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An exclamation of weariness, disappointment, sor- America, which rises in the Cherokee mountains, and ALATI row, compassion.
traverses, under various names, a tract of country of MANA For than he woll his hope reherse, some hundred miles in extent, till it empties itself into
ALATI As though his worlde were all forlore,
the Atlantic, by several mouths. The northern branch And saith, alas that I was bore
flows toward the heights of Darien, and enters the How shall I liue? how shall I do?
ocean between the Wolf and Sapelo islands. The For nowe fortune is thus
southern running between Broughton and M“ Intosh Gower, Con. A. book iv.
islands, is the principal branch, and is nearly 500 yards He loked on her vgly leper's face,
wide at the mouth.
ALATA CASTRA, in Ancient Geography, a military
station of the Romans in Britain, near the Æstuary of Chaucer. Complaint of Creseide, fol. 196. c. 3. Bodotria, and conjectured to be on the site of the city Allace, allace!
ALATE. See Late.
Sej. -What news from Agrippinas?
Pors. Faith, none. They all lock themselves up alate,
Or talk in character, I have not seene
A company so changed. Ben. Jonson. Sejanus, act ii.
ALAVA, one of the divisions of the province of clothed in purple, will be but an ape.
Hall, p. 119.
Biscay, in Spain. It is bounded on the south and
west, by old Castile, on the east, by Navarre, and on And strictly meditate the thankless muse?
the north, by Guipuscoa and Biscay Proper.
ALAUDA, in Ornithology, the lark. It belongs to
the order Passeres. See Zoology, Div. ii. But why alas, do mortal men in vain
ALAUNA, in Ancient Geography, a town of Britain, Of fortune, fate or providence complain?
belonging to the Damnii, and supposed to be situated God gives us what he knows our wants require,
near Falkirk, on the Roman wall. Others place it on And better things than those which we desire.
the site of Stirling. Also a town of Gaul.
ALAUNI, in Ancient Geography, the inhabitants of
a country to the north of the Palus Mæotis, situated No sense have they of ills to come,
on the river Tanais, now the Don. Plin. iv. 25. Nor care, beyond to-day.
Gray. Eton College. Prol. 1. iï. c. 5. ALASCANI, in Ecclesiastical History, a sect of ALAUSI, a district of South America, in the kingAnti-Lutherans, who derived their name from their dom of Quito. It is very mountainous, but nevertheless leader, John Alasco, a noble Pole. Banished from his yields abundance of fruit and grain of almost every own country, and from Germany, he took refuge with kind. The capital, which has the same name, has a his friends in England, under Edward VI., who granted good parish church, and a Franciscan convent. It has them the use of the church of the Augustine friars, in also'manufactures of cloths, baizes, and cotton goods. London. In the reign of Mary they were again driven N. lat. 2°, 12'. W. lon. 78°, 39'. There is a river of abroad, and sunk into obscurity on the death of their this name also in the kingdom of Quito, which empties founder. They held that baptism was no longer neces- itself into the bay of Guayaquil. sary in the church, and that the words, “ This is my ALAY; in the Turkish language, signifies a triumph, body,” in the institution of the Eucharist, embraced the and is particularly applied to a ceremony resembling entire celebration of the sacred supper.
a masquerade, with which the inhabitants of ConstanALASCHA, or ALASKA, a peninsula on the north- tinople amuse themselves at the opening of a war. west coast of North America, formed by the Bristol The people first walk in the dresses, and with the bay and the ocean on the north-west and north, and respective instruments, of their several trades; then by the ocean and the Cook's river on the south and the holy standard of Mahomet is brought from the south-east. A number of islands at its extremity, seraglio, and carried in great state through the city, form part of a cluster called the northern Archipelago. attended by these motley groupes. An emir precedes N. lat. 55o, 30' to 58o. W. lon. 159° to 162o.
this standard, who proclaims with a loud voice, that no ALASEY MOUNTAINS, a ridge of high hills, in infidel must dare to approach, or even to look upon it; Asiatic Russia, between the sources of the rivers and enjoins every true Mussulman to give notice, Omecon and Kovima, ending on the shores of the should he perceive one. This ceremony was accidentFrozen ocean.
ally witnessed by Baron Tott; and many Christians of ALASS STRAIT, a channel 48 miles long, and, in all ages were sacrificed to the brutal fury of the popuits narrowest part, about 6 wide, in the Eastern sea, lace on the occasion. between the islands of Lomboc and Sumbawa. There ALAYA, a town situated on the eastern side of the are some small towns and villages on both sides of its gulph of Adalia, on the south coast of Asia Minor, banks.
commonly called Karamania. Its general aspect corALATA, a village on the Abyssinian Nile, near its responds exactly with the description which Strabo has source; Mr. Bruce describes a cataract which occurs given of Coracesium, the first town of Cilicia-Aspera, in the river, near this place, as extremely beautiful and where the ridges of Mount Taurus descend in their grand. It is 35 miles S. S. W. of Gondar.
rugged sterility to the shore, showing the commenceALATAMAHA, a navigable river of Georgia, in North ment of that coast. Coracesium was the only place
ALAVA. that shut its gates against Antiocbus, after the sub ALB, a river of Germany, which falls into the mission of every other fortress in Cilicia, according to Rhine, about two leagues W.N.W. of Durlash.
ALBI ALB. the testimony of Livy; and Plutarch, in his Life of Alb, in Commerce, a smail Turkish coin; also
NENESES. Pompey, mentions that it was subsequently chosen by called Asper, and equal to about?d English. the pirates, as a proper point of final resistance to the ALBA, a town of Italy, in Piedmont, on the river conquering Romans ; for which, indeed, its nearly in- Tanaro; the Alba POMPEIA of the Romans, which see. sular character eminently qualified it.
Its inhabitants are now reckoned at 9,600; it is a bishop's Alaya is the capital of a pashalik, although its pre- see, and there are, besides the cathedral, three parislu sent importance is by no means considerable. The churches, and several religious houses for both sexes. streets and houses are all described as wearing the It is about 18 miles from Turin; and gives the name of appearance of wretchedness. It has but few mosques, Albesano to the surrounding district. and these sufficiently mean. The population may be ALBA Firma, in ancient Law, quit rents which estimated at between fifteen hundred and two thou were reserved to the crown by payment of silver or sand. It has no commerce. The situation of Alaya, white money, as contradistinguished from rents payable however, is somewhat romantic, its promontory form- in work, grain, or military service. They were also ing a natural fortress, on which are the decayed indi- called white rents, blanch farms, and reditus albi. cations of a once anxious solicitude to render it im ALBA FUCENSIS, in Ancient Geography, a city of pregnable, by means of walls and towers. There are the Marsi, in Italy, now called Albi. "It was called some remains on the hill of that species of wall; which Fucensis, to distinguish it from the other Italian citics has obtained the name of Cyclopian, and a few broken of the name of Alba, and the inhabitants Albenses, columns, which time has spared as marks and vestiges from a similar reason. Standing in the heart of a of antiquity, but without any Greek inscriptions. Over mountainous district, it was principally used by the the land-gate is an Arabic inscription, importing that Romans as a state prison, and surrounded by fortificathe place had been subdued by Aladin the conqueror. tions, of which remains yet exist; as well as those of It is surmounted by a small Corinthian capital, with an amphitheatre and temple. some well-carved heads, with wings and wreaths of ALBA LONGA, in Ancient Geography, a city of flowers.
Latium, in Italy, built by Ascanius, after Lavinium had The promontory is separated from the neighbouring stood thirty years, on the Mons Albanus (afterwards so mountains by a broad plain and a low sandy isthmus, called from the city); and on the spot where a white from which it rises abruptly. The town is placed on sow, with a litter of thirty young ones, of the same the eastern side, and the ascent is so steep, that the colour, was found, as foretold to AEneas, Virg. Æn, houses appear to rest upon each other. The cliffs of l. viii, v. 43, and 83. Aurel. Vict. c. 19. Livy, l. i. Alaya are five or six hundred feet in elevation above c. 3. only says, that the population of Lavinium bethe level of the sea, and continue below it to the depth coming too great for it, Ascanius founded Alba Longa, of sixty or seventy feet. They consist of a compact and removed the people thither ; the city continued to white limestone, tinged by a red drip on the outside, be the capital of the kingdom for three centuries, but and present a most magnificent appearance. The Rome eclipsed its glory, and Tullus Hostilius destroyed brown schistus base rises up from beneath the limestone it entirely, B. c. 666, and transferred its inhabitants on the northern side of the promontory. On the top to Rome, which Livy has beautifully described, l. i. of a high conical hill, about the distance of three miles c. 29. But the temple, which was in a grove on the north-west of Alaya, and two miles from the coast, mountain, and in which Jupiter was worshipped, was are found the deserted remains of an ancient town, spared. STRABO, 1. v. Cicero, Orat. pro Milene, once surrounded with walls, and now presenting the c. 31. The Mons Albanus, in later ages, became ruins of a handsome temple; on the broken sculpture celebrated for the palaces and villas erected on it; of which are to be seen many Greek inscriptions, which, among which was a very magnificent one belonging to upon examination, have been found to be all monu- Pompey. Cicero, Ibid. See ALBANUS. mental.
Alba Pompeia, in Ancient Geography, a town of The bay of Alaya is open to southerly winds. There Liguria, on a small river called the Ceba. From is no harbour or pier, and the anchorage is indifferent, the evidence of some inscriptions, it is supposed to although it cannot be doubted, that the colonists of have been a colony planted by Pompey, or to have ancient Greece provided some means of shelter for been settled by Scipio, and restored by him. The vessels, in a place once of such consequence, which a Roman emperor, Pertinax, is said to have been born better acquaintance with the spot might, in all proba- there; but Julius Capitolinus (in vita) assigns him a difbility, discover.
ferent birth-place. The town is now called Alba ALB, or ALBE, n. Lat. Albus, white. Applied to the simply. Plin. I. iii. c. 7. PTOLEMY, 1. iii. c. 1. white vestments of the sacerdotal order.
ALBACETE, anciently called Cetide, a small but of preste pow has no merke, albe ne non amite
busy town of Spain, in the province of Murcia, about Bot laced in a hauberke, pai is no clerkis abite.
80 miles from Valencia. There is a good trade here R. Brunne, p.
319. And Moses brought Aaron & hys sonnes and wasshed them with
in wine, saffron, corn, and oil. Its fair, or market, waler and put upon him an albe, & girded him wt a girdle,
held in September, has long been famous for cattle.
Bible, 1539. Lev. viii. ALBANA, in Ancient Geography, a port of Albania, Alb, or Albe, in the Romish church, a white gar- in Asia, formerly the capital of that kingdom. It was ment of the clergy, similar to the English surplice. situated on the shore of the Caspian sea, between the Anciently the newly baptised wore an alb on the Sun- rivers Cæsius and Albanus. It is now called Bachu; day after Easter, which was hence called dominica or, according to others, Nias-abad. in albis. See the extract above from the Bible, 1539. ALBANENESES. See ALBIGENSES.
A L B A N I A.
ALBANIA, in Ancient Geography, a province of of history, whose language and habits have retained ALBA 5:
Asia, bounded on the north by the Caucasian moun unusual traces of nationality. The Greek Illyricum and Albania in tains; on the east by the Caspian sea; on the south by the Roman Epirus (of which it now nearly occupies the History,
Armenia ; and on the west by Iberia. The district is site) were always stigmatized as barbarous, because now that of East Georgia, or Shirwan. It is watered unexplored and unconquered, regions. Thucydides by several rivers, of which the principal ancient names applies this epithet to the people on the coast of Epirus
, were the Cyrus, or Cyrnus, now the Kur, the Cambyses, opposite the island of Sybota; and Strabo states that the Albanus, the Cesius, the Gerrhus, and the Soana; the Epirotic tribes were mixed with the Illyrian, and it had also several cities mentioned in ancient writers, spoke two languages, probably their own vernacular viz. Teleba, Thalbis, Gelda, Thabilaca, Albana, and tongue and the Greek language, as the Albanians do Cabalica, which last is called, by Pliny, the capital. to this day. Polybius calls the Illyrians “the enemies Intezza The country is represented by Strabo, as being, in of all nations;" and Livy partly attributes the ferocious remoter times, divided into many principalities, speaking character of one of the four Roman divisions of Macenot less than twenty-six different languages; but the Aldonia to its contiguity to these people. In Epirus, and bani,overcoming the other tribes, became masters of the that part of Illyricum, afterwards called New Epirus, entire district. They established a regular succession neither the efforts of the Greeks nor of the Romans of kings, of whom we read occasionally in history, from toward civilizing the inhabitants, ever were so success. the time of Alexander the Great. Though defeated ful as in the interior of the continent; but the Aboriby Pompey, against whom they brought an army of gines of the country retained their mountains, their 60,000 foot and 12,000 horse, he was unable to possess manners, and those remnants of a distinct language, himself of the country. Adrian summoned the king which form the basis of the modern Albanian. Greek of Albania to Rome, to account for some of the depre- words and Latin words still more numerously, are mixed dations committed by his subjects on the neighbouring with this dialect, as well as a few of Gothic origin, provinces ; but he refused to obey; and when he after- but not more than obtain in all the other distinct lanwards attended the court of Antoninus Pius, he was guages of Europe; or than may be easily traced to treated with great respect and courtesy. Down to the the successive revolutions in their history. reign of Justinian II. they were governed by their own The earliest geographer who mentions the Albani of monarchs ; when, according to Zonaras, they were this district, is Ptolemy, and they appear in his time to finally subdued by the Roman arms. Valiant as they have been a small tribe of Illyrians, possessing the town were in war, the Albani are represented as having been of Albanopolis, of which we hear no more for many cenextremely fond of agriculture, and simple in their man turies. Then it is described (Anna Comnena, 1. xüi.ners. They were dexterous in all the sports of the field; Acropolita, c. 14, 25) as Albanon, Arbanon, or Elbanon, of fair complexion, and of a very robust and graceful a town which commands the passes “ leading from the appearance. The women are to this day proverbially country about Lychnidus to the maritime plains." Some beautiful.
writers have supposed this town to have been originally Albania in
ALBANIA, a province of European Turkey, called by named from some obscure connection with Alba, in European the Turks Arnaut, extends along the eastern coast of Italy, and a tradition of this kind exists in the country Turkey.
the Adriatic and Ionian seas, between the 39th and 43d itself. The situation and resources of this line of Ongad
Though Albania has frequently changed its name, districts, and one of them, named Sidismund, in alliance its masters, and its boundaries, a people have been with Theodoric the Great. During the eighth, ninth, embosomed in its mountains, from the earliest records and tenth centuries, Albania was the prey of the Scla
ALBA NZA. vonian tribes, and chiefly of those called Bulgarians. that event has effected many changes in their external ALBANIA. mln 870, Achris, or Ocreda (the ancient Lychnidus), was character, Christianity has always been professed, and Here in the sovereign residence of the Bulgarian kings, and an at present is said to number more votaries in this be dark archbishop's see. The same race took possession also district than Islamism. During the whole of this
of the ancient Nicopolis, and gradually of the whole period, therefore, the Porte has rarely been able to region. “ It was in these ages of Bulgarian prowess," enforce a more absolute obedience to its orders, than of says Major Leake (Researches in Greece, 4to. p. 240, 1), late years, when every provincial governor first esta** that the remains of the Illyrian and Epirotic nations, blishes his own influence over the country by force or fraud, became finally included within the boundaries which and then applies to Constantinople for his authority. they have ever since held. Many Sclavonian words The great divisions of modern Albania are inhabited Divisions then found their way into the Albanian language, and by the Ngege, the Toske, the Liape, and the Tzami. and tribes. have been increased in number by the intercourse be- The Ngege possess the northern district as far downtween Albania and the extensive regions of Servia and ward as Kavaia, and the ancient Genusus. Their chief Bulgaria, which surround it on the north and east, and towns are Dultzuni, Skodre, or Scutari; Ales, or Lesthroughout which the Bulgarian dialect of Sclavonia is sio, Durazzo, Tarane, and Dibre. The Toske occupy spoken. It may be thought surprising, perhaps, that the great plains of the Mizakie and Malakastra, which under these circumstances the proportion of Sclavonian extend from the hills of Dyrrhachium to Berat and words is not larger, and it may be considered, as a proof, Avlona, together with the mountains bordering on the that the strength of the Epirotic and Illyrian mountains, south side of those plains, as far as Lopesi, Tepelini, and the spirit of their inhabitants, were still equal, as and Klisara, all of which are situated on the ancient in the time of the Romans, to protect them from being Aous, now called Viosa. They also occupy the mouncompletely subdued.”
tains which stretch into Macedonia, as far as the disIn the year 1079 the Albanians, properly so called, first trict of Koretza. Their chief towns are Berat and begin to act an important part in history. They formed Elbasan (the ancient Albanopolis); the former being the one of the four divisions of the army of Nicephorus most important place in Albania, next to Skodre. The Basilaces, which was all collected from this neighbour- wild mountains between Toskeri and the sea coast form hood. The Roman kings of Sicily afterwards obtained the district of the Laipe ; it extends south to the plain settlements upon this coast; as did the Franks, and of Delvino. The Tzami inhabit all the region south other nations, in their alliance during the whole of the of the river Kalama, anciently called Thyamis, of which crusades. When the oriental empire was disinem- the present name of the tribe has been supposed to be bered, by the conquest of Constantinople, in 1204, a corruption; the country extends inland toward
Michael Angelus, an illegitimate relation of the imperial Ioannina, and is called Dai by the Albanians, TzamouPreciate family, established a Despotate in this district, em ria by the Greeks. The chief places are Suli (the Selli tibi Tix bracing Acarnania, Ætolia, and Epirus, and including of Strabo), Paramithia, Liuarati, Margarita, Parga, and
the towns of Ioannina, Arta, and Naupactus, which, Aghia.
Until the middle of the last century, Albania was Ali Pasha. celebrated chief, George Kastrioti (or Scanderberg), and divided into several independent pashaliks, and those of his family, delayed their subjugation for upwards of fifty Berat, Ioannina, and Delvino, possessed considerable miyears after the Porte had undisputed dominion over litary power. At this period (1751), the present Ali Pasha the rest of northern Greece, and well sustained the was born, at Tepelini, the chief town of one of these hereditary character of the Albanians for desperate petty governments, over which his father presided. His courage. Their last struggle was at the celebrated sife has been a series of successful brigandage; he first siege of Scodra, which still preserves its name (in 1478); entered into the service of the neighbouring pasha, at and which is perpetuated by a contemporary biographer Berat, married his daughter, and overthrew the pashaand eye-witness, Marinus Barletius. In this siege lik of loannina, which he made the centre of his future they were aided by the Venetians, who afterwards ob- operations. The pashalik of Arta soon after submitted tained some towns upon the coast, and established to his arms, and he was appointed by the Porte, themselves, in considerable strength, on the adjacent Derveni-Pasha of Romelia. This office, being that lonian islands. These circumstances tended to preserve of guardian of all the passes of the country, was the people of the mountainous districts from complete an invaluable step to his ambition. He was now(in 1798) subjugation, as well as from complete conversion to made a vizier, or a pasha of three tails (a title of the Ottoman faith; and, indeed, though Albania became, honour among the Turks, derived from the number of from the reign of Mahomet the Second, an acknow- horse-tails carried before their great officers in procesledged province of the Turkish dominions, and though sion); and his father-in-law being dead, he made no
ALBANIA. scruple of attacking his son, then pasha of Berat and several of the improvements of more cultivated na- ALPINE
Avlona, on a slight pretext of quarrel; this was followed tions; he has destroyed the numerous bands of robbers Progress of by the reduction of Prevesa, Vonitza, and Karlili, or Acar- who infested the peaceful inhabitants of the country; Improve Ali Pasha. nania. He was induced, however, to preserve the by his direction roads have been made, bridges con- nunta
pasha Ibrahim in authority, at Berat, for a short time, structed, and agricultural improvements attempted. and eontracted marriages with the family for his sons. This laudable spirit has added respect to the terror Still the mountains of Suli resisted his progress, and it inspired by his government; and even those who, out was not until a bloody contest of sixteen years, that he of the immediate reach of his power, can venture to could possess himself of the whole region over which express hatred of his tyranny, are obliged to allow that hc how presides. He has lately dethroned Ibrahim, Albania is more happy and prosperous under this and Mahomet, pasha of Delvino; and extended his domi- single and stern dominion, than when divided amoug nions into Macedonia, and to the frontiers of the numerous chieftains, and harrassed by incessant wars. ancient Attica. Albania comprehends all the western From this opinion, no deference to the principles part of his territory; and is that which is most valuable of despotism can be inferred. The experience of bisfrom its position and resourees, and where his domi- tory has proved that a single tyrant is less injurious to nion is mostly absolute and entire.
the happiness of a people, than tyranny divided among Present go
The terms on which the Albanian vizier holds his several; and the vizier of Albania has himself become government, in relation to Constantinople, may be un a despot, only by the annihilation of the many despois derstood from the preceding account of his character who preyed on that heretofore distracted and divided and progress. The Porte acknowledges his titles as country.” conferred by the sultan, and the vizier makes a formal The Albanian or Skipetaric, is not a written lan-Lain acknowledgment of the imperial authority by the re
guage. Sometimes, in the southern provinces, the Arts.com spectful reception of an annual firman from Constan- Greek characters have been used to represent Albanian tinople, to which he remits considerable sums in the words, but as the Greek itself is familiar to the edushape of a karach, or capitation-tax, as well as certain cated classes, it is generally used in writing. Major rents or imposts which he farms under the Turkish Leake has formed a grammar and vocabulary of the government. But in the internal government of Al- vernacular tongue, and Mr. Hobhouse, in the appendix bania the Turks have no interference whatever; nor in to his Travels in Albania, gives an abridgment of an Ali Pasha's alliances with foreign states, from which Albanian grammar, formed as early as the year 1716, he receives and sends agents regularly in his own by an Italian missionary, of the Propaganda Fide, at name. England, France, and Russia, generally keep Rome, named Da Lecce, to both of which we may refer a consul here, and the political information of the court the curious in philology, in further illustratiou of the of Ioannina is said to be superior to that of Constantinople history of a people who have undergone fewer changes itself. His army in war is about 30,000 men of all in habit and situation than perhaps any other European arms; though the inhabitants exaggerate
. it to double community. The chief peculiarity of Albanian utterance the amount. His naval power is inconsiderable. Dr. is the predominance of nasal sounds. Holland's description of the Vizier's government in 1813, Of the population of Albania various estimates bare will not be uninteresting to the reader, and may de- been given. The standing army of their great leader velope the character of a despot whose ambition has Scanderberg consisted of 8000" horse and 7000 foot; hitherto been unchecked, and whose future measures and perhaps one million, four hundred thousand, will
may have no inconsiderable effect on the stability of be found as accurate a calculation of the entire inhaDr. Hol the Turkish cmpire. “Speaking generally," he says, land's cha- (Travels in the Ionian Isles, Albania, &c. 4to. p. 118), Tacter of
* This can be understood only in a limited sense, according to him.
“ of his administration, it may be said to be one of ab- the most recent testimony. Lord Byron thus describes his visit to
Is lawless law; for with a bloody hand
He sways a nation, turbulent and bold :
Yet here and there some daring mountain-band
Whose bubbling did a genial freshness fling,
And soft voluptuous couches breathed repose, these remarkable qualities has been exhibited in the
Ali reclined, a man of war and woes; progress he has made to his present state of elevation. Yet in his lineaments ye cannot trace, Their influence is strikingly apparent in the entire sub While gentleness ber milder radiance throws jection of so many warlike tribes, in the perfect tran
Along that aged venerable face,
The deeds that lurk beneath, and stain him with disgrace.
It is not that yon hoary lengthening beard,
Ill suits the passions which belong to youth; with which even his name and mandate are regarded
Love conquers age--so Hafiz bath averred, by every class of his subjects. It is pleasant to be So sings the Teian, and he sings in soothable to allege, as one proof of his superior under
But crimes that scorn the tender voice of truth, standing, a degree of freedom from national and reli
Beseeming all men ill, but most the man
In years, have marked him with a tyger's tooth; gious prejudices rarely to be found among Turkish
Blood follows blood, and, through their mortal span, rulers. He has studiously adopted into his territory In bloodier acts conclude those who with blood began.