among whom were the sun and moon. Mexitli, the its name from Juan Ponce de Leon, a Spanish advengod of war, received their chief adorations, and che- turer, who landed here from Porto Rico, in April rished, in his devoted worshippers, the fiercest and 1513, when the first bloom of spring spreading an atmost relentless passions of human nature. They had tractive richness and beauty over the country, he was numerous idols of clay, wood, and stone, and one of induced to apply to it the descriptive epithet of Fairo, or them was composed of seeds pasted together with Florida. The English were the first to assert a claim human blood.

upon this country, which they founded on the discoRevenue, Revenue, TRADE, AND COMMERCE.—The reve- veries of Cabot, who, although a Venetian by birth, was trade, and

nue of these colonies consists in the duties paid on all in the actual service of the British government, by whom gold and silver extracted from the mines, on the sale he was at the time employed for the purposes of discoof quicksilver, and upon all exports and imports. The very. In 1524, Francis I. king of France, sent Verazano, manufactures are principally of cottons, woollens, soap a Florentine, to examine the American coast; and the and soda, plate, powder, segars, and snuff. There same monarch, in 1534, gained a permanent footing are also some manufactories of crockery-ware and northward by means of Cartier, the commander of his glass. The coining of metals, the manufacturing of fleet, who discovered the gulf and river of St. Lawpowder and tobacco, is carried on by the government rence, and the following year, having penetrated 300 under a royal monopoly. Beautiful toys of bone and leagues, erected a fort, and assigned the name of New wood are made by the Indians. Cabinet-ware and France to the neighbouring territory. In 1564, the turnery are executed with great skill by Spanish arti- French were expelled from this neighbourhood by the zans. Carriages are also made in New Spain; but most Spaniards, who were not, however, able to obtain a of these vehicles, which are used by the nobility and solid establishment in the country until the year 1605, gentry, are supplied by the London manufacturers. when they fortified St. Augustine. In 1702, the Eng.

The commerce, as a whole, has been lately consi- lish, under Colonel More, the governor of Carolina, derably augmented, both by the great agricultural im- attacked this capital, but were soon compelled to raise provements, and by the formation of good roads in the the siege. A similar attempt was made in 1740, by

commerce.

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