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ALBINO. mate, and existing in every different stage and mode 1707. Nicholson's Journal, v, xix. p. 81. SOEMMER- ALBIXO.
of cultivation. It would, therefore, be contrary to all ING, Icones Oculi Humani, p. 6. SAUSSURE, Voyages ALBION. analogy, if we did not discover, in the numerous tribes dans les Alpes, .c. xlvii. DAPPER, Description de
of men, at least as many and as important diversities l'Afrique, fol. Amstel. 1686, p. 332, LIONEL WAFER'S as those which we observe in the inferior species. See Account of the Isthmus of America, 1704, p. 106-10. PRICHARD's Researches, p. 17. Philos. Trans. 1706,
ALBINTIMELIUM, or ALBIUM INTEMELIUM, in The inhabitants appeared to be but few in number; Ancient Geography, a town in Liguria, now Venti- but those whom they saw were, in general, more clean miglia, in the state of Genoa. N. lat. 43°, 48'. E. lon. in their persons than most other natives of these shores. 70, 33'.
Still, however, they are raised but a very small degree ALBIOCE, or ALIBECE, in Ancient Geography, a from the most depraved and uncultivated tribes of town of Gaul (now Riez, in Provence), sometimes called savages. They wear various kinds of dresses of skins Reii Apollinares, from their worship of Apollo, and and woollen, and some which are curiously manufacsometimes Civitas Reiensium. Cæsar calls the people tured from the bark of trees. Their instruments of Albici.
hunting and of warfare consist of spears, arrows, and ALBION, in Ancient Geography, a name given to other missiles. Their houses are described as exthe island of Great Britain by Ptolemy, Agathemurus, tremely ill constructed of sticks, with matting thrown &c. as containing England, Scotland, and Wales. It gver them. is of very uncertain etymology. The Hebrew alben ALBIREO, a star in the constellation Cygnus, of (white), the Phænician alp, or alpin (high), and the the third magnitude, and marked B by Bayer. Greek alpov (white), have each been said to furnish ALBIS, the ancient name of the river Elbe, which its origin, from the lofty appearance of the white cliffs flows through Germany northward into the German on the southern shores of the island. Some, however, ocean. The part of the country where it rose was have derived it from king Albion, a fabulous son of formerly inhabited by the Hermunduri. Very little Neptune, who is said to have settled here, and to have was known by the Romans of the country beyond this first practised astrology and the art of ship-building. river. Tacitus, Germ. c. xii.
Albion, New. This name is now given to an ex ALBOGALERUS, or GALERUS, in Roman Antensive tract of land on the north-west coast of Ame- tiquity, a sacerdotal cap, or ornament, worn by the rica. It was originally applied by Sir Francis Drake to famen dialis, or priests of Jupiter. the whole of California, but is now chiefly confined to ALBOR, a well-built town, giving the title of county, that part of the coast which extends between the 43d in the province of Algarva, on the coast of Portugal, and 48th degrees of N. latitude. On the morning of about three miles E. of Lagos. the 7th of March, 1778, Captain Cook discovered this ALBOR, one of the Bahama islands in the North long-looked for shore, extending from the north-east Atlantic ocean. It lies between the islands of Neque to south-east. The land was observed to be " di- and St. Salvador. versified with a great many rising grounds and small ALBORAN, a small island, situate in the Mediter hills; many of which were entirely covered with tall, ranean, nearly in the middle sea, between Capo de, straight trees, and others which were lower, and grew Gata on the Spanish shore, and Cape de Tres Forcas in spots like coppices; but the interspaces, and sides on that of Africa. Also an island near Melilla, on the of many of the rising grounds, were clear.” In the year coast of the kingdom of Fez, in Africa. W. lon. 20,32'. 1792, Vancouver visited this coast, and made a very. Ņ. lat. 36o. diligent inspection of all its parts. His account of this ALBORAX, in Mahometan Theology, the beast country is very interesting. The shore he describes as which is said to have carried the prophet on his jourformed, for the greater part, by nearly perpendicularnies into heaven. It seems uncertain whether this cliffs; the interior of the country exhibiting a pleasing animal were an ass or a mule, or some non-descript diversity of hill and dale, and adorned with an abun- between both. dance of tall forest trees. The open spots are clothed ALBOURN, a town and parish of England, in the with luxuriant herbage. The finest prospects are stated middle of Wiltshire, about seven miles from Marlto abound in those parts lying nearest the sea-coast borough. A trade of no small extent was carried on They discovered some pretty extensive forests of paplar, here formerly in the manufacture of fustian ; but, in arbor-vitæ, common yew, black and white common 1760, it was reduced very considerably by fire. The dwarf oak, American ash, common hazel, sycamore, town stands on a small river, which runs into the maple, oriental astintus, American alder, common wil- Kennet, and its present population amounts to about low, Canadian alder, small fruited cub, and Pennsyl- 1300 persons. : vanian cherry-trees. Near the outer borders of the ALBUCA, in Botany, a genus of plants, of the class forests on the coast, and all along the shore, aquatic Hexandria, order Monogynia. and other birds were seen in abundanee; but it does ALBUERA, a river' of Spain, running into the not appear that the quadrupeds of this country are very Guadiana, on the banks of which, in the road from numerous; at least Vancouver did not see many, Seville to Olivença, iş a village of the same name. though he was shown by the natives the skins of almost Here was fought, 16th March, 1811, one of the most every kind of animal common to the western coast of important battles of the late peninsular war, between, this continent.
Marshal Beresford, commanding the allied British,
AL Spanish, and Portuguese troops, amounting to 27,000 ALBUQUERQUE, a town and strong castle of AJ.Br. BUERA. infantry, and 2000 cavalry, and the French, under Spain, in the province of Estramadura, on the frontiers QUER
Marshal Soult, of 20,000 infantry, and 3000 cavalry. of Portugal. This is the sole property of the count of QUE ALBU.
ALBUFEIRA, a' sea-port town of Portugal, in the Ledesma. It is about 20 miles from Badajoz. There NEA.
ried on here, and the number of inhabitants is stated
That, saith Aristotle, which is not watery and unprolifical will not ALBUQUERQUE, SANTA ROSA DE, a village of New
Browne's Vulgar Errours. Colotlan are paid.
matter which afterwards becomes wood when indu-
abounds in growing trees, and a young oak of six inches ALBUM, in Ancient Geography, a promontory of diameter contains as much of it as of hard wood. Some Africa, in the Straits of Gibraltar, situated near the city have called it adeps arborum, the fat of trees; more comof Tangiers, being the extreme western point of the monly it is called sap. Mediterranean Sea, on the African side. It is now ALBURNUS, in Ancient Geography, a lofty mouncalled Cape Espartel. Plin. I. iii. c. 1. It seems totain of Lucania, near Pæstum, mentioned by VIRGIL, be the same promontory that is noticed by MELA, I. i. Georg. i. c. 5, and Plin. I. v. sec. 1, under the name of Am ALBUS, in commerce, a coin of small size and value, pelusia.
current in some countries of the Lower Rhine, Cologne, ALBUM, in Antiquity, a white table book, often &c. Its value is about a halfpenny English. inentioned in Roman authors, in which the prætors ALBY, or ALDBY, a village in the county of York, had their edicts written and exhibited to the public. about seven or eight miles from the city of that name T'here was also an Album Senatorium, in which the It is a Saxon term, signifying old habitation; and has names of the senators were written. Tacitus, Ann. 1. iv. been supposed, by Drake, in his Eboracum, to have been c. 42; where it is related that the name of Apidius a Roman villa, erected for the residence of the prefect Merula was struck off the list for some misdemeanour. of the detachment constantly stationed at Derventio, An album was also used for the names of the judices, as an out-post, or guard, to the city of York. Camden, or jurymen. Sueton. Claud, c. xvi.
however, asserts, that this village of Aldby, is the site ALBUMEN, ALBUMENA, in Physiology (albus, white), of Derventio, the first Roman station from York; but one of the radical parts of animal substances, which re- Drake, with greater probability, places Derventio al ceived its name from being first noticed in the eggs of Stamford-bridge, about 24 miles further to the south. birds, where it forms “the white.” Fourcroy also dis- Both these places are situated on the Derwent. Aldby covered a similar substance in vegetables.
is said afterwards to have become a palace of the The animal albumen exists, in its most perfect state, Northumbrian kings, and to have been the place where in the whites of eggs and in the serum of the blood. the life of Edwin was attempted by an assassin. It is It is a viscous fluid, soluble in water at the common at present an insignificant village, and merits notice only temperature, and coagulating when exposed to a heat from the facts above stated. above 134o Fahr. and then it is no longer soluble in
ALCA, in Ornithology, the auk, and razor-bill, a water. The vitreous and crystalline humours of the eye, and the liquor that fills the abdomen in dropsy, of the family Brachypteres; but according to Latham,
genus of the Linnæan system, in the order Anseres, and
of the order Palmipedes.
ALCÆUS, in Mythology, the grandfather of Her-
a second iambic, a long syllable, a dactyl, and a ALBUNEA, in Ancient Geography, a wood on the second dactyl. Thus, river Anio, near Tibur, sacred to the Muses, and de
Vides, ut altà stet nive candidum riving its name from the sibyl Albunea, to whom a
Soracte, nec jam sustineant onus temple was erected at Tibur, the ruins of which yet
Sylvæ laborantes, geluque remain. The ALBUNEA Fons was a name given to
Flumina constiterint acuto?
order of Calatrava. There still remain traces of its ALCANIS.
ALCARICANIS. and in like manner the second line. The third line water through forty-two pipes, and gardens of some
RAZAS. thus :
splendour, and beauty. A strong fort defends the town. Sölva í labo | rântés | gělū 1 que;
ALCANNA, in Commerce, a drug much used in which is an iambic Archilochian dimeter to complete dyeing, and originally from Egypt and the Levant. It is the stanza. The fourth line exhibits the second sort of made of the leaves of a plant called Ligustrium ÆgypAlcaics, composed of two dactyls and two trochees : tium, or the Egyptian privet. The colours drawn from Flumină | constítě | rint a 1 cūto?
it are either red or yellow, from which the women of There is, beside these two principal species, which Cairo give their nails, &c. a golden linge. are sometimes called dactylic alcaics, a third kind, ALCANTARA (the Norba Cæsarea of Ancient Geowhich are called simple alcaics, consisting of an epitrite, graphy), a small, but strong town in the province of two choriambuses, and a bacchius.
Estremadura, in Spain, on the Portuguese frontier. It The Alcaic Ode generally contains four strophes, stands on a rock, in a strong natural situation, which, each of which has four verses; the first two are alcaic together with its fortifications, renders it a town of verses of the first dactylic kind; the third consists of considerable military importance. The Tagus runs four iambic feet with a long syllable; the fourth is an through it, over which is a stone bridge of six arches, alcaic verse of the second dactylic kind.
said, by an inscription over one of them, to have been ALCAID, Alcalde, or Alcayd, is a title given built by the Emperor Trajan. Near the entrance of to an officer of justice of considerable importance this bridge is an excavation, hewn out of the solid amongst the Moors, Spaniards, and Portuguese. The rock by the pagans, but since converted into a chapel. word comes from the Arabic kad, to govern. The The words al cantara signify the bridge, and thence the office in Spain and Portugal somewhat resembles that town takes its name. It has some trade in cloth and of our justice of peace in England.
wool, and contains 3,000 inhabitants. It is 45 miles ALCALA DE GISVERT, or Xibert, a small town from Madrid, and 125 from Seville. W. lon. 7°, 12'. of Valentia, in Spain. It lies 15 miles from Murviedro, N. lat. 39°, 30'. and its population is about 3,600 persons.
ALCANTARA, or ALCANTARILLA, a town in the ALCALÁ DE HENAREZ, an ancient town of Spain, province of Seville, in Spain, situate not far from the in the province of Toledo, about 15 miles from Madrid. Guadalquiver, and 14 miles from Seville. In this This was at one time a very flourishing place, but is town there is also a Roman bridge, which was formerly now greatly reduced. The munificent cardinal shut at each end by a gate, and fortified by a' tower. Ximenes, archbishop of Toledo, to whom Alcala be ALCANTARA, a town in the province of Maranham, longed, founded an university here about the close of in the bay of St. Marcos, in the kingdom of Brazil. the fifteenth century; a most stupendons establishment. Cotton plantations abound in the neighbourhood. The building was finished in eight years. Forty-six There is a handsome quay, opening upon the harbour, professorships were endowed, and the cardinal, at his around which the town stands, on a semicircular death, left a settled revenue of 14,000 ducats per eminence. annum, to the university. Here also he established a ALCANTARA, a considerable river of the kingdom printing press, from which, in 1522, issued the cele- of Sicily, which takes its rise on the north side of brated edition of the Holy Scriptures, called the Com- Mount Ætna, and runs round the bottom of the mounplutensian Polyglot, from Complutum, the ancient name tain for about 60 miles. Its waters bear that whitish of this town.
It was the first Polyglot Bible ever tinge which is generally seen in rivers flowing printed, and is said to have cost him an immense sum. from the glaciers of the Alps, and it is supposed, A physician of this town had the honour of correcting by Brydone, that the snows of Ætna form this river. the Hebrew text. But the university buildings, which The current is at some places so rapid and strong, are scattered in various parts of the town, are now fast as to have worn away the bed of lava, which not ungoing to decay. Ximenes was buried in the university frequently interrupts its course. church; besides which there are three parish churches, ALCANTARA, KNIGHTS of, in Chivalry, a celebrated and several religious houses, and hospitals. The inhabi- and very ancient order of knighthood, in Spain. Fertants amount to about 5,000.
dinand and Isabella settled the sovereign of the order, ALCALA LA Real, a small city of Andalusia, in in conjunction with the grand master of the knights Spain. It is situated on a considerable eminence, in of Calatrava, at Castile, on the expulsion of the Moors; the province of Jaen, about 27 miles from the town of against whom they obtained those successes that that name. It is chiefly remarkable for a rich abbey, principally occupy their history. They possess thirtyfounded here at an early period. The population seven commanderies, and are distinguished by wearing amounts to nearly 9,000 inhabitants.
a cross fluer-de-lis, of green, over a large white cloak. ALCALI, in Chemistry. See ALKALI.
ALCARAZ, a town in the province of La Mancha, in ALCAMO, a small town and county of Sicily, situ- the kingdom of Spain. It stands on a mountain also ate in the Val di Mazzura, near the gulph of Castel-a- named Alcaraz, and in a fertile country, called Campo Mure, and on the direct road to Palermo, from which di Monteil, near the source of the Guadarmenia, conit lies about 25 miles S. W.
taining about 3,300 inhabitants, and is about 54 miles ALCANIS, or ALCANIZ, a town of the province of E. of Ciudad Real, 105 S. S. E. of Madrid. W. lon. 2°, Arragon, in the kingdom of Spain. It stands about 12 52'. N. lat. 38°, 56'. Also a village in Catalonia, on the miles from Caspe, and 46 S. E. of Saragossa, on the Arragonese frontier of Spain, two leagues from Lerida. river Guadalope. This town was once the Spanish ALCARRAZAS, in Pottery are porous vessels, forcapital of the Moors, and when re-taken by the merly made only in Spain, but lately introduced into Spaniards, it was constituted a commandery of the England for wine coolers, and now manufactured VOL. XVII.
In Spain they are used for the purpose of cool As the first sort of legislators attended to the different kinds of ALCI RAZAS. ing water for drinking. The liquid slowly oozes through citizens, and combined them into one commonwealth, the otlxers, the Mil the of these vessels, and collects in drops on
metaplıysical and alchemisticul legislators, have taken the direct conpores ALCHY
Burke's It'orks. MIZE.
the outside. In England, the bottle, or decanter of It was by the means of fantastical ideas and notions, that che. wine, is placed in them after they have been first sa mistry was turned into alchemy; astronomy into judicial astrology. turated with water, and the evaporation thus produced
Bolingbrohe's Essay on Human Knowledge. on the vessel effectually cools the wine within.
Time was, wlien I know not what mystical meanings were drawn,
by a certain cabalistic alchymy, froin the simplest expressions of ALCASSAR, or ALCAZAR, a city on the coast of holy writ.
Hursley's Sermons. Barbary, in the kingdom of Fez, in Africa, built in ALCHYMY, an occult science which would scarcely 1180. It was formerly a place of much trade, and a deserve more than a simple definition of the term, were governor resided there, but though it was taken by the it not for the extensive and injurious influence it has at Portuguese, in the middle of the fifteenth century, and certain periods obtained; so much so, as to induce se. continued long in the possession of that enterprising veral ancient states to enact severe laws against its people, it sunk into decay, and now lies in ruins. practice, particularly the Romans, who sent all preIt was near this place that the memorable battle was tenders to the art into exile. Our own country has not fought, in 1578, in which three sovereigns were slain, been deficient in imposing upon it legal restrictions. viz. the famous Sebastian, king of Portugal; Abde. It consists in a pretence to a sublime species of chemelech, king of Morocco; and Mahomet, the usurper. mistry, to transmute metals into gold, and particularly This city is also called by historians Alcassar Guiber, or to form the philosopher's stone, the universal medithe Great Castle. W. lon. 12°, 35'. N. lat. 35°, 15'. cine, or panacea, and universal solvent. The extraordi
ALCAVALA, in Spanish and Neapolitan Finance, a nary changes produced in bodies by means of chemical tax, or per centage on transferable property, imposed agents suggested to some of the ancients who have been every time it is sold, similarly to our auction duty. It dignified with the name of philosophers, the idea of transhas varied in these countries from 3 to 14 per cent.
muting the elements of which any substance in nature ALCE, in Ancient Geography, the town now called is composed into other elements, and hence of changing Alcazar, in Spain, mentioned by Livy as taken by even portions of inferior metals into those of a superior Gracchus.
quality and value. Alce, in Zoology, a species of the cervus, or stay, Aiming to sustain their credulity by the venerable commonly called the elk.
names of antiquity, the alchymists pretend that their ALCEA, in Botany, the hollyhock; class Monadel- art was known by Adam and by Noah, whose descendphia, and order Polyandria.
ants diffused it through the various countries of the ALCEDO, in Ornithology, the king-fisher; a genus earth, whither they were dispersed after the deluge. To of birds, in the Linnæan order of Picæ, and placed by the Egyptians they assign a very high degree of attainCuvier in the family of Tenuirostres, order Passeres. ment in this splendid knowledge, and they are said to
ALCESTER, or ALNCESTER, a town of Warwick- have communicated it to Pythagoras and other Greshire, in England, situated on the conflux of the two cian philosophers of eminence. In the fourth century, rivers Aln and Arrow. It is distant from Stratford on the attention of alchymists, of whom the Greek eccleAvon eight miles N. W. and 102 N. W. from London. siastics were the principal, seems to have been particu
ALCHEMILLA, in Botany, ladies mantle; of the larly turned to the formation of silver and gold; and class Tetrandria, order Monogynia. It is a powerful in consequence of the Mahometan conquests, the art astringent in hemorrhages, and takes its name from its spread more extensively, and acquired a greater inbeing a favourite drug of the ancient alchymists. fluence among persons of distinction. Having successAL'CHYMIZE, .
fully introduced mercurial preparations into medicine, AL'CHYMY, n.
the Arabian physicians cherished the notion of an uniALKYM'ISTRIE,
Perhaps from youa; a xeuw, versal remedy for all diseases, and the possibility of ALCIY M'ICAL,
to pour; for he (says Vossius) effecting the indefinite prolongation of human life; while
pours or mixes metals, changes them, and converts their decided patronage and support. After this period
men of great opulence and literary distinction gave it AL'CHYMIST,
the baser to a purer. ALCHYMIST'ICAL,
it seems to have declined, till, about the middle of the ALCHYMIST'ICALLY.
thirteenth century, it resumed its celebrity under the And whan this alkymistre saw his time,
auspices of Albert Magnus, Roger Bacon, and other Riseth up, sire preest, quod he, and stondeth by me; distinguished names : and it was confidently believed, And for I wote wel ingot have ye non,
not only that precious gems and metals might be proGoth, walketh forth, and bringeth a chalk ston. Chaucer. The Chanones Yemannes Tale, book ii.
duced by the discovery of the philosopher's stone, but - The discolouring cold
many profound mysteries, both of science and religion, Might alchymise their silver into gold.
developed. The belief in Alchymy, for several centuLovelace. Luc. Phars.
ries, became, in consequence of such an illustrious adTien of their session ended they bid cry With trumpets regal sound the grand result:
vocacy, almost universal ; and impostors, who preTowards the four winds four speedy cherubin
tended to sell the secret, multiplied to an extraordiPut to their mouths the sounding alchemy.
nary degree, and succeeded to a great extent in swindMilton. Paradise Lost, book ii.
ling the deluded populace..
'That branch of the alchymic art which aimed at the May to thy name a vulcanale say.
discovery of an universal medicine, was maintained, with Ben Jonson. Underwood. On Vulcan. great zeal and boldness, by Paracelsus, in the sixteenth The alchymistical cabalists, or cabalistical alchymists, have extracted the name, or number, whether you will, "out of the word century, who succeeded in healing many diseases Jebovah, after a strange manner.
which the imperfect science of the age deemed inLightfoot's Miscellaneous Works. curable. He did not hesitate to promise longevity to
ALCHT- his patients, which, however, proved most injurious to ever, it is due to this exploded science, to observe, that ALCHY
MIZE. BIILE. the interests of his pretended art; and although some by provoking inquiry into the secrets of nature, and into
reliance upon its virtue and efficacy lingered long in the various combinations of natural substances, it deve-
The writers on Alchymy generally adopted the most Cowanilles, and placed by the French botanists in the
Amsterdam. E. lon. 21°. N. lat. 52°, 38'.
Barbary and Egypt tinge their hair, and the edges of
dalquiver, in Spain. It is six miles N. of Carmona.
AL-CORAN, AL-KORAY,or the KORAN, the term by met, or Mahommed, and in which they place an implicit