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AÉRO- M. Garnerin, at eleven o'clock in the evening of the 4th miles from Paris, which is at the rate of forty miles Atro. NAUTICS. of August, 1807. He ascended from Tivoli at Paris, per hour, supposing his course to have been straight. NAUTIC'S

under the Russian flag, as a token of the peace that This is only about half the velocity with which this Garnerin's subsisted at that time between France and Russia. gentleman, in one of his excursions in this country,

His balloon was illuminated by twenty lamps, and to was conveyed from London to Colchester, a distance cxcursions.

obviate all dangers of communication between these of sixty miles, which he passed over in three quarters
and the hydrogen gas, which it might be necessary to of an hour.
discharge in the course of the voyage, tlie nearest of We shall close this account of aërial excursions with Sadler's es
the lamps was fourteen feet distant from the balloon, that of our intrepid countryman, Sadler, who undertook cursion from
and conductors were provided to carry the gas away the perilous task of passing from Dublin to Liverpool, Dublin to
in an opposite direction. After his ascent, rockets on the 1st of October, 1813. He ascended from Bel-


. which were let off from Tivoli, seemed to him videre House, about one o'clock on the above day, with scarcely to rise above the earth, and Paris, with all its the wind at south-west, and in 35 minutes had sight of lamps, appeared a plane studded with luminous stops. the mountains in Wales; he continued in the same In forty minutes he found himself at an elevation of direction till three o'clock, when being nearly over the 13,200 feet, when, in consequence of the dilitation of Isle of Man, the wind blowing fresh, he found himself the balloon, he was under the necessity of discharging a approaching the Welch coast; and at four o'clock had a part of the inflammable air. About 12 o'clock, when distinct view of the Skerry light-house, with the prospect 3,600 feet from the earth, he heard the barking of of consummating his ardent hopes of a speedy arrival dogs; about two o'clock in the morning he saw several in Liverpool. The wind now shifting, he was taken off, meteors flying around him, but none of them so near and lost sight of land; when after hovering about a as to create apprehension; at half past three he beheld long time, he discovered five vessels beating down the sun emerging in brilliant majesty above an ocean Channel; and in hopes of their assistance, he deterof clouds, and the gas being thereby expanded, the mined to descend with all possible expedition, and balloon soon rose 15,000 feet above the earth, where precipitated himself into the sea. In this most critical he felt the cold extremely intense. In seven hours situation, he had the mortification to find that the vesand a half from this departure, M. Garnerin descended sels took no notice of him. Obliged, therefore, to reas

near Loges, forty-five leagues distant from Paris. cend, he now threw out a quantity of ballast, and Second

On the 21st of September, 1807, the same intrepid quickly regained his lofty situation to look out for more nocturnal

aëronaut undertook a second nocturnal voyage, in the friendly aid. It was a length of time before he had ascent.

course of which he was exposed to the most imminent the satisfaction of discovering any, but now observed a danger. M. Garnerin, prognosticating an approaching vessel which gave him to understand, by signals, that storm from the state of the atmosphere, refused to be she intended to assist him. Two others also, at this accompanied by a second person, who earnestly re- time, appeared in sight, and one of them, tacking quested it. He ascended, therefore, alone from Ti- about, hoisted the Manx colours. Night coming on, voli

, and was carried up, with unexampled rapidity, to he was determined to avail himself of their proffered an immense height above the clouds; the balloon was kindness, and accordingly once more descended to the there dilated to an alarming degree, and M. Garnerin, Here the wind, acting upon the balloon as it lay having been prevented, from the impatience of the on the water, drew the car with so much velocity that mob before his ascent, from regulating those parts of the vessel could not overtake it; and notwithstanding the apparatus which were meant to conduct the gas he used his utmost efforts, and finally tied his cloaths away from the lamps on its escape, was totally unable to the grappling iron, and sunk them to keep him to manage the balloon; he had no alternative left, steady, still the balloon was carried away so fast, that therefore, but, with one hand, to make an opening two he was under the necessity of expelling the gas; upon feet in diameter, through which the inflammable air which the car actually sunk, and he had now nothing was discharged in great quantities, and with the other but the netting to cling to. His perilous situation and to extinguish as many of the lamps as he could pos- the fear of getting entangled, deterred the men from sibly reach. The adventurer was now without a regu- coming near him; until in danger of being drowned, lating valve, and the balloon, subject to every caprice Mr. Sadler begged they would run their bowsprit of the whirlwind, was tossed about from current to through the balloon and expell the remaining gas. current. When the storm impelled him downwards, Having done this, and thrown out a line which he he was obliged to cast out his ballast to restore the wound round his arm, he was dragged a considerable ascending tendency, and, at length, every resource way, but was fortunately, at length, got on board nearly being exhausted, no expedient was left him to provide exhausted. The representation of the car of this balagainst future exigencies. In this forlorn condition loon in its ascent, is shown in plate 2. the balloon rose through thick clouds, but afterwards Having given this sketch of the history and progress Practice of sunk, and the car having struck against the ground of aëronautics, it remains for us to offer some remarks constructin with a violent impulse, rebounded from it to a con relative to the art of constructing and filling aërostatic and filling. siderable altitude. The fury of the storm dashed him machines. With respect to the form best suited for a against the mountains, and after many rude agitations balloon, practice seems to have confirmed the globular and severe shocks, he was reduced to a state of tem or elliptical, although mere theorists have contended porary insensibility. On recovering from this perilous for a far different figure. situation, he reached Mount Tonnere in a storm of Supposing the globular form, the following method forming thunder. A very short time after his anchor hooked has been recommended for forming the several gores the gores in a tree, and in seven hours and a half after his de- of which the balloon is to be composed. Referring to parture, he landed at the distance of three hundred fig. 7, plate 1, AËRONAUTICS, the breadths of each slip,


Pro. at the several distances from the point to the middle, ing them some days together; then boil one ounce of AfroUCS. where it is broadest, are directly as the sines of those this solution in eight ounces of drying linseed oil for a NAUTICS.

distances, radius being the sine of half the length of few minutes; strain the solution and use it warm. the slip, or of the distance from either point to the The car, or boat, is best made of wicker work, covered middle of the slip. That is, if a ABCD represent one with leather, and painted; and the proper method of of these gores, AB being half the circumference, or AE suspending it is by ropes proceeding from the net which a quadrant, conceived to be equal to AC or AD; then goes over the balloon. The net should be formed to will CD be to ab, as radius, or the sine of AC to the the shape of the balloon, and fall down to the middle sine of A a. So that if the quadrant AE or AC be di- of it, with various cords proceeding from it to the cirvided into any number of equal parts, as, for instance, cumference of a circle, about twenty feet below the balnine, and the quadrant or 90° be divided by 9, the loon; and from this circle other ropes should go to the quotient 10 is the number of degrees in each part; and edge of the boat. The meshes of the net may be hence the arcs AC, A a, Ac, &c. will be respectively small at top, against which part of the balloon the 900, 80°, 70°, &c. and CD being radius, the several inflammable air exerts the greatest force, and increase breadths ab, cd, ef, &c. will be respectively the sines in size as they recede from the top: of 80°, 70°, 60°, &c. which are, in the figure, placed All things being thus prepared, the manner of filling Filling a opposite, the radius being 1. Therefore, when it is is as follows:- When the balloon is small, as, for small proposed to cut out slips for a globe of a given diame- example, three or four feet in diameter, it may be filled balloon. ier, we must compute the circumference, and make by passing the hydrogen gas through water, by means AE, or AC, equal to one quarter of that circumference, of the apparatus represented (fig. 8, plate II). A is a and CD of any breadth, as 3 feet, or 2 feet, or any bottle containing the ingredients which are to produce other quantity; then multiply each of the decimal num- the gas; BCD is a tube in the form of a siphon, fasbers set opposite the figure by the breadth of CD, so tened by one extremity into the neck of the bottle, and will the several products be the breadths of ab, cd,ef, passing through a hole in the stopper of another &c. required.

bottle E; it extends so far as almost to touch the botThis construction, it will be observed, applies only tom of this bottle, which is nearly full of water. To to the spherical balloon; another, very simple in its another hole in the cork of the bottle E, is adapted operation, and answering to any figure whatever, is another tube, to the outward extremity of which a described by Mr. Evans, in the Philosophical Magazine bladder or aperture of the balloon is tied. The inflamfor November, 1815.

mable air coming out of the aperture D of the tube, Having by one or other of the above methods formed passes through the water of the bottle E, and then the gores, and united them in their required form, the enters into the balloon. Two small casks might be. Dext object is to render the whole impervious to the employed instead of the bottles A and E. gas with which they are to be filled; for which purpose Another apparatus for producing hydrogen gas, and the following varnish is said to answer best.

conveying it into the balloon, is represented (fig. 9), In order to render linseed oil drying, boil it with two where ABC is a vessel made of clay or of iron, in the gunces of sugar of lead and three ounces of litharge form of a Florence flask, and the substance yielding gas for every pint of oil, till they are dissolved, which will is introduced into it, so as to occupy about four-fifths be in about half an hour. Then put a pound of bird- or less of its cavity. If the substance swell much by lime and half a pint of drying oil into an iron vessel, the action of the fire applied to it, a tube of brass, or whose capacity should be about a gallon, and let it boil first of brass and then a leaden tube, must be luted to very gently over a slow charcoal fire, till the bird-lime the neck C of the vessel. The extremity of the tube ceases to crackle, which will be in about three quarters is made to pass through the water of a vessel HI, and of an hour; then pour upon it about two pints and a to terminate under an inverted vessel EF; to the upper half more of the drying oil, and let it boil another hour, aperture of which the balloon, or a tube going to stirring it frequently with an iron or wooden spatula. the balloon, is adapted. When the part AB of the As the varnish, when boiling, and especially when vessel is put into the fire and made red hot, the inflamnearly done, swells very much, care should be taken mable air that is generated will come out of the tube to remove, in those cases, the pot from the fire, replacing CD, and passing through the water in the vessel, it will it when the varnish subsides, otherwise it will boil over. at last enter into the balloon G. As a considerable While the boiling is going on, the operator should oc- quantity of common air remains in the inverted vessel casionally examine whether it has boiled enough, EF, before the operation is begun, it should have a which may be known by observing whether, when stop-cock K, through which it may be drawn out by rubbed between two knives, and then separated from suction, and then the water will ascend as high as the one another, the varnish forms threads between them : stop-cock. The aperture of the vessel EF should be if it do it must then be removed from the fire. When at least one foot below the surface of the water in HI, nearly cold, add about an equal quantity of spirit of and the fire should be at a sufficient distance from the turpentine. In using the varnish the silk of the balloon vessel HI, that the inflammable air, if any of it should must be stretched, and the varnish luke-warm. In escape, may not take fire and do injury. twenty-four hours it will be dry. As the elastic resin, The apparatus for filling an inflammable air balloon Filling a known by the name of Indian rubber, has been much of a larger kind, is represented fig. 10. AA are two large extolled for a varnish, the following method of making tubs about three feet in diameter, and nearly two

balloon. it, as practised by M. Blanchard, may not prove un- feet deep, inverted in larger vessels. At the bottom of acceptable.

each of the inverted vessels there is a hole, to which is Dissolve elastic resin, cut small

, in five times its adapted a tin tube E, about seven inches in diameter weight of rectified essential oil of turpentine, by keep- and seven or eight inches long. To these tubes the

A ËRO. silken tubes of the balloon are tied; each of the tubes Blanchard filled a balloon twenty-one feet in diameter Atro. NAUTICS. B is surrounded by several strong casks, so regulated from only four casks, each holding 120 gallons. Lu- NAUTIC in number and capacity, as to be less than half full nardi, of whom we have also spoken, reduced his

appawhen the materials are equally distributed. In the top ratus to still greater simplicity, employing only two of each of these casks are two holes, and to one of the casks, from which the gas was transmittd into the holes is adapted a tin tube, formed so as to pass over balloon without passing through the water; and in the the edge of the tube B, and through the water, and to short space of half an hour he filled the balloon by terminate with its aperture under the inverted tub A. which he ascended from Edinburgh and Glasgow. The other hole, which serves for supplying the cask The shape of this machine resembled a pear, being with materials, is stopped with a wooden plug. These twenty-three feet in diameter and thirty in height. M. tin tubes may be about three inches and a half in dia- Blanchard used 1000 lbs. of iron and 1250 lbs. of sulmeter, and the other holes may be smaller. Two masts, phuric acid, for the production of the gas to fill a with a rope, &c. are used for this machine, although balloon of twenty-one feet. Lunardi, on the occasion they are not absolutely necessary; because the balloon, just mentioned, employed 2000 lbs of each, and by means of a narrow scaffold, or other contrivance, 12,000 lbs. of water. The latest writer on this subject, may be elevated above the level of the tubs AA. computes that this quantity should suffice for a balloon Wlien the balloon is to be filled, the net is put over it of thirty feet in diameter, which is 14,137 feet in capaand suspended as exhibited in the figure. Having ex- city. The balloon of thirty-three feet, in which Lunardi pelled all the common air from the balloon, its silk tubes first ascended in England, and one that ascended at are fastened round the tin tubes EE, and the materials Nantz about the same time, were filled from zinc instead in the casks being properly proportioned, by putting in of iron. Making allowance for the expansion of the first the iron, then the water, and lastly the vitriolic gas during the ascent, the balloon ought never to be acid, the balloon will soon be inflated by the inflamma- filled above three-fourths. ble air, and support itself without the aid of the rope There is also another method of procuring hydrogen GH. As the filling advances, the net is adjusted round gas, by passing water over tubes, or through tubes it; the ropes proceeding from the net are fastened to previously heated to redness, but there is a danger of the hoop MN; the boat I K, is suspended from the the metal running to a slag before any considerable hoop MN, and every thing necessary for the voyage is quantity of gas is obtained; a balloon, however, deposited in it. When the balloon is a little more than thirty-two feet in diameter, has been filled by this prothree quarters full, the silken tubes are separated from cess in the


of eight hours. the tin tubes, and their extremities being tied, they are The above may, we believe, be considered to con- Theoretic placed in the boat. Finally, when the aëronauts are seated tain all that has been practically ascertained upon this notions. in the boat, the lateral ropes are slipped off, and the ma- interesting subject; and it would be useless to enter at

chine with its appendages ascends into the atmosphere. much length into the illustration of theories, which Proportion It would be excessively laborious, if not abso- only exist in the imagination of their respective authors. of materials. lutely impossible, to collect hydrogen gas as it exists One of the greatest defects attending the machines

in its natural state, therefore such artificial means as we have been describing consists in the difficulty, those described above, are always had recourse to as perhaps we might say the impossibility, of conducting the most convenient and productive. The materials them in the atmosphere; they are immersed in strong commonly consist of a solution of iron, or zinc, in sul- currents of air, with which they are irresistibly borue phuric acid The iron best adapted for the purpose con- away, in any direction,

away, in any direction, at hazard, without the navisists of the turnings produced by the boring of cannons; gator having it at all in his power to restrain or direct but when this cannot be obtained, chips of iron should be their course. When we consider that M. Garnerin preferred to filings. It is of importance to attend to the was taken from London to Colchester at the rate of purity of the metal, for rust produces hydrocarbonate, eighty miles per hour, any idea of force existing in a gas specifically heavier than atmospheric air; grease the aëronaut, or in any wings or sails with which he also is injurious, because it resists the action of the may be furnished to direct his course, seems perfectly acid. The sulphuric acid must be diluted with five hopeless; yet numerous plans are frequently sugor six times its weight of water; iron yields about 1700 gested under a view of effecting such a purpose.

We times its own bulk of gas; therefore, four and a half are by no means disposed to check the spirit of scienounces of iron, with the same weight of sulphuric acid, tific pursuit, and freely acknowledge that many things and 224 of water, will produce a cubic foot of inflam- are accomplished by perseverance, which, in the first mable air; and of zinc six ounces, with the same quan- instance, appeared almost as impossible as that of tity of acid, and 30 ounces of water, will produce a directing a balloon at the pleasure of the voyager; cubic foot of air. The gas is collected, as stated above, but still we must confess that our hopes of success in into a number of casks, which should be lined with this case are very little removed from despair. tin. M. Garnerin, in 1802, used thirty six casks, every Mr. John Evans has published, at different times, his twelve of which communicated with a collar, and three ideas on this subject, in Tilloch's Philosophical Magatubes from three collars conveyed the gas into one zine ; and proposes to attain any desired direction by large tube, which joined to the balloon. Professor means of oblique ascents and descents, in the same Robertson and Sacharof, of whose voyage we have given manner as a ship frequently reaches its destined port, the detail, had twenty-five vessels communicating with the wind till a-head, by repeated oblique trawith a collar, into each of which they put 120lbs. of verses. See Phil. Mag. No. 211. iron filings, chiefly from cast iron, with 600 lbs. of Sir George Cayley has also directed much of his water, and 120 lbs. of sulphuric acid poured over it. attention to this subject, and has many ingenious speThe filling of the balloon occupied five hours. M. culations connected with it, published in Nicholson's


ARO. Journal, and in the Philosophical Magazine ; and par “ Soon shall thy arm, unconquer'd STEAM I afar

AERO. NAUTICS. ticularly in the former, on the construction and opera

Drag the slow barge, or drive the rapid car;


Or on wide waving wings expanded bear tions of parachutes. ln a number of the latter work

The flying chariot through the streams of air.

ÆSYM. for February, 1816, we have a paper by this philoso Fair crews triumphant, leaning from above,

NIUM. pher, in which he suggests the power of steam, not Shall wave their tluttering kerchiefs as they move; only for nlling the balloon, but for working machinery

Or warrior bands aların the gaping crowd,

And armies shrink beneath the shadowy cloud." in it to serve for its direction; and concludes by stating, that he thinks it very possible that the lines For our own parts, we must confess that such flights by Darwin, with reference to the power of steam, may of imagination seem to us to become poetry much be eventually realized.

better than philosophy.

Minerva pre

ÆRUGO (anp, air, or ether, from its blue colour), Æs Ustum, or æs veneris, æs crematum, crocus vethe rust or oxid of metal, particularly of copper. It deris, cinis æris, terms applied to an ancient chemical is formed naturally, as in the copper mines, or artifi- preparation used in the famous art of staining glass. It cially, as in verdigrise, and is produced by the action appears to have been an oxid of copper mixed with of vinous acid on the metal. Æruginous is an adjective sulphur, and was sometimes applied as a drying and that has been formed from this word.

detersive quality in ointments. ÆRUGO PRÆPARATA, prepared verdigrise. In the ÆSCHÝNOMENE, the bastard sensitive plant; Pharmacopeia Londinensis this is the basis of the un- class and order Diadelphia, Decandria. guentum æruginis.

ASCULAPIUS, in Ancient Mythology, the god of ARUSCATORES, in Antiquity, from the Latin ærus- medicine, and son of Apollo, by Coronis; or, according to cari, to beg. A sort of vagabonds, whose character others, by Larissa, daughter of Phlegias. Apollo set a appears to have answered to that of our gypsies. crow to watch the nymph Coronis after his union with Certain priests of the goddess Cybele were also called her; and discovering that she admitted the embraces of æruscatores of the great mother, because of their em- Ischys of monia, he destroyed her with lightning, ployment of begging, or alms-gathering, in public but preserved the infant, and gave him to Chiron, the streets. These priests attracted attention by the ring- centaur, to be educated in the art of medicine. Ву ing of little bells. Hence, probably, the custom of some authors it is represented, that Coronis left her some mendicant orders abroad; and of lepers appear- father to avoid his discovering her pregnancy, and exing formerly in some parts of our own country, with posed her child near Epidaurus. A goat suckled bell and clapper. It was a term also applied to op- Esculapius, and a dog of the flock of Aresthanus pressive tax-gatherers.

sheltered the infant from injury. He was found by the Æ, Æs, light, fire, ether; in Ancient Metallurgy, brass master, Aresthanus, whilst in search of his lost goat, or copper, probably from the bright colour of those me and the head of the child was then perceived to be tals. In more modern usage, Es signifies brass, and illuminated with a radiance of light. cuprum is applied to copper. Es FLAVUM was a sented to him some of the blood of the Gorgon name sometimes given to this compound. Amongst which she had slain, and with this Asculapius the Romans, Æs signified money generally, their first brought several dead people to life. Pluto was discoinage having been brass : and some nations still call pleased with the successful efforts of the physician, their money by the name of that particular metal, in and lest his dominions should want inhabitants, comwhich it is of most frequent currency; as the siller or plained to Jupiter. The father of the gods struck silter of the Scotch. The ancients had various sorts #sculapius with thunder; and Apollo, in revenge, killed of the Æs, such as Æs caldarium, or Æs olarium, cast the Cyclops who made the thunder-bolts. Goats, bulls, brass, or pot brass, which was not malleable. Æs can- lambs, and pigs were sacrificed to this god of physic; didum was of a pure and white kind, found, it is said, and he was first worshipped at Epidaurus, Pergamos, under the veins of silver in the mine, and seems to have Athens, Smyrna, Cyrene, and Crete. Rome, being been similar to talc; or it was nothing more than a delivered from a plague A. V. C. 462, built a temple to whiter brass. Æs uxorium was a sum paid by Roman Æsculapius, who, it was said, had concealed himself bachelors for living single to old age.

under the form of a serpent on the banks of the Tyber, Æs CORINTHIUM. "This was accounted the most and effected their deliverance from the direful disease. costly and precious composition of all the brasses of At Epidaurus his statue was erected of gold and ivory, the ancients. Pliny affirms that it was first discovered with a large beard; one hand contained a staff with a at the sacking of Corinth, from which it obtained its serpent wreathed around it, and his other hand, supe name. It was said to be a mixture of gold, silver, ported a serpent. He is generally accompanied by the and the common brass; and was divided into the red, symbol of vigilance, a cock. the white, and the common money-colour; but no ÆSCULUS, in Botany, the horse-chesnut; class and gold can be obtained, after the most accurate analysis, order Heptandria, Monogynia. from some pieces of this compound which have come ESTIMATIO CAPitis, a term of Saxon law for a down to us.

Gine payable on account of offences against persons of Æs Cyprium, a copper, from which superior brass rank, the sum being proportioned to the quality of the was made, found in the island Cyprus.

persons aggrieved. Æs HEPATICON, was of a silverish colour, and is SYMNIUM, in Antiquity. Pausanias mentions a sometimes thought to have been bronze.

monument of this name, built by Æsymnus, who, hav

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ÆSYM. ing consulted the Delphian oracle respecting the best mind is possessed! The metaphysical difficulties of this NIUM., method of governing the Megareans, was answered, system are ably stated by Dr. Reid. “Our sensations

By holding consultation with the most numerous.' ATHER.

arise from vibrations, and our ideas from vibratiuncles, ÆTITE Understanding the deceased heroes and sages of former or miniature vibrations; and he (Dr. Hartley) compretimes to be intended by this, he built and consecrated hends, under these two words of sensations and ideas, all a monument to them, and enclosed it with a senate the operations of the mind. But how can we expect any house; in which the illustrious dead were thus believed proof of the connection between vibrations and thought, to be present with the deliberations of the living. when the existence of such vibrations was never proved.

ÆTHALIA, or Ilua, in Ancient Geography, from The proof of their connection cannot be stronger than the aidaln, smoke, which seems to denote that it formerly proof of their existence. For, as the author acknowledges, contained a volcano; the present well-known island of that we cannot infer the existence of the thoughts from Elba. See ELBA.

the existence of the vibrations, it is no less evident, that ÆTHER (arðɛly, to burn), in Physiolgy, a subtle, we cannot infer the existence of vibrations from the penetrating fluid, which has been supposed, both in existence of our thoughts. The existence of both must ancient and modern times, to be diffused through the be known before we can know their connection. As universe at the extremity of the earth's atmosphere ; to to the existence of our thoughts, we have the evidence pervade the air itself, and to occupy all the pores and of consciousness; a kind of evidence that never was interstices of matter.

called in question. But as to the existence of vibraThe existence of such a fluid is wholly hypothetical, tions, in the medullary substance of the nerves and and has given birth to conjectures as indefinite as the brain, no proof has yet been brought.” space that has been assigned to its circulation. With Upon the scientific objections to this theory, though some of the ancient philosophers, it was the origin of the great name of Newton is concerned, it has been all things, an attenuation of fire, which, according to inquired, whether the imperfection of the instruments Hippocrates, was “ immortal; knows all things; sees, employed, or other causes, may not induce us to suphears, and determines whatsoever is, or shall hereafter pose that the air is not wholly exhausted from the rebe.” From this fluid, existing in perfection only in the ceiver of the air-pump, rather than that it leaves behind highest heavens, and encircling the whole of the ma a fluid distinct from itself; and, with regard to the terial universe, all grosser elements were said to be first supposed connection of this fluid with gravitation, it derived, and from them the various productions of nature. been suggested, that it will answer none of the purHere. the gods were enthroned, and the stars rolled poses for which it is produced. As a fluid unequally along in all the music of the spheres. We need not dense and elastic, according to the hypothesis, its be surprised that such philosophy readily furnished particles are not in contact, and are elastic only by language to poetry, and assimilated itself with mutual repulsion; that is, by acting on each other at a all the grosser and more refined notions of the an- distance; a repulsion which, only in operating through cient mythologies. It was poetry and mythology in all the space, between the earth and the sun (to say itself.

nothing of its action in remoter parts of the universe), As a speculation of science, it would long since have must multiply in every particle of the conformation been exploded from all connection with the inductive of this fluid the very difficulties for which its existence philosophy, but for the sanction that has been given to is supposed to account. The conjectural shape in it by some conjectures of Sir Isaac Newton. Finding, which Newton left his few thoughts upon this subafter all his endeavours to procure a vacuum, and after ject, would have rendered any remark upon the diffithe exclusion of the common air from the receiver of culties of establishing it, perhaps, unnecessary at this the air-pump, that there still was a medium through period of the world, but for the general authority of which heat would act, and the thermometer be affected his name, its connection with Hartley's system, and with by it, as in the open air, he suggested that an elastic the still wilder conjectures of the ancients. vibrating ther might remain in the vessel, as the only ÆTher, in Chemistry, a light gaseous fluid, produced solution of the attending phenomena. He also con by the mixture of alcohol and a concentrated acid. nected it with his doctrine of gravitation, and sub- See CHEMISTRY, Div. ii. joins it as a question “ concerning its cause."_" A ÆTher, in Medicine. See Medicine, Div. ü. question, I say,” he adds, in his premonition to the ÆTHEREAL OIL, in Distillation, a subtle essential reader, prefixed to the second edition of Optics, in oil, nearly a spirit; thus, the æthereal oil of turpentine, 1717, “ for I do not hold it as a thing established.” is the liquor rising next after the spirit. His ideas were, that this fluid or ethereal medium," ÆTHUSA, in Botany, Fool's Parsley; a genus

of being much rarer in the pores of bodies and in their plants, of the order Digynia, class Pentandria. immediate neighbourhood, than at a distance from ÆTITES, or EAGLE-STONE, in Natural History, a them, and in the vicinity and body of the sun exceed flint, or crustated and hollow stone, found in slates of ingly rare, and denser as we recede from it, it would

our common pebbles: it rattles on being shaken, and be repelled by all other bodies, and impel them to contains a nucleus. Many miraculous were properties ward the sun. Dr. Hartley ventured to construct upon attributed to it by the ancients; such as the prevention this theory of a vibrating æther, the celebrated system of abortion, the discovery of thieves, &c. There is also of vibration, and vibratiuncles of the medullary sub- an idle popular story, that the female eagle (aeros, stance of the nerves and brain; by which he accounts from whence its name ætites) takes up this stone into for all our sensations and ideas. He even thinks it a her nest, while she is sitting, to prevent her eggs being consequence of this theory, that could matter be en rotten. They are at first soft, and become hard by dowed with the most simple kinds of sensation, it their exposure to the atmosphere. Near Trevoux, in might arrive at all the intelligence of which the human France, they are very numerous.

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