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N, AJIB- pieces of lath-wood; 130,516 West India hoops ; thank the northern powers of Europe, and the govern- N. AMERICA. 80,000 shingles; 55 butt, 5,197 pipe, 1,301 half ditto, ment of the United States, for having opened our eyes, and 771 one-quarto ditto, Madeira packs; 228 tierce and directed our attention to these invaluable

appen

Political Blitical packs; 28,407 barrels of pot and pearl ashes, weight dages of the British empire.

and Moral sad Moral 106,581 cwt.; 30 bales of cotton, 8,181 lbs; 4,628

Ships. Tons. State

barrels and 2 tierces of pork; 2,979 ditto of beef; 29 Vessels cleared out, which entered Brütiste puncheons and 1 tierce of hams, 17,000 lbs.; 1,070 Quebec in 1810

635 138,057

British los mons boxes of soap; 1,181 ditto of candles; 422 firkins and Ditto, new built there

26

Possessions.

5,836 kegs of butter; 147 barrels, &c. of hogs' lard; 7 puncheons and 3 casks of genseng, 2,344lbs.

Average, 216 tons each Total 661 143,893." The total value of exports from Quebec, 1810, (sterling)..

£942,324 9 3 History.—A sketch of the history of its various History. Ditto of furs, skins, &c. from ditto,

modern masters may conclude our description of this, (ditto)

120,503 9 7 part of the American continent.

The first Europeans who colonised Canada, were the Total exports in 1810, (sterling) £ 1,062,827 18 10 French; who, as we have already seen, after several unDisbursements for provisions and

successful expeditions, planted their first settlement at. ships' stores for 661 vessels, at

Quebec in 1608. Champlain, who headed this infant, Quebec, in 1810, average about

colony, then laid the foundation of its capital, and has, 3507. sterling each.

231,350 0 0 been justly denominated the father of New France. Freights of these vessels, averaging

From this period, although the French settlers suffered. about 216 tons each, or about

considerably from the hostile incursions of the Iroquois. 230 load each ship, at 71. sterling

and other Indians, the colony nevertheless advanced 1,064,210 00 progressively in numbers and prosperity. Nothing of

great importance, however, occurs in the history of this Total (sterling).

. £2,358,387 18 10 district, till the time of its memorable conquest by the In the preceding account, the exports from Canada English, under General Wolfe, in 1759, which was to the United States, via St. John's, and the exports confirmed to Great Britain, by France, at the peace of from the departments of Gaspe and the bay of Cha- Paris, 1763. From this period till 1774, its internal leurs, are not included.

affairs were managed solely by the British governor.. Imports, 1810.-Among the articles included under The Quebec bill then constituted a council, at the apthis head, are the increasing importations direct from pointment of his Majesty, whose members amounted Spain and Portugal, and other parts of Europe S. of to twenty-three. In 1791, however, the governor of cape Finisterre to Canada.

each province was entrusted with the chief executive. The total amount of imports into

power, assisted by a lieutenant-governor, an executive. Quebec, in 1810, of articles liable

and legislative council, and a house of assembly. The to duty, was about (sterling) . . £372,837 0 0 councils are appointed by the king, and the houses of Ditto of ditto not liable to duty, esti

assembly by the inhabitants. In the absence of the, mated at (sterling)

600,000 0 0

0 governor, the authority graduates to the lieutenant

governor and the president of the executive council. Total imports in 1810 (sterling) . . £972,837 0 0 The governor presides over the legislative council and

Shipping:- The number of ships, principally belong- houses of assembly, as representing the king of Great, ing to the leading out-ports in Great Britain, which Britain; the houses are termed collectively the parhave entered into the Quebec trade, exceeds the most liament, and every act of local legislation, and for the. sanguine expectations which were formed by persons creating a revenue for the maintenance of the governa well and long acquainted with the resources of that ment, has immediate effect. But all acts which go to province; and the ships which have been engaged in repeal, or vary the laws that were in existence at the the trade to Nova Scotia and New Brunswick, and time of the establishment of the present constitution, their dependencies, have increased in nearly the same all acts respecting tithes, the appropriation of land for proportion. “ It may be remarked,” observes the in- the maintenance of the Protestant clergy, the waste telligent writer to whom we are indebted for the above land of the crown, &c. are transmitted to England for statements, “ that in the furtherance of this trade no the royal assent, before they can have the form of law. specie is sent out of the country, the returns being The legislative council of Upper Canada consists of nearly all made in British produce and manufactures, seven members; that of Lower Canada of fifteen. and the difference either left here with the correspond- These members are appointed for life, unless they forents of the colonists or invested in the public funds. feit their office by an overt act of treason, or by an The employment which is thus afforded to British ships absence of four years. The freeholders of the partiand British seamen, and the advantages which must cular towns and districts choose the members of the result to the traders and manufacturers of the country, assembly; that of Upper Canada consists of sixteen, and to the various useful classes connected with ship- and that of Lower Canada of fifty members. It must be building, from such employment of our own shipping, convened once a year, and cannot continue longer than cannot fail to excite astonishment in the minds of the four years. All appeals from judicial sentences are. most indifferent and inattentive observers, that these first to the governor and executive council, and in. colonies should have been so long considered posses- the last instance, to the British parliament. The crisions of little value or importance, and that we at last minal law of England is established throughout the resorted to them from necessity. Indeed, we have to Canadas; but the French laws, in civil cases, știll pre

N. AMF

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N. AME- vail, from the anxiety of the British government to con- in length, and a medial breadth of about 350 miles.
RACA. ciliate the affections of the French inhabitants, All They are said annually to export about 16,0001. of the RICA

lands both in Upper and Lower Canada, under certain productions of the country, and to return about 30,0001. and Moral and common socage. Political restrictions, are conveyed over to the guarantee, in free A rival body, called the North-west company, has Politir

The English parliament, by an State.

been recently erected at Montreal. These companies and Nact passed in the 18th year of his present Majesty's establish factories or small settlements, which some. British reign, possesses the power of making any regulations times are garrisoned, on the most promising spots. Bu Possessions, which may respect the navigation and commerce of Albany fort, Moon fort, and East Maine factory, are passion

Canada, and could also impose import and export du- amongst the principal ones in their southern possesties, restricted to the use of the province. In both sions, round St. James's bay; further south are Brunsprovinces, every religious sect is tolerated; but the Ro- wick town and Frederic town; northward are Severn man Catholic faith is professed by a majority of the in- town, at the mouth of a large river of the same name, habitants. By the Quebec bill of 1774, the clergy of flowing from the Winnipeg lake; York fort, on Nelthat persuasion received a legal right to recover all dues son's river; and Churchill fort, or Fort Prince of Wales, and tithes which belonged to them from the Roman Ca- the most northerly of any of these establishments. tholic inhabitants; but, at the same time, they were not Hudson's town is the furthest station of the Hudson's allowed to demand any dues or tithes from Protestants, bay company westward, but the North-west

company or from lands held by Protestants, notwithstanding have penetrated considerably beyond it. The little such lands were formerly subjected to the payment of that is known of the interior and of its general inhadues and tithes. These tithes and church dues, how- bitants, who have a very circumscribed and transient ever, are still collected for the maintenance of the Pro- connection with the factories, will come more correctly testant clergy actually residing in the province, and are under our consideration among the Unconquered Reregularly paid into the hands of persons appointed by gions of this continent. the governor, and kept in reserve by his Majesty's re Cape Breton, or Sydney island, is situated in about Cape Broceiver-general for the above-mentioned purpose. By W. lon. 60°, and N. lat. 46° N. E. of the extreme tur, et another act, passed in the year 1791, it was ordered, point of Nova Scotia, from which it is separated by that one-seventh of the crown lands should be set apart å strait of only about a mile broad. It is attached, for the use and benefit of the Protestant clergy; such we have noticed, to the government of Lower allotments to be particularly specified, otherwise the Canada, and is about 100 miles in length and from grant should be entirely void. With the advice of the 50 to 60 in breadth. Supposed originally to have executive council, the governor is authorized to in- been part of the adjacent continent, it was called by its stitute rectories or parsonages, and to endow them out present name by the French, who discovered it early in of these appropriations; and to present incumbents to the sixteenth century, but did not take possession of it them who had been previously ordained, according to until 1713, when Fort Dauphin was erected; and in the rites of the church of England. In both provinces, 1720, Louisburg, one of its principal towns at the the clergy of this church amount to only twelve persons, present time. It was taken by the British, in an exincluding the bishop of Quebec; but the clergy of the pedition from New England, in 1745, but shortly after church of Rome consists of 120, a bishop, three vicar- restored to the French, from whom it was retaken by generals, and 116 curès and missionaries, all of whom Admiral Boscawen, when the garrison amounted to are resident in Lower Canada, with the exception of 5,600 men, protected by a fleet of 11 ships of war, five missionaries and curates. There are also a few which were all taken or destroyed. It was ceded

dissenting ministers scattered through the provinces. finally to Great Britain by the peace of 1763. The New Bri New Britain we have already observed to be included town of Sydney has been since built, and the fishery

with the island of Cape Breton, in the government of is important, but the inhabitants do not exceed 1,000 Lower Canada. It comprehends the most northern parts souls. Until 1784, it was attached to the governof the British possessions toward and around Hudson's ment of Nova Scotia; but it now has a distinct a:lbay and the coast of Labrador. The district to the ministration, under the name of Sydney (dependent W. of Hudson's bay is more generally marked in the on Lower Canada), and is said to have become, of maps 'as New North and South Wales, and that to the late, a very flourishing colony. The soil is not, in east of this inland sea East Maine. How far the terri- general, very promising for agriculture; the climate tories of Great Britain may be said really to extend is very bleak and foggy; several considerable lakes westward, and whether we may not pursue them to the are found here, and some noble forests. There is a Pacific ocean, to which the researches and settlements small fur trade carried on by the settlers. A remarkof the North-west company have nearly approached, able bed of coal runs horizontally at from six to is a question by no means determined; it may be eight feet only below the surface, through a large porenough to observe here, that she has no European or tion of the island; a fire was once accidentally kindled civilized rival in this direction.

in one of the pits, which is now continually burning. Sixty years after the intrepid navigator Hudson had They are said to yield to government a yearly revenue first penetrated the noble gulf that bears his name, the of 12,0001. This island has been called the key to British government assigned to a company of traders Canada, and is the principal protection, through the to these parts, by the style of the Hudson's bay com- fine harbour of Louisburg, of all the fisheries of the pany, the chartered possessin of extensive tracts, neighbourhood. west, south, and east of Hudson's bay. Their terri NEW BRUNSWICK.—This province, together with New Art tories are stated by some writers to extend from 70° Nova Scotia, was originally comprehended under the to 1150 W. lon. and southward to about 49° N. lat., latter name. It appears to have been first colonized by comprehending from 1,300 to 1,400 geographical miles the French, under the name of Acadie ; but the Eng

tain.

WICE

NAME. lish obtaining possession of it in the reign of James I. John. St. Andrew's and St. Ann's are also principal N. AME

RICA. RICA. the whole district, bounded by the gulf of St. Lawrence towns.

on the N., and the province of Maine on the S., was Nova Scotia.—The province now known by this Poitical granted, in 1621, to Sir William Alexander, afterwards name consists only of the peninsula formed by the bay Political 2.3 D urad Lord Stirling At this time it seems to have received of Fundy and the Atlantic ocean; being divided by the and Moral

State. the name of Nova Scotia, but was wholly neglected straits of Northumberland from the island of St. John British until the middle of the last century, when the town of on the N., and from New Brunswick W. by a nar British Passions. Halifax was built. On the close of the war which row isthmus at the approaching points of Fundy and Possessions.

alienated the greater portion of her North American co- Verte bay. It is not more than 250 miles long from Nova lonies from Great Britain, considerable attention began cape Sable to cape Canso, and about 88 miles broad, Scotia. to be paid to those which remained to her, and Nova containing 8,789,000 acres of land, of which about Scotia, in 1784, was divided, by act of parliament, into 3,000,000 have been granted, and 2,000,000 settled two provinces, of which New Brunswick is by far the and cultivated. Nova Scotia is said to contain several more important, comprising the whole of the original harbours equal to any in the world. The bay of Fundy Acartie, except the peninsula formed by Fundy bay stretches inland 50 leagues, and the ebb and flow of southward, and bay Verte to the N.

the tide in it throughout is from 45 to 60 feet. The New Brunswick is bounded on the E. by the bay of chief town is Halifax, situated in about the centre of Fundy, the British province of Nova Scotia, and the the eastern coast, and well calculated for communicaAtlantic ocean; on the W. by the British province of tions inland or outward. The harbour is excellent, Lower Canada; on the N. by the gulf of St. Lawrence; and the town contains upward of 5,000 inhabitants. and on the S. by Maine, a part of the United States. Chedabucto harbour, at the northern extremity, and The river St. Croix, which falls into the bay of Pas- Annapolis bay, the basin of Minas, and Windsor bay, samaquady, forms the southern boundary, from its in the W., are also commodious harbours. Here are mouth to its source. Its chief towns are, St. John, three considerable British forts-Fort Cornwallis, CumFrederic town, St. Andrew, and St. Ann. The prin. berland, and Edward. The entire district is divided cipal rivers are, St. John, Magedavic, Dicwasset; into eight counties, viz. Hants, Halifax, King's county, St. Croix, Miramichi, Grand Codiac, Petit Codiac, and Annapolis, Cumberland, Sunbury, Queen's county, and Memramcook, all of which, the three last excepted, Lunenburg, which are again subdivided into forty townempty themselves into the bay of Fundy. The river St. ships. The entire population of the province is calJohn runs through a fine country of vast extent, being culated at about 50,000. Great Britain imported, pre- í bordered by low grounds, locally called intervals, as lying viously to the new settlements, about 26,5001. into the between the river and the mountains, and which are colony per annum, in linen and woollen cloths chiefly, annually enriched by the inundations. It is navigable and grain. Perhaps the present average of British for vessels of 50 tons above 60 miles of its course, and imports may be taken at 30,0001. Nova Scotia exfor boats above 200, the tide flowing about 80 miles. ports to England, in return, from 40 to 50,0001. annuSalmon, buss, and sturgeon, abound in its waters. The ally in timber, and the produce of her fisheries. greater part of these lands are settled, and under cul There is a small Indian tribe, called the Miamis, tivation. The upland is generally well timbered; the settled to the east of Halifax; the northern side of the trees are pine and fir (the former the largest in British district is high, red, and rocky; and some of its exAmerica), beech, birch, maple, elm, and a small pro- tremities, according to Mr. Pennant's Artic Zoology, portion of ash. Timber and fish have hitherto been are very sublime and imposing. There are some good the principal exports of New Brunswick; but the farms in the interior; a society for the encouragement gradual clearing of the country, and increase of popu- of agriculture has been established, and the whole lation, bid fair to render it an important agricultural colony is rapidly advancing in consideration. Spruce, district.

hemlock, pine, fir, and beech abound. Nova Scotia The Apalachian chain of mountains penetrates the trades in lumber of all sorts, except oak-staves ; horses, N. W. of the province, and terminates at the gulf of oxen, sheep, and all other agricultural productions, St. Lawrence. The sea-coast abounds with cod and except grain; and the northern and eastern parts of scale fish, and its numerous harbours are most conve the province abound in coal. The climate, however, niently situated for carrying on the cod-fishery, to is unfavourable to the health of Europeans, foggy, and any extent imaginable. The herrings which frequent extremely cold in the winter months. 'Copper has been its rivers are a species peculiarly adapted for the West found in small quantities at cape d'Or, or the basin India market, and are found annually in such abun- of Minas. dance that the quantity cured is limited only by the num FISHING BANKS.--The situation of Nova Scotia, in Fishingber of hands that can engage in this occupation. The respect to the fisheries, is represented as scarcely inferior bank s. interior is everywhere intersected by rivers, creeks, and to that of Newfoundland. At the Sable islands, as lakes, and covered with inexhaustible forests of pine, the banks off cape Sable are called, Brown's and St. spruce, birch, beech, maple, elm, fir, and other timber, George's, are myriads of cod-fish taken annually, proper for masts of any size, lumber, and ship-building. which constitute the staple of the province, and form The smaller rivers afford excellent situations for saw an invaluable nursery for a hardy race of seamen. mills, and every stream, by the melting of the snow “ Of all minerals,” said Lord Bacon, “ there is none in the spring, is rendered deep enough to float down like the fisheries;" but we shall have occasion to return the masts and timber which the inhabitants have cut to this subject under the head of Newfoundland. A and brought to its banks during the long and severe whale-fishery has been undertaken occasionally from winters. The capital is Frederic town, on the river St. the port of Halifax, and in 1791 twenty-eight vessels,

VOL. XVII.

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State.

N. AME- of from 60 to 200 tons burden, were engaged in this smaller ones; the former being used on one side of the N. AmeRICA. trade alone. Connected with the government of Nova stern, and serving to steer as well as pull on the vessel RICA.

Scotia, are the islands of St. John and Newfoundland. against all the others, which are worked on the opposite Political The former is about 70 miles in length by 28 broad,

side. The fishermen are each furnished with two Political and Moral and has various convenient harbours and fertilizing lines, double hooked, which are cast out, one on each and Moral State.

streams. It abounds in timber, and, at the time of its side of the boat, and are calculated to bring in from five British cession to England, in 1745, contained 4,000 inhabit to ten quintals of fish daily, though they sometimes British Possessions. ants and about 10,000 head of cattle. It was called produce from twenty to thirty quintals, for which each Powenien St. John's by the French, at this time, the granary of Canada. boat has stowage-room. About 200 quintals is thought ad New. The island is divided into three counties - King's, a profitable voyage. The maws of the fish caught are

Queen's, and Prince's, twenty-seven townships, and sometimes used as bait, but sea-fowl, which abound contains 1,363,400 acres. Its capital is Charlotte's in the rocks, and are caught by nets laid over their town, where a lieutenant-governor resides. Salmon holes, are preferred, and small fish of all kinds and fine shell-tish are caught on its shores. The in answer still better. The herring, lance, capelin, and habitants are now reckoned at about 5,000.

torn cod, or young cod, are commonly used, and the Newfoundland, as we have seen, was the first of our first is pickled down as a resource in case the others Trans-atlantic possessions, and discovered nearly, per- should fail. haps quite, as early as the American continent. After The fish being brought to shore, are carried to the Mođe of various disputes, it was ceded to the English in 1713, stage, which is built with one end over the water, for curing this the French having liberty to dry their nets on the the conveniency of throwing the offal into the sea, and cod. northern shore. It is of a triangular shape, about for their boats being able to come close to discharge 320 miles long and broad, presenting a line of coast of their fish. As soon as they come on the stage, a boy upwards of 1,000 miles; the interior has been very hands them to the header, who stands at the side of a little penetrated. On the S. W. side there are several table next the water, and whose business it is to gut lofty headlands, and the hilly parts of the island ap the fish and to cut off the head, which he does by pear to be crowned with heath, fir, and a small pine; pressing the back of the head against the side of the but the vallies are barren, and abounding with mo- table, which is made sharp for that purpose, when both rasses; and the cod-fishery exclusively gives it con- head and guts fall through a hole in the floor into the sideration. Over the whole of Newfoundland a dense water. He then shoves the fish to the splitter, who fog almost constantly rests, and particularly over what stands opposite to him; his business is to split the fish, is called the Great Bank. This is a large accumulation beginning at the head and opening it down to the tail: of sand, stretching round the southern and western at the next cut he takes out the larger part of the backsides of the island, about 580 miles in length and bone, which falls through the floor into the water. He 233 broad; the depth of water varying from 15 to 60 then shoves the fish off the table, which drops into a fathoms, and the bottom abounding with shell and kind of hand-barrow, which, as soon as filled, is carother small fish, which form the food of the cod. Aried off to the salt pile. The header also flings the liver great swell of the sea and thicker fogs mark the larger into a separate basket, for the making of train-oil, used divisions of this bank. Full 300,0001. per annum is by the curriers, which bears a higher price than whalereturned in its produce from the Catholic countries of oil. In the salt pile the fish are spread one upon Europe alone. In 1785, Great Britain and the United another, with a layer of salt between. Thus they reStates together employed 3,000 sail of small craft in main till they have taken salt, and then are carried, and the fishery, which occupied, with curing and packing, the salt is washed from then by throwing them off from upwards of 100,000 hands. By the treaty with France shore in a kind of float, called a pound. As soon as in 1763, the subjects of that country were permitted to this is completed, they are carried to the last operation fish in the gulf of St. Lawrence, and the small islands of drying them, which is done on standing fakes, made of St. Pierre and Miquelon were given up to the French, by a slight wattle, just strong enough to support the on condition of their erecting no forts, and keeping men who lay on the fish, supported by poles, in some not more than 50 soldiers thereon, to support a police. places as high as 20 feet from the ground: here they In 1783 her former right of visiting the northern and are exposed with the open side to the sun; and every western shores of this island were confirmed to France, night, when it is bad weather, piled up five or six on a and the inhabitants of the United States were allowed heap, with a large one, his back or skinny part upperthe same privileges, with respect to all its fisheries, as most, to be a shelter to the rest from rain, which hardly they enjoyed when they were British colonists. This damages him through the skin, as he rests slanting seems to be the present arrangement with regard to each way to shoot it off. When they are tolerably dry,

St. John's, on the S. E. coast, is the which, in good weather, is in a week's time, they are put chief town of Newfoundland ; Placentia, on the S., in round piles of eight or ten quintals each, covering and the ancient Bonavista, on the E., are busy towns them on the top with bark. In these piles they remain in the fishing season, which begins about the 10th of three or four days to sweat; after which they are again May and ends in September ; but not more than spread, and when dry, put into larger heaps, covered 1,000 families remain on the whole island through the with canvass, and left till they are put on board. winter.

Thus prepared, they are sent to the Mediterranean, The

The shallops, or fishing-boats used on these banks, where they fetch a good price, but are not esteemed in fisheries.

measure about 40 feet in the keel, and are furnished England ; for which place another kind of fish is prewith a main-mast, fore-mast, and lug-sails. They are pared, called by them mud-fish, which, instead of conducted by means of one very large oar and three being split quite open, like their dry. fish, are only

these powers,

State.

NAME: opened down to the navel. They are salted and lie in and New SPAIN, occupying the central position. On the N. AMERICA, salt, which is washed out of them in the same manner N., Florida is bounded by the United States; on the S. RICA.

with the others; but, instead of being laid out to dry, and W. by the gulf of Mexico; and on the E. by the are barrelled up in a pickle of salt boiled in water. Atlantic ocean. Guatimala is bounded on the N. by

Political ed Joral

and Moral The train-oil is made from the livers : it is called so Vera Paz, Chiopa, Guaxaca, and Honduras ; on the

State. to distinguish it from whale' or seal oil, which they call S. by the Pacific ocean; on the E. by Nicaragua; and British fat-oil, and is sold at a lower price (being only used for on the W. by Guaxaca and the Pacific ocean. The Spunish Pestesions. lighting of lamps) than the train-oil, which is used by central portion, called New Spain, or Mexico, is by far Possessions.

the curriers. It is thus made: they take a half tub, the most important and considerable of the Spanish and boring a hole through the bottom, press hard down dominions either in North or South America, compreinto it a layer of spruce-boughs, upon which they hending a surface which extends from the 39th to the place the livers, and expose the whole apparatus to as 16th degree of N. lat., and in its broadest part occusunny a place as possible. As the livers corrupt, the pying 22 degrees of longitude. It is bounded, on the oil runs from them, and, straining itself clear through northern extremity, by unknown lands; on the S. by the spruce-boughs, is caught in a vessel set under the the Spanish government of Guatimala; on the E. by the hole in the tub's bottom. See Pennant's Arctic- Pacific ocean; and on the W. by the gulf of Mexico Zoology, p. 195, &c.

and the Atlantic.

GENERAL APPEARANCE.—These regions are ex- General ap

tremely diversified, and in many parts singularly beau- pearance. CHAP. III.

tiful in their general aspect. Travellers have assured

us that vegetation is generally of a gigantic character, SPANISI POSSESSIONS.

blended with inimitable decoration. Vast ridges of Spanish Prepared by the hints we have given of the magnifi- mountains, many of them covered with eternal snow, pusessions, cent scale of the American continent, the reader will precipices, volcanoes, and foaming water-falls, with

be the less surprised at the statement that the king of widely-extended plains, vallies, lakes, and rivers, preSpain enjoys a dominion there exceeding in extent the sent an unusually grand and picturesque combination. empires of Great Britain and Russia in Asia. This Nothing, perhaps, can exhibit a more striking contrast territory comprises, between S. lat. 41°, 43', and N. lat. than the vastness of nature and the littleness of man 37°, 48", a space of 79 degrees, equalling the entire in this quarter of the globe; and while our admiration length of Africa, and surpassing the breadth of the is excited by the magnificence of the Creator's works, Russian empire, which includes 167 degrees of longi- it irresistibly blends itself with the deepest feelings of tude, under a parallel of which the degrees are not contempt and commiseration as we alternately conmore than half the degrees of the equator. These template oppressing and oppressed man! possessions are divided into nine principal and inde GULFs, Bays, CAPES, ISLANDS.— The principal of Gulls, bays, pendent governments ; five of which, the viceroyalties these have come under our consideration in the general capes,

islands. of Peru and New Granada, the capitanias generales of account already furnished of North America; what are Guatimala, of Portorico, and of Caracas, are wholly peculiar to this division are the gulfs of Mexico, of Caliwithin the torrid zone; the four others, the viceroyal- fornia, and of Florida, with some others of minor importties of Mexico and Buenos Ayres, the capitanias ance, the bay of Honduras, of Campeachy, &c. The most generales of Chili and Havannah, including the Floridas, remarkable headlands, or capes, are, cape St. Blas, consist of countries of which a great portion is situated situated near the mouth of Apallachicola river, and within the temperate zone ; which position, however, lying in W. lon. 850, 85', and 'N. lat. 35°, 44”; cape owing to accidental varieties, does not altogether de- Florida, the most easterly point of East Florida, on the termine the nature of their productions. At present W. side of the gulf, or straits of Florida, in W. Jon. we have only to remark upon the upper, or northern 80°, 37', N. lat. 25°, 44'; cape Sable, is the most division of this extensive region, reserving our observa- southerly point of East Florida, and lies in W. lon. tions on the remaining part to the second grand sec- 81°, 49', and N. lat. 24°, 57'. The other promontories tion of this article.

are Sandy point, cape Cross, cape Roman, eape Caroundaries. BOUNDARIES.- The Spaniards claim the whole N.W. naveral, Punta Larga, and the promontory in East of America, but with very little regard to accuracy or

Florida. truth : and pretending a right, derived, from prior dis There are many small islands on the coast of Florida, covery, to the English, they appoint a governor for the but none of much consideration. The chief one is entire coast.

On the western coast the Spanish boun- called Amelia island, situated near the N. W. boundary dary is fixed, by the last treaty, at cape Mendocino, of East Florida, in the Atlantic, and extending from situated in somewhat more than 40° of N. lat. The the mouth of the river St. Mary to the mouth of the southern limit may be taken in lat. 7°, 30', that is, Nassau river. On this island is built a town, called upwards of 32°, and more than 2,000 miles ; a length Fernandina, having a small fort. of territory very disproportionate to the breadth, which, MOUNTAINS.-" There is scarcely a point on the Mountains. in its greatest extent, from the Atlantic shore of East globe,” remarks M. Humboldt, “where the mountains Florida to that of California on the Pacific, does not exhibit so extraordinary a construction as in New Spain. exceed three-fourths of that distance; and in the nar. In Europe, Switzerland, Savoy, and the Tyrol, are rowest part, on the isthmus of Veragua, is only 25 considered very elevated countries; but this opinion is English miles : 400 geographical miles may therefore merely founded on the aspect of the groups of a great be considered as the average breadth.

number of summits perpetually covered with snow, and This territory may be divided into three principal disposed in parallel chains to the great central chain. sections: Florida on the E., GUATIMALA on the S., Thus the summits of the Alps rise to 3,900, and even

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