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AGEN- were reduced to 10,000, which the French opposed with cour, but at what he calls Maisconcelles ; but the fact AGINCOURT. an army amounting, according to some historians to was, that Henry, at the close of this glorious day, COURT. 100,000, but Hume reckons them at about four times enquiring the name of the adjacent town, was answered
AGITATE. the number of the English. When some of his nobles Azincourt, “ Then,” said he, “ to all posterities followexpressed a wish for the assistance of their brave com- ing, this battell shall be called the Battell of Azinpeers in England, Henry is said to have exclaimed,“ No! court.”. Speed's Theatre of Great Britain. MaisconI would not have one man more; if we are defeated, we celles, however, was a village not far distant. are too many; if it shall please God to give us the victory, AGIO, an Italian word, signifying aid; is chiefly as I trust he will, the smaller the number, the greater our applied in Holland and in Venice to denote the difglory.” The intrepid monarch having reconnoitred theference between bank money and the common curground on the preceding evening, by moon-light, de- rency. Thus, 100 livres or dollars, bank money, being termined, if possible, to draw the overwhelming force equal to 105 livres or dollars currency; the agio in of the enemy into a chosen situation which presented this case is five livres or dollars. The rates of agio itself, where they could only bring a small portion of it differ in different countries, and vary according to pointo action. He then spent the remainder of the night litical or commercial circumstances. At Venice the
At in devotion, while the French were revelling in the agio was formerly fixed by law at 20 per cent. confidence of victory. In the morning he disposed his Genoa it was between 15 and 16 per cent. troops with admirable dexterity on a declivity near this
AGIOSYMANDRUM (from a yos, holy, and gejaww, village, defended on each side by a wood. The first I signify), a wooden instrument used by the Greek line commanded by the duke of York was wholly com churches in the Turkish dominions as a call to public posed of archers, four in file, each of whom, beside his worship. It was introduced as a substitute for bells, bow and arrows, had a battle axe, a sword, and a stake which the jealousy of the Turks prohibited to the pointed at each end with iron, which he fixed before Christians, lest they should be made subservient to him to receive the French cavalry; 200 archers were conspiracies against the state. in the wood in ambush on the right, and 400 pike men
AGIST', v. In Law, (probably from our old on the left. Early in the morning Henry rode along the AGISTMENT. } law-French giste, a lying place), lines to animate the troops with every promise of reward the lying, and consequently pasturing, of one man's that could inspire their courage, and with terrific ac cattle in another's ground, on payment of a certain counts of the cruelty of the enemy. . A short pause sum of money, or other good consideration. The ensued, during which the king was apprehensive that cattle thus grazed are sometimes called gistments. the French would see their danger, and decline the Agistment also means the profit arising from this pracbattle upon this spot; he therefore sounded the charge, tice. Agistor is the person who feeds the cattle. and his archers first kneeling and kissing the ground, A forest hath laws of her own, to take cognizance of all trespasses; advanced to the attack. The conflict soon became she hath also her peculiar officers, as foresters, verderers, regarders, furious and general. The French troops encumbered ugisters, &c. whereas a chase or park hath only keepers and wood
Howell's Letters, by their own numbers, fell rapidly under the English archery; until the archers themselves being anxious to
The taylor, the carrier, the inn-keeper, the agisting farmer, the come to close fight, threw away their bows, and mowed pawnbroker
, the distreinor, and the general bailee, may all of them vindicate in their own right.
Blackstone's Commentaries. down their opponents with their swords and battle
If a man takes in a horse, or other cattle, to graze and depasture axes. The first line baving thus bravely “ done its in his grounds, which the law calls agist ment, be takes them upon an duty," Henry advanced in person with the second, at- implied contract, to return them on demand to the owner. Id. tended by his youngest brother, the duke of Glouces
AGISYMBA, in Ancient Geography, a district siter; and was almost immediately attacked by the duke tuated in the western part of Libya interior, and to the d'Alençon, who had vowed either to kill the king or south of the Equator. It was separated from the take him prisoner, or to perish in the effort. The un Atlantic ocean by a tribe of Æthiopians, said to be paralleled success of Henry, however, did not forsake cannibals. The country to the south of Agisymba was him; he hewed down his adversary, after a brave unknown to the ancients. AGATHEMERUS, b. ii. c. 7. struggle on both sides; and the French dispirited and It is supposed to be the modern Zanguebar; but in utter confusion, fled in every direction. They are D'Anville places it on the eastern coast. said to have left 10,000 men dead on the field, while AGʻITATE, v. Agito : ago: to act frequently. 14,000 fell into the hands of the English as prisoners ; AGITATION, To act with frequent and reamongst the slain were reckoned 1,500 knights, 92 AGITATOR. peated motion; to shake. Mebarons, 13 earls, a marshal, the archbishop of Sens, taphorically, to discuss
. and the constable of France. Hume says, “no battle
To keep the mind in constant action; to disturb, to was ever more fatal to France.” On the side of the distract. English, the duke of York fell early in the battle, and
I was alwaies plaine with you, and so now I the duke of Gloucester was dangerously wounded, but speake my agitation of the matter. the total loss is stated, by some accounts, only at forty
Shakespeare. Merchant of Venice, act iii. men; though the French writers, with more probability,
As when a wandering fire, make it from 300 to 400. Henry, on his return to
Compact of unctuous vapour, which the night
Condenses, and the cold environs round, England, early in the following month, was almost
Kindled through agitation to a flame, adored by his subjects. Shakespeare makes this battle
Which oft, they say, some evil spirit attends, one of the principal features of his historical Drama of
Hovering and blazing with delusive light, Henry V., and it has become one of the proverbial
Misleads the amaz'd night-wanderer from his way.
Milton. P. L. book ix. trophies of English valour. Monstrelet describes the
The minds, even of the virtuous, are agituted by the words of English monarch, not as being at the village of Azin- the base.
Sir Ifm. Jones's Hiliipudesu.
vity of the Atlas, formerly the capital, and still giving AGMEN.
Else noxious; oceans, rivers, lakes, and streams,
name to a district. It is 18 miles S. E. of Morocco, and AGNA. By restless undulation.
Couper's Task. in a decayed state. N. lat. 30°, 56'. W. lon. 7°, 15'. The future pleases : Why? The present pains
AGMONDESHAM, or AMERSHAM, a town of great But that's a secret. Yes, which all men know,
antiquity, in Buckinghamshire, about 31 miles S. E. of And know from thee, discover'd unawares.
Buckingham, and 26 N. W. of London. It is situated
Young's Night Thoughts.
in a valley near the chalk hills, on the high road to
Buckingham, and consists of a long wide street, interIn every district in the kingdom, there is some leading man, some agitator, some wealthy merchant, or considerable manufacturer, sected near the middle by a smaller one, and contains, some active attorney, some popular preacher, some money-lender, according to the census of 1811, 419 houses, and a &c, who is followed by the whole flock.
population of 2,259 persons.
It is a borough town, Burke. On the Duration of Parliaments. sending two representatives to Parliament, generally AGITATION, among Physiologists, is sometimes ex branches of the Drake family, to whom the manor beclusively applied to that species of earthquake called longs. Montague Garrard Drake, great grandfather of tremor, arietatio. Dr. Fleming, in the Royal Society the present members, died its representative in 1728; Transactions of Edinburgh (vol. i.), mentions a most and this family has been seated here upwards of two remarkable one, which affected the water of Loch centuries, at their noble seat of Shardeloes. The elecTay, in the Highlands, in 1784, and a river to the tors are the lord's tenants, paying scot and lot. Sir north of it, for upwards of a month. Phil. Trans. William Drake, Bart. bought this borough of King Lond. 1756, 1762, &c. contain similar accounts. Charles II. It anciently belonged to Anne Nevil, wife
AGITATION, in Medicine, a term applied to the act of Stafford, Duke of Buckingham, who was slain at the of swinging, and to other exercises recommended me- battle of Northampton, in the year 1460. Afterwards dicinally, for violently affecting the body.
it became the property of the celebrated Guy, Earl of AGITATOR, in Antiquity, a charioteer; or soine- Warwick, whose lands were seized by Edward IV. but times he who directed horses in the circus, in the pub- restored by Henry VII. to his widow, Ann Beauchamp. lic races or games.
The crafty monarch, however, did this only for the purAGITATORS, in English History, were persons elected pose of having it more formally conveyed to himself
. by the army in 1647, to watch over its interests; and Henry VIII. gave it afterwards to Lord Russel, and to control the parliament, at that time sitting at West- it became the property of the present owners, by an minster. Two private men, or inferior officers, were intermarriage with the daughter and heiress of William appointed from each troop or company, and this body, Tothill, Esq. in the reign of James I. when collected, were presumed to equal the House of Near the spot where the small street crosses the Commons; while the peers were represented by a larger one, stands the parish church, a tolerably spacouncil of officers of rank. Cromwell availed himself cious brick edifice, covered with stucco. It is deemed of the Agitators, as the first instruments of his ambition; one of the richest rectories in the county. Here also but afterwards issued orders for suppressing them. is a town-hall, or market-house, a handsome brick These associations, so dangerous to the constitution, building, raised on pillars and arches. It was erected gave rise to the act which forbids any member to enter in the year 1682, by Sir William Drake, Knight, neeither House of Parliament armed, a regulation en- phew to the baronet of that name, before mentioned. forced with jealousy to this day.
Sir William also erected and endowed an alms-house, AGLAIA, in ancient Mythology, sometimes called for six poor widows. This town derives a degree of Pasithea, the youngest of the three graces, and melancholy historical interest, from its having been the espoused to Vulcan.
scene of some dreadful burnings, in the days of religious AGLUTITION (a priv. and yduğw, to swallow), a persecution. An instance of this kind, which took difficulty of swallowing, or deglutition.
place in the reign of Henry VII. merits particular noAGMEN, in the Ancient Military Art, the Roman tice, from the infernal ferocity of its character. A army when on a march; the order of which Polybius William Tillsworth, who had indulged in some abuse has thus described in his 6th book. He says, when of pilgrimages, and the “worship of images,” was the trumpets first sounded, the tents were taken down, ordered to be publicly burnt alive; and his own and the baggage collected; at the second signal, the daughter was compelled to set fire to the devouring pile! baggage was put upon the pack-horses; and at the Amersham has some trade in lace, sacking, and also third signal, the whole army put itself in motion. In in cotton goods; but it cannot be deemed a flourishing the first line were the extraordinarii, who were choice or very busy town; there has been, however, an introops, then the right wing of the allies; the first and crease, since 1801, of above 150 houses. second legions followed, and the left wing of the allies AGNADELLO, or AQUADELLO, a small town or brought up the rear. The cavalry rode either behind, village of Italy, in the duchy of Milan, situate on the or on each side. If danger threatened the rear, the banks of the Adda and Seris, about 12 miles from extraordinarii took their station there; but the order Lodi. It is now famous only for having been the scene of the troops, with respect to each other, was changed of several military engagements, particularly for the every day, that all in turn might share the danger victory which the French king, Louis XII. obtained and fatigue of the march. The baggage followed over the Venetians, in the year 1509; and for that of the divisions of the troops to which they belonged. the duke of Vendome over Prince Eugene, in the year The army, when drawn up in order of battle, was 1706; if, indeed, this latter affair can be deemed a called acies ; but agmen and acies sometimes occur as victory over a general, who thereby gained to himself, synonymous words.
through the bravery and skill of his retreat, as much
AGNA- glory as his enemy obtained by his discomfiture. It was usually read by some layman resident on the island. AGNES.
NOMEN. AGNES. campaigns in Italy.
AGNIERS, a tribe of Iroquois Indians, who dis-
shepherds, the veneration of the wise men, the prophecy of holy
Simeon, and the admiration of the doctours he was bad in honour. which its waters are subject, it does not possess any
Grafton, vol. i, p. 58. sensible heat; several aquatic fowls are constantly That he may deliuer vp vnto Messias at his comyng, a people not to be seen on its surface; its interior produces ytterly, vatraded or vnentered i his discipline but somwhat prepaired fish, and a singular species of frogs, which in their already & instructed therunto with ye agnisyng & knowlageyng of
theyr owne synfulnesse.
Udall. Luke, c. i. fo. 7, c. ii. tadpole, or early state, lave hinder parts like a fish,
The tirant custome, most graue senators,
Hath made the flinty and steele coach of warre
A naturall and prompt Atacartic,
Shakespeare. Othello, act i.
Such who own
In evil times, undaunted, though alone,
Edwards. Cunons of Criticism.
AGNO, or L'Anio, a river of Naples, which falls
into the gulf of Greta : and a town of Switzerland,
near Lugano, on a river of the same name. agnatic succession, or issue derived from the male ancestors, through
AGNOET E (ayvoew, not to know), a name someall the stages of collateral inheritance.
times given to a sect of the 4th century, which dis-
puted the omniscience of God, and stated that he knew
AGNEL, an old French gold coin, which is supposed that Christ was ignorant of certain future events, as,
AGNES, ST. one of the Cassiterides, or Scilly Isles, tarians. Socinus and his associates maintained similar
AG NOMINATE: *. } tundi Azowenen, "Latin,
named Scavola, or left-handed; and Titus Pomponius, the service by Sergius II. or even by Sergius III, the AGNES
AGOL at Athens.
Ago, Agon, Agone, Ygo, were all , . Ad: nomen :
used as the past participle of the verb, . tum. ,
YGON', is a name to; i. e, in addition to.
Agoing, is, In going.
For in swiche cas wimmen have swiche sorwe
Whan that bir housbonds ben fro hem ago.
Chaucer. The Knightes Tale, vol. i.
This was the old opinion as I rede
I speke of many hundred yeres ago.
Id. The Wif of Bathes Tale, vol. i. p. 260.
Ilast thou not heard, how I haue ordeyned soch a thynge a great
Bible. 1539. 4 Kings, chap. xix.
For right anon on of the fires queinte
And quiked again, and after that anon
That other fire was queinte, and all agon. tions, and enforcing of consonant words or syllables one upon the
Chaucer. The Knightes Tale, voi. i. p. 92. otber, to be the greatest elegance.
A clerk ther was of Oxenforde also,
That unto logike hadde long ygo.
Id. The Prologue. The Clerk, vol. i. p. 19.
4 Sat. Is he such a princely one,
As you spake him long agon? umphal banner of the Cross, and similar to those SILEN, Satyrs, he doth fill with grace sculptured ornaments so common in most of our old
Every season, every place; churches and cathedrals. These figures are conse
Beauty dwelis but in his face:
He's the height of all our race. crated by the pope himself, and are distributed, at
Ben Jonson's Oberon. certain periods, among the people, to be carried in re
To present this, writ many years agone, ligious processions. The pope first delivers them to
And in that age thought second unto none; the master of the wardrobe, by whom they are given
We humbly crave your pardon. to the cardinals and attending prelates, who receive
Murlow's Jew of Malta. Court Prol. them in their respective caps and mitres with great
For news the world is here turn'd upside down, and it hath been
Houell's Letters. form and reverence.
From these superior officers and long a going so. ecclesiastical persons, they are conveyed to inferior
They [eclipses) may on divers occasions help to settle chronology, priests; and from them they are received by the people and rectify the mistakes of historians that writ many ages ago.
Ray's Wisdom of God in the Creation. at large, who preserve them, generally, in a piece of
An euthusiast to the bards find prinneval charms in the rudest stuff, or cloth, cut into the shape of a heart. The ballad that was bawled by the mob three or four hundred years ago. most intelligent persons of the Catholic persuasion
Walpole’s Anecdotes on Painting.
With frequent intercourse, and always sweet,
And always friendly, we were wont to cheat ascribed to them; and they at one time had become
A tedious hour.
Couper. To Joseph Hill, Esq.
AGOGʻ, a. Gig and Jig have probably the same should bring into England any Agnus Dei's, grains, from the Gothic Gaggan, As. gangan, to go, to gang.
meaning, however differently applied; and may be crucifixes, or other things consecrated by the bishop, Agog is applied to the alert, eager, emotions of hope, of Rome, should undergo the penalty of præmunire." Agog is applied to the alert, eager, emotions of hope, Indeed, the Agnus Dei was never very common in this expectation, anticipation. country, being principally confined to Spain and the
And worst of all, the women that doe go with them, set them
Golden Book, y. 5. more immediate territories of the Papal states, where agog that doe tarrie. the Catholic religion was maintained in its greatest salutacion, but I am come vnto thee as a messagier of a matier bothe
Neither am I come to please thee, or to set the agog with a vain pomp and splendour. The figure has always been
passyng ioyful, & also verai great.
Udall. Luke, c. i. fol. 9. c. 2.
Goes fanting out, and in her trim of pride,
Thinks all she says or does is justify'd.
Ďryden. Juven. Sat. vi.
They (the gipsies] generally straggle into these parts about this of the mass, where the officiating priest, striking his time of the year, and set the beads of our servant-maids so agog breast thrice, rehearses the prayer “ Agnus Dei," for husbands, that we do not expect to have any business done as it “ Lamb of God," &c. and then divides the sacrament should be whilst they are in the country. Spectator, No 150. into three parts; a practice, it is said, first introduced AGOGE, in Ancient Music, certain bars of music by Sergius I.; but of this there is considerable doubt: which were performed in the gradual descent or ascent the divisions of the accidents was certainly long prior to of the regular and approximating notes; as G. A, B, his pontificate; and as to the song Agnus Dei, for any C, D, E, F, G, or G, F, E, D, C, B, A, G; or, as we are thing that appears, it might have been introduced into taught to sing, re, mi fa, sol, la-la, sol, fa, mi, re.
That owes it's pleasure to another's pain,
Couper's Task, book iü. Agonize and Agony: to those bodily or mental The virtue and good intentions of Cato and Brutus are highly struggles and conflicts which are accompanied by ex laudable; but to what purpose did their zeal serve? Only to basten cessive pain.
the fatal period of the Roman government, and render its convulAnd he was maad in agonye, and preiede the lenger, and his
sions and dying agonies more violent and painful.
Hume's Essays. snoot was maad as dropis of blood rennynge doun into the erthe.
Iliclif. Luke, chap. xxii.
Agox, a town of Normandy, in France, on the
northern coast, department of La Manche, arondissewas lyke droppes of bloud, trycklynge downe to ye groūde.
Bible, 1539. Ib.
ment of Coutances.
Agon, the name of the person who struck the vic-
tim at an heathen sacrifice. Ovid, Fast. i. 322, says
he stood prepared to perform his office, but first asked So that vpon this agonie
the officiating priest Agone? or Agon? to which the
priest replied, Hoc Age! which expressions are sup-
posed to have occasioned the name.
Gower. Con. A. book i. AGONALIA, were festivals held at Rome in honour 1, whether lately through her brightness blind,
of Janus, or Agonius, in the months of January, May, Or through alleageance and fast fealtie,
and December; Ovid derives the name from Agon, the
title of the priest who slew the victim. Fast. i. v. 322.
They were instituted by Numa.
the public games consisted. They were first instituted
by the Greeks; and such were chiefly adopted as tended Not felt, nor shall be twice, for never more
to cherish personal vigour and the national courage ;
as wrestling, boxing, running, &c. But there were
others, in which the poets, musicians, and learned men
entered into competition, or gave specimens of their agonics, through misconstruction of things spoken about proportioning several accomplishments. The most noted games in our griefs to our sins, for which they never think they have wept Greece, were the Olympian, the Pythian, the Nemean, and mourned enough.
Hooker's Ecclesiastical Polity. and the Isthmian.
marks of national rejoicing, and its return, every fifth
year, became an æra by which were computed the
events of history. The Olympian games were instituted Or touch, if tremblingly alive all o'er,
about 1200 years before Christ. The victors in these To smart and agonise at every pore.
games received a branch of palm, or crown of laurel ;
fame; and the story related by Cicero, Tus. lib. i. c. 46,
after Plutarch, shows how blest they were thought who
obtained this ; for a Lacedæmonian meeting AnaxaDryden. Palam. and Arcite. goras (himself in his youth a victor, and who now saw It is usual, when the agonies of death approach, to have the mind his two sons crowned at the games), exclaimed to him, stupified, the soul busie and struggling to quit it self from its ruinous “ Now die, Anaxagoras, for you cannot be a god.” habitation, and the whole man so disordered, that there is neither Among the literary men who exhibited their abilities opportunity nur disposition for prayer when we have most
need. Comber's Companion to the Temple.
at these games, Herodotus is conspicuous, both for Our calling, therefore, doth require great industry; and the busi- having recited his history there, and for having thus ness of it consequently is well represented by those performances, roused to emulation the young Thucydides who heard which demand the greatest attention, and laborious activity; it is him. The emperor Nero instituted games of a similar styled exercise, agonistic and ascetic exercise. Barrow's Sermons. kind among the Romans, called Neronia, which were They must do their exercises too, be anointed to the agon, and to
fifth year; and consisted of contests the coinbat, as the champions of old.
in music, wrestling, and horse-racing. Tacitus, l. xiv.
by Dioclesian, called Agon Capitolinus. At this last
Guardian, No 18. the poet Statius recited his Thebaid.
AGONISMA, the name of the prize with which the
Bishop Bull's Sermons.
PINDAR. Pythion, ode viii. ver. 28.
AGONISTICI, in Ecclesiastical History (aywv, com-