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AME- which limestone and schistus are mixed. Near Caro- in the rivers. The land between the granite ridge N. AME-
ICA. lina and Florida, those mountains which are composed and the sea varies in breadth from thirty to 100 RICA.

of granite, are at a considerable distance from the sea, miles, and is evidently sand recently brought by the
graphic and wear the appearance of its having retired from their ocean, whose limits were originally determined by this Geographi-

hill of granite. The bare rocks projecting into the sea Kalm, the traveller above-mentioned, describes a sub are granite, which seems to indicate that the sand .stance of which the mountains of North America often brought in by the sea merely covers rocks of this .consist, which is unknown by modern mineralogists, description. but may be termed calcareous granite, the absence of The region of the river alluvions extends from the felspar being supplied by grey primitive limestone; granitic ridge to the base of the sand-stone mountains ; of which, together with purple or garnet-coloured quartz, hence it appears that the ridge of granite in the Apaand black mica, it is, in fact, entirely composed. Aqua- lachian chain is narrow and lower than in the sandfortis causes the limestone to effervesce, and some particles of felspar are found. A mountain near the In the states of New York and of Massachusetts river St. Lawrence contains red felspar, .black mica, great quantities of iron-ore, gypsum, and salt are white limestone, with grains of purple or red quartz. found. Near the isle of Orleans, grey quartz, reddish and grey Gold, silver, lead, copper, and zinc are dug from valimestone, and grains of sand, compose the hills. rious American mines, but, except in the Spanish domFragments of granite, mixed with schorl minerals, nions, these metals are as yet by no means in plentiful without any calcareous substance, were discovered by quantities; and as long as manufactures are imported the Swedish naturalist near Fort St. Frederick, or with so much ease, and so little comparative expence Crown point; and ammonites, of about two feet dia- from the old continent, it is not likely that the hidden meter. He observed a quantity of red sand, which treasures of American ore will be brought into view. appeared like pulverized or decomposed garnets, near Talc abounds in Pennsylvania and New York in large the lake Champlain. The calcareous granite, before- plates, and in New Hampshire is perceived adhering named, frequently occurs in Pennsylvania, and is used to rocks of white or yellow quartz 'There is a remarkat Philadelphia in building. The lapis ollaris of New able hill, called Diamond hill, in Rhode island, which England is spotted with the starry asbestos; and green contains a variety of singular sparkling stones, whose soap-rock and amianthus are frequent in Pennsylvania. characteristics have not yet been investigated. From fine basalt the hatchets of the savages were made; VEGETABLE PRODUCTIONS.—The magnificence and Vegetable their knives of quartz and petrosilex; their kettles and variety of the vegetable productions of America bear produce tobacco-pipes of lapis ollaris, either grey or green, their full proportion to the other stupendous features of though the tobacco pipes of some of the chiefs were of its geography. Its numerous forests are scarcely dia beautiful red serpentine, from the W. of the Mis- minished by the recent and widely-extended efforts of sissippi river.

cultivation, and its fields produce every species of Volney, who wrote on the climate and soil of Ame- grain, fruit, pulse, herbs, plants, and flowers indigenous rica, makes a suppositious division of the United States to Europe, besides an incalculable number of others into five distinct regions—the granitic, the sandstone, peculiar to this continent, as the cocoa-tree, the cinnathe calcareous, the sea-sand, and river alluvions. mon, pepper, sarsaparilla, vanilla, scarlet dye, tobacco,

The granitic commences at the mouth of the river balsams of various kinds, brazil and logwood, sassafras, St. Lawrence and ends at Long island. It is mixed aloes, and azibar, incense, gums, resins, &c. In North with sand-stone and limestone, in New Hampshire and America, though the forests are not overspread with the Maine, except the White mountains in New Hampshire, same luxuriant vegetation as in the Southern continent, which are granite. The river Mohawk appears to be yet the trees are generally more lofty, and, upon the the dividing line of the granite and the sand-stone; but whole, exceed in size the same species in other parts in the river Susquehannah some granite is found; and of the world. In the forests of North America there at the base of the S. W. chain of the White mountains are several species of oak-trees; the principal of which in Virginia.

are the quercus phellos (the willow-leaved oak), the The whole of the Apalachian mountains are sand- prinos (the chesnut oak), the white oak, the red, and the stone according to this arrangement; and, towards the black. There are also two kinds of walnut-trees, the N. W. the sand-stone ends in slate and marl. The black and the white, inuch valued for their oily nuts. Katskill mountains are of the same sand-stone as the The forests likewise abound in European beech and

chesnut-trees. The tulip-tree and sassafras laurel apThe calcareous region commences at the W. of the pear as mere shrubs on the frontiers of Canada; but Apalachian mountains, and runs to the Mississippi, and, in the midland states they attain to great height and as some have supposed, to the Rocky mountains. This beauty. On the northern sides of the mountains, stratum lies horizontally, at depths proportioned to the in the southern states, the sugar maple-tree is found, depositions of soil.

but reaches its fuller size in the more northern climate The region of sea-sand runs along all the shore from of the New England provinces. The sweet gum-tree, Long island to Florida. It is bounded towards the land the iron-wood, the nettle-tree, the American elm, the side by a seam of granite, full of large mica, or rather red maple, the black poplar, and various others are to talc; and this boundary runs uninterruptedly along the be discovered in each of the United States. coast from the W. bank of the river Hudson to the river grow in abundance in the light and sandy tracts; and Roanok in N. Carolina; its breadth is from two to six of this useful timber the chief species are the Pennmiles, its extent 500. This boundary generally marks sylvanian firs, the common and the hemlock sprucethe limits of the tide, and frequently occasions falls fir; the black, the white, and Weymouth pine, toge

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N. AME- ther with the larch-tree. A variety of pines, together

Almost all the fruits of the European garden have N. AN RICA. with white and red oaks, on the drier parts, and juniper been reared in America, in great perfection. The RICA

and cypress trees, on the more moist, overspread the peaches of Virginia, much cultivated for the sake of Geographi- large tract of the country in the eastern part of Vir- the peach-brandy, for which that state is celebrated; Generat

ginia and North Carolina, called Dismal Swamp, which the apricots, nectarines, and apples, are remarkably fine. cal deta contains 150,000 acres of land. The trees are pro- The humble potatoe is a native; hop-grounds have digiously large, and, unlike other North American been planted to some extent; and tobacco is the wellforests, a thick brushwood pervades the whole. known product of Virginia, where the grasses are nu

Among the chief vegetable productions which flourish merous, particularly the red clover. Hemp and flax, in the Floridas and South Carolina, may be reckoned in so considerably agricultural a country as the United the mangrove-tree, the only shrubbery plant which can States, have not escaped the diligent attention of the grow in salt waters; and the white-flowering pancra- farmer: the maize, or Indian corn, is a native grain ; tium. Some of the rich tracts of country in the and wheat, rye, barley, buckwheat, rice, oats, beans, southern states produce the palmetto, the evergreen and peas, succeed well in almost all parts of the Union. oak, the sweet bay, the benzoe laurel, the common The rice is more particularly cultivated in the southern laurel, the broom pine, and the red cedar. The white, and western states. glistening columns of the papaw fig-tree aspire to the QUADRUPEDS.— The bones of the mammoth, which Quadri height of about twenty feet, and being crowned with a is supposed to be extinct, are said to be found in various peds, canopy of wide-spreading leaves, form a striking feature parts of America. They are of an enormous size; and in this delightful scenery, which is still further diversified Mr. Jefferson states the teeth of this animal to be five and adorned by the golden fruitage of the orange-tree, or six times as large as those of the elephant. first introduced into these regions by the Spanish colo Among the larger wild animals is the bison, which is nists. The most remarkable plant, however, in these seen in herds on the banks of the Mississippi. The musk districts, is the great magnolia, which sometimes rises bull and cow are only to be found in the more western above 100 feet, with a trunk perfectly erect, surmounted districts beyond that river. The moose-deer, a large by a dark-green foliage, of a conical shape. From the species of elk, is now become scarce, and it is thought centre of the cone expands a large rose-shaped blossom will soon be extinct. The useful rein-deer inhabits the of pure white, which is succeeded by a crimson cone, northern regions of British America. The stag resemcontaining the seeds, of a beautiful coral colour, and bles the same animal in Europe, but is larger. It is these, falling from their cells, remain for several days seen in herds, along with the Virginian deer, on the suspended from the seed-vessel, by a silky thread of plains adjacent to the Missouri and Mississippi. The about six inches in length : so that, whether viewed in lama is a valuable beast of burden, capable of carrying this state or in blossom, it exhibits a richness of colour a load of 150 or 200 weight; but its pace is very slow, ing and beauty of form surpassed by no other plant. and it is incapable of proceeding more than about fif

The swamps are distinguished by the crowded stems teen miles in a day. The most rugged and precipitous of the cane, some of them from twenty to thirty feet in paths are descended by this animal without any comheight; the tupelo-tree, a species of nyssa aquatica; parative difficulty. The paco, or vicunna, is valued the fringe-tree, and the elegant white cedar. “ This chiefly on account of its wool, which is warm, while it last,” says Mr. Pinkerton, “ is perhaps the most pic- is light and silky, and of the colour of a dried rose-leaf. turesque tree in all America : four or five enormous Both the lama and the vicunna inhabit principally the buttresses or rude pillars rise from the ground, and cold mountainous regions. Two species of bears, both unite in a kind of arch, at the height of about seven of them black, are found in the northern United States; feet, and from this centre there springs a straight the carnivorous ranging bear and the wolf are to be column, 80 or 90 feet high, without a branch : it then seen in all the states. Captains Lewis and Clarke fredivides into a flat umbrella-shaped top, covered with quently encountered the white or brown bear in the finely-divided leaves of the most delicate green. This N. W. interior, an animal of a most ferocious descripplatform is the secure abode of the eagle and the crane; tion; they also saw herds of antelopes, buffaloes, and and the oily seeds contained in its cones are the fa- wolves. There are several kinds of foxes, as the gay vourite repast of the paroquets that are constantly fox, the fox of Virginia. The wolverine is generally fluttering around."

thought to be a species of bear. The ferocious animals The level plains, on the sides of the rivers and the of America are essentially different from those of the champaign countries in America, are called savannahs. other continents. There are no lions, tigers, panthers, The trees which grow upon their surface are of the or leopards throughout its whole extent; though the aquatic genus, as the magnolia glauca, or beaver-tree, cougar, an animal about five feet in length, found in the American olive, and gordonia lasianthus, covered with southern states, has been called the tiger of America. blossoms; the candleberry myrtle, with various species The catamount, or cat of the mountains, is found in the of azaleas, kalmias, and rhododendrons, arranged into northern or middle states, and is also sometimes, accordgroves and shrubberies, entwined by the crimson gra- ing to Mr. Pennant, denominated the American panther. nadilla, and the luxuriant clitoria. The sides of the Of the cat kind, there exists a large number of smaller pools are covered with the bright azure flowers of the beasts of prey, as the lynx, ocelot, and margay, ixia, the golden blossoms of the canna lutea, and the which, with the beaver, are esteemed for the furs with rosy tufts of the hydrangia. The groves and the which they supply the hunters. The cell, or cabin forests which skirt the verdant savannahs are adorned of this useful creature is built in ponds for the sake by innumerable species of the phlox, by the sensitive of security; the animal itself seems to feed upon leaves plant, the dionæa, the amaryllis atamasco, and the and the twigs of trees, and not on fish, as is comroyal palmetto, in prodigious quantities.

monly reported. Its habits are imitated by the musk



H. AME- rat, who builds his hut in shallow streams. Monkies 3,000,000. According to a statement made in 1817, N. AMERICA. are said to be found in the southern states.

including the last census of the American government,

RICA. Birds.—Vultures, eagles, owls, hawks, kites, wood- the resident population of the United States alone is upraphi- peckers, cranes, herons, cuckoos, pelicans, teals, plovers, estimated at 10,405,547; and the entire population of Political

and Moral i details. abound; besides an immense number of other birds, the western hemisphere, at 40,000,000. The great

State. for which we have no nomenclature. The singing-birus rage for emigration which, within these few years past, of North America are inferior in the melody of their has infected the minds of Europeans, must, however, notes, but superior in the beauty of their plumage to put aside all certainty of conclusion respecting the those of Europe. The waken derives its name from actual population of this extensive continent. The alarming the birds near it on the approach of danger. stream of emigration is evidently towards the United The humming-bird, and a variety of others of great States; but many thousand persons sail annually from beauty abound in Virginia. The turkey, which was England and other countries to Canada. Within the introduced into Europe in the year 1524, is an ab year 1817 only, the population of the provinces of original of America, and abounds in the northern Upper and Lower Canada are said to have received an states. On the lakes are various kinds of aquatic fowl, accession of 5,000 individuals. of which the wild swan is the largest, sometimes weighing thirty-six pounds.

§ III. Political and Moral state of North America. REPTILES.- America, which contains many exten North America is politically divided into the terri- Political sive forests, and a considerable proportion of marshy tories of the United States, those of Great Britain division of

N. America. land, may be expected to abound in reptiles and in- and Spain, and a small portion of UNCONQUERED sects. Naturalists and travellers have given accounts COUNTRY. If Greenland be united with the continent, of serpents from twenty-five to fifty feet in length; Denmark must also be considered as one of the powers of which a species of the boa constricta is the largest. in possession of America. Next to this in importance, and more frequently found, The original and unconquered inhabitants are scatare the rattle-snake and the coral-snake, whose bite tered throughout the line of unexplored country to discharges a virulent poison. There are also various which we have already alluded ; and are more mixed species of lizards, crocodiles, tortoises, vipers, and with Europeans in the Spanish than in any other of adders.

the modern settlements. They are not supposed, as we ts. INSECTS.—Among the insects may be particularly have seen, to exceed in number above two millions and a

noticed the wheat-fly, called also the Hessian-fly, which half. Spain claims all the land W. of the Mississippi, and is very injurious to the species of corn from which it East and West Florida. By the treaty of 1783, between derives its appellation. The generally-received opinion the United States and Great Britain, it is stipulated of its having been imported from Europe does not seem that the latter shall occupy all that part of America well founded, since, in Giovanni's narrative of fifty which lies N. of the northern boundary of the United different insects that infest Italian wheat, this species is States and E. of the river St. Croix. By the same not specified. The yellow-bearded wheat of the United treaty, it is stipulated, that the boundaries of the States is said to be exempt from its destructive power. United States shall be from the N. W. angle of Beetles, flies, spiders, mosquitoes, hornets, &c. are Nova Scotia, viz. that angle which is formed by a line almost numberless.

drawn due N. from the source of St. Croix river to the Fish.—The American coasts abound in fish of all highlands ; along those highlands, which divide the kinds and sizes, from the ponderous whale to the rivers emptying themselves into the river St. Lawrence minute minnow; there exists also, in the seas of from those which fall into the Atlantic ocean, to the America, that extraordinary animal the torporific eel, north-westernmost head of Connecticut river; thence which, if it be touched with an iron rod, or with the down, along the middle of that river, to the forty-fifth hand, gives a violent sensation resembling the electric degree of N. latitude; and thence, by a line due W. on shock. The ink-fish is a great curiosity; it is furnished the same latitude, until it strikes the river Iroquois, or with a cyst of black liquor, which may be reckoned a Cateraquy; thence, along the middle of that river, into tolerable substitute for ink. When pursued by its lake Ontario; through the middle of that lake, until it enemies it emits this liquid, and darkens the water strikes the communication by water between that lake with it to such a degree as to render it difficult, if and lake Erie; thence, along the middle of this comnot impossible, for its pursuer to follow. The white munication in lake Erie, through the middle of the trout, which is caught in the lakes, is remarkable. lake, until it arrives at the water communication beThe recent accounts of the sea-serpent which has been tween that lake and lake Huron; thence, through the seen off the coast of North America, are at present middle of the same lake, to the water communication too unauthenticated in their details to admit of any between that lake and lake Superior; thence, through classification of the animal. The fishing-banks, of lake Superior, northward of the isles Royal and which those of Newfoundland are the principal, will Phillipeaux, to the Long lake; thence, through the claim our notice in a subsequent part of this article, middle of the Long lake, and the water communi

POPULATION.–Various estimates of the population cation between it and the Lake of the woods, to this of the New World have been made by different writers: last-named lake itself; thence, through it, to the some assign to North America alone 12,500,000, and north-westernmost point thereof; and from thence, in 13,000,000 to South America; while others allow

a due course W. to the river Mississippi ; thence, by scarcely 15,000,000 to both continents. The native a line to be drawn along the middle of this river, until tribes, thinly scattered over an immense extent of terri- it shall intersect the northernmost part of the thirtytory, are considered, by Morse, to be about 2,500,000 first degree of N. latitude. South, by a line to be in number, and are supposed never to have exceeded drawn due E. from the determination of the line




N. AME- last-mentioned, in the latitude of thirty-one degrees

N. of the equator, to the middle of the river Apala-


RICA chicola, or Catahouche; thence, along the middle In 1788, the number of square acres in the United Political thereof, to its junction with the Flint river; thence States amounted to 283,800,000, of which only about Politica and Moral

straight to the head of St. Mary's river; and thence, 1,250,000 were cultivated ; and in 1808 to 600,000,000, and MA State.

down along the middle of St. Mary's river, to the of which about 2,500,000 were in a high state of cul-
Atlantic ocean. East, by a line to be drawn along the tivation. At the present time, the American writers esti l'aving
middle of the river St. Croix, from its mouth, in the mate them at the enormous increase of 1,600,000,000 Series
bay of Fundy, to its source; and, from its source, di acres. Of this it can only be remarked, that the accession
rectly N. to the aforesaid highlands, which divide of Louisiana and the lands cleared westward hardly
the rivers that fall into the Atlantic ocean from those account for so vast an addition of territory.
which fall into the river St. Lawrence; comprehending POPULATION.—The increase of the population during
all islands within twenty leagues of any part of the shore this period exceeds all preceding instances. In the
of the United States, and lying between lines to be year 1749, the whole white population of the North
drawn due E. from the points where the aforesaid American colonies, now the United States, amounted,
boundaries between Nova Scotia on the one part, and according to M. PITKIN (Statistical View of the Com-
East Florida on the other, shall respectively touch the merce, &c. of the United States, New York, 1817), only
bay of Fundy and the Atlantic ocean; excepting such to 1,046,000, in the following proportions :
islands as now are, or heretofore have been, within New Hampshire

the limits of the said province of Nova Scotia.


220,000 The United States are situated between 25°, 50', and Rhode Island

35,000 49°, 37' N. lat. and between 10° E. and 48°, 20' W. lon. Connecticut

100,000 from Washington. The most northern part is bound New York

100,000 ed by a line running due W. from the N. W. corner The Jerseys

60,000 of the Lake of the woods, and the southern extremity Pennsylvania and Delaware

250,000 is the outlet of the Rio del Norte. The eastern ex Maryland

85,000 tremity is the Great Menan island, on the coast of Virginia.

85,000 Maine, and the western extremity is cape Flattery, N. North Carolina

45,000 of Columbia river, on the Pacific ocean. Their greatest South Carolina

30,000 extent, from N. to S. is 1,700 miles, and from E. to Georgia ...

6,000 W.2,700. Their surface covers more than 2,500,000

1,046,000 square miles, or 1,600,000,000 acres.

The following table will show the increase of population which has taken place within twenty-seven recent years :

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New Hampshire
Maine ·
Rhode Island .
New York.
New Jersey
North Carolina
South Carolina .
Georgia . .
Western Territories .
District of Columbia .
Indiana .
Illinois Territory
Michigan ditto
Missouri ditto.

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and Moral



PHYSICAL CAPACITY.-Although it will not accord The Americans possess an insatiate thirst after com- N. AME: RICA. with our plan to give, in this place, any minute details mercial speculation. The merchants of this contineut RICA.

of each particular state of the American Union, the fol carry on trade with almost all parts of the globe ; but Political lowing facts, bearing upon the general physical powers the great bulk of their mercantile transactions abroad Political und Moral of the country, are too important to be overlooked. is with Great Britain. France possesses also a conState.

The state of New York is 10,000 square miles larger siderable share in the commerce of America. They l'nited than all England and Wales. The harbour of New York trade also considerably to Spain, Portugal, and Hol United States. is a roadstead capable of containing all the navies of land, and to the various ports of the Baltic and the Stutcs. hiscal the world. Baltimore now contains 60,000 souls, Mediterranean. Their trade to the East Indies has gracily. . much wealth, and increasing commerce, whereas fifty greatly increased within the last few years. years ago no such place existed.

The United States export about one-fourth of their General Kentucky, in 1770, contained not a single white agricultural produce, which consists of wheat, flour, reinarks. inhabitant; but in 1790 there were 73,677 white rice, Indian corn, rye, beans, peas, potatoes, beef, people; in 1800 there were 220,960 inhabitants; and tallow, hides, butter, cheese, pork, &c.; horses, mules, in 1817 nearly 700,000.

sheep, tobacco, cotton, indigo, flax-seed, wax, &c. New Orleans was, in 1783, nothing but a small colony. The following is the amount in value of exports, of smuggling Spaniards; but in 1817 it reckoned nearly during eight successive years, consisting of vegetable 40,000 inhabitants; and the internal trade to and from food only: this port exceeded that of all the New England states

In 1802, $12,790,000 In 1811, $20,391,000€ together; 600 flat-bottomed boats and 300 barges, in

1803, 14,080,000

2,179,000 1816, navigated the Mississippi in this direction, with

1807, 14,432,000 1815, 11,234,000 produce from the western states.

1808, 2,550,000 1816, 13,150,000. It appears that the whole of the population of the United States has been doubled during the last twenty Their imports embrace every European article of five years; and it is asserted that the same causes are utility and amusement, and every luxury of the east. continuing to operate, and will undoubtedly again pro As the rivers of the United States are more nume. duce a similar effect in the next quarter of a century. rous, they are also much more navigable than those of This immense increase of numerical power has been Europe. T'he Hudson, or North river is navigable above repeatedly and triumphantly pressed upon us by the 200 miles from the sea. Above all, the Mississippi is Americans as a proof of the comparative unimportance navigable E. and W. about 1,700 miles in a straight of the Old World, and as the fearful means before line; and in its northern to its southern extreme points, which all her Trans-atlantic possessions, and perhaps 1,680 miles. This river and its branches spread over the independence of many of the countries of Europe a surface of about 1,500,000 square miles, through must eventually fall. Some circumstances, however, the territories of Mississippi, Missouri, North-West, which will afterwards present themselves in the course and Illinois; and the states Indiana, Ohio, New York, of our account of the government, and of the political Pennsylvania, Maryland, Virginia, the two Carolinas, and moral state of this country, will serve to show Georgia, Kentucky, Tennessee, and Louisiana. that extent of empire is not always indicative of pro Several mighty plans are in agitation, which, if Projects. portional strength, and that mere numbers, without executed, will wonderfully accelerate the internal com political and moral bonds of union, are likely to act munications and trade of the country. It is proposed without combination, without order, and therefore to form canals and great roads from N. to S. along the without effect.

whole Atlantic shore. To cut a communication between The late political convulsions throughout Europe the Atlantic and western waters, and between the will certainly account for some part of the increase Atlantic waters and those of the great lakes and the of American population; but the main causes are, river St. Lawrence; and to make interior canals as they doubtless, the immense extent of yet uncleared coun may be wanted. The especial use of these works will try; the high price of wages; the great demand for appear from considering that the United States have a labour; the quantity and the proportionate cheapness tidewater inland navigation, defended from storms, &c. of the land; the smallness of the public debt, and reaching from Massachusetts to the S. of Georgia, consequently of the taxes; to which may be added the through the extent of which only four small isthmusses cheapness of provisions.

intervene, viz. the isthmus of Barnstable in MassaBristed says * that the United States are much less chusetts; that peninsula of New Jersey which extends indebted for the increase of their population to the from the Raritan to the Delaware ; that between the emigrants from other countries than is usually sup- Delaware and the Chesapeake, and the marshy land posed; for that 5,000 persons, during the last twenty- which divides the Chesapeake from Albemarle sound. five years, may be taken as the annual average of the In February, 1817, the house of representatives and emigrants who arrived on their shores; and full half of senate in congress passed a bill to raise a fund for inthat number have re-emigrated to Canada.

ternal improvement. The more immediate object of The average of births to the deaths in the United this fund is to complete the communication from Maine States, is as 100 to forty-eight. The annual average of to Louisiana; to connect the lakes with the river Huddeaths about one in forty persons; and in the most un son, and all the other great commercial points on the healthy districts one in thirty-five. About five in every Atlantic, such as Philadelphia, Baltimore, Washington, thousand attain the ages of eighty to ninety years; Richmond, Charlestown, and Savannah, with the whereas in Europe there are only three to a thousand.. western states; and the W. with New Orleans. This

bill, however, has not as yet received the sanction of • View of America and her Resources, 405, &c. a law, for Mr. Maddison, the president, refused his

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