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Ambition is like cholor ; if it can more, it makes men active; if ÆDICULA RIDICULI, in Mythology, a Roman ÆDICUit be stoppd, it becomes adust, and makes men melancholy.

temple to the god of mirth, erected in commemoration of LA RIDIBacon's Ornamenta Rationalia.


the repulse of Hannibal by severe weather, when he was
High in front advanc'd,
advancing upon Rome after the battle of Cannæ.

The brandish'd sword of God before them blaz’d,
Fierce as a comet, which with torrid heat,

EDILE, in Antiquity, a Roman magistrate who was
And vapour, as the Libyan air adust,

appointed to the care of various public buildings, the
Began to parch that temperate clime.

preservation of order and equity in the markets, the Milton's Par. Lost, book xii.

repair of the roads and streets, and the examination of From hence we dream of wars, and warlike things,

weights and measures. Thero were at first only two
And wasps and homets with their double wings.

ædiles, called the ædiles plebii, who were created in
Choler adust congeals our blood with fear,
Then black bulls toss us, and black devils tear.

the same year as the tribunes (A. U. 260) for their

Dryden's Cock &; For. assistance in inferior concerns; hence the ædiles were
Arabia's scorching sands he crost,

elected every year at the same time as the tribunes.
Where blasted nature pants supine;

At length these plebeian ædiles refusing to treat the
Conductor of her tribes adust

people with the expensive public shows which it had
To freedom's adamantine shrine.
Smollett's Ode to Independence.

been customary for these officers to give, the patri

cians offered to provide for them, on condition of their
In shirt of hair, and weeds of canvass dress'd,
Girt with a bell-rope that the pope has bless'd.

being admitted to the honours of the Edilate. This
Adust with stripes told out for every crime,

occasioned the creation of two new ædiles in a. 1.388, And sore tormented, long before his time.

who were called ædiles curules, or majores; as having Couper's Truth.

a right when they gave audience, to sit on a curule ADY, in Natural History, the name of the palm-tree chair (sella curulis), enriched with ivory; whereas the of the island of St. Thomas, having a thick, bare, plebeian ædiles sat on benches. The principal employupright stem, growing single on its root, of a lightment of the curule ædiles was, to procure the celebratimber, and full of juice, which the natives obtain by tion of the Roman games ; they were besides appointed incision and make into wine. The fruit of this tree judges in all cases relating to the rate or exchange of is called by th natives, abanga. It is of the size estates; they were to inspect all new pieces offered to and shape of a lemon, and contains a kernel very the theatres, and to be particularly watchful that no good to eat roasted ; and the raw kernels new gods, or religious ceremonies were intruded upon often mixed with meal, and are supposed to be very the people. To these four ædiles Julius Cæsar added cordial. An oil is prepared from this fruit, which two others, called ædiles cereales, chosen from the patrianswers the purposes

of butter; and is used also for cian order; their office was to inspect the public graanointing stiff or contracted parts of the body.

naries, and to take care of the corn, which was called ADYTUM, in Ancient Mythology, the most retired donum cereris. The office of ædile continued without much and sacred place of the Pagan temples, into which none variation, from this period to the reign of Constantine. but the priests were adınitted. The term signifies inac EDIPSUS, in Ancient Geography, now Dipsus, a cessible.

town in Eubea, remarkable for its hot-baths. ÆA, anciently a celebrated city, and port of Colchis, ÆDITUUS, in Roman Antiquity, an officer enfifteen miles from the sea, according to Pliny. It was trusted with the care of the Roman temples. famous for containing the golden fleece of Jason at the ÆDUI, in Ancient Geography, a powerful people of time he reached this country. Some authors have Gaul, who were the first allies of Julius Cæsar in his considered it as the Æapolis of Ptolemy; from the invasion of that country. Greek ara, earth, or the Heb. 8, island. From this ÆGADES, EG ATEs, or INSULÆ ÆGUSÆ, of the city the Circe obtained the appellation of Ææa. Hom. Romans, a cluster of islands in the Mediterranean, to Odyss. I. i. v. 32. VIRGIL, I. vi. v. 386.

the west of Sicily, and north of Cape Lilybæum. Here.
ÆACEA, in Grecian Antiquity, solemn festivals and the Carthaginians, commanded by Hanno, were de-
games celebrated in Ægina, in honour of Eacus, the feated by L. Capellus, in a battle which terminated
son of Jupiter, by Ægina, who was renowned for his the first Punic war. Also a promontory of Æolia.
impartial administration of justice, and supposed to ÆGÆ, or EGEAS. See ÉDESSA.
have been exalted to the office of judge in Elysium. ÆGALEOS, or EGALEUM, in Ancient Geography,

ÆAS, in Ancient Geography, the name of a river of a mountain of Attica, opposite Salamis, on which
Greece, which rose in Mount Pindus, and flowed into Xerxes sat during the battle of Salamis.
the Adriatic, ten stadia from Apollonia. It is conjectured ÆGEAN SEA, ÆGEUM MARE, the ancient name of
to be the same with the Aous of STRABO, tom. i. the Archipelago; that part of the Mediterranean which

ÆDESSA, ÆG EAS, or Æg Æ, in Ancient Geography, divides Greece from Asia Minor. Several etymologies
a town of Macedonia, near Pella. Caranus, king of Ma- of this name have been given. By some authors it is
cedon, is said to have followed a flock of goats to this derived from a neighbouring town of Eubæa, called
place when they were seeking shelter from a shower of Agæ, and which gave the name Ægeus to Neptune;
rain; he took the town by surprize, and in memory of the by others, from Ægea, a queen of the Amazons; some
event called it Alyas, capras, Ægeas. It was the burial again derive it from the circumstance of Ægeus, the
place of the Macedonian kings, to whom an oracle father of Theseus, having been supposed to drown him-
declared, that so long as the royal family were interred self in this sea; while another opinion supposes this
here, the kingdom would continue ; and to the circum name to arise from the number of islands which appear
stance of Alexander's being buried in a different place, as atyes, goats, above its surface.

It extends from some ancient writers attributed the ruin of that king- north to south more than 400 miles, and contains dom.

between 40 and 50 vrincipal islands; their two general

It was

ÆGEAN names were the Cyclades and Sporades. See Arch ÆGIPHILA, in Botany, a genus of plants, of the
order Monogynia, class Tetrandia,


ÆGERI, or ÆGERE, a lake in the canton of Zug, ÆGIS, in Ancient Mythology, is by some supposed Ai PTIA.

Switzerland, which gives the name to a neighbouring to be the buckler, by others the cuirass of Jupiter and TIAM

Pallas. It should appear, however, that either the
ÆGIDĂ, in Ancient Geography, the capital town of ægis of Jupiter was a common name for his shield, or
the northern territory of Istria, in Italy, afterwards that the term was sometimes applied generally to the
called Justinopolis, in honour of Justinian, and now armour of heroes and gods. In Virgil, lib. viii. ver.
Capo d'Istria. N. lat. 45°, 50'. E. lon. 14°, 20ʻ. 437 and 8 of the Æn, it is said,
EGILOPS, or ÆgYLOPS, in Surgery (from aię, a

ipsamqne in pectore Divæ
goat, an wų, the eye, because goats are said to be

Gorgona desecto vertentem lumina collo.”
peculiarly subject to it), a disease in the internal can Thus the Medusa's or Gorgon's head which charac-
thus of the eye; more properly known by this name terized the ægis, is placed on the breast of the goddess,
before it becomes ulcerous.

the manner in which painters most usually represent
ÆGILOPS, in Botany, a genus of plants, of the order her; whilst by the same author, in the same poem, and
Monæcia, and the class Polygamia; also a name given in this very book, the agis of Jupiter is mentioned in
to the holm-oak.

the words, ÆGIMORUS, or EG IMURUS, in Ancient Geography,

“ Cum sa pe nigrantem
an island near Libya, in the bay of Carthage, and

Egida concuteret dextra.” Ver. 354.
sometimes called Galetta; near which the Romans which passage can by no ingenuity be applied to a
and Carthagenians agreed to fix their respective bound-breast-plate, although it may well allude to a shield or
aries. This is supposed to be mentioned by Virgil under buckler. Servius also makes the same distinction.
the name of Ara.

The fables of antiquity, generally represent Jupiter
ÆGINA, or ENGINA, in Ancient Geography, an

to have preserved the skin of the she-goat Amalthea,
island in that part of the Ægean sea which formed which had suckled him, and to have covered his
the Saronic gulph.

more anciently called buckler with it, whence (ai, alyos, she-goat) the
Enopia, and Myrmidonia, and was about 180 stadia, buckler took its name. Jupiter presented this ægis to
or 224 miles in circumference. The inhabitants Minerva, who having killed the Gorgon Medusa, fixed
were once very powerful at sea; they furnished the her snaky head in the middle of the agis; and it had
greatest contingent of vessels to the battle of Sa- the power of converting those who beheld it into stone.
lamis, of all the states of Greece, except the Athe-

ÆGITHALLUS, in Ancient Geography, a promontory
nians, with whom they disputed the honour of the of Sicily, upon which stood a citadel of the same name.
victory. They afterwards' brought seventy ships It was situated between Drepanum and the Emporium
against Pericles, under whom the Athenians declared Ægistanum. In after times it was called Acellus, and
war against them; but he defeated and expelled them is now known by the name of Capo di Santo Teodoro.
from the island. After the ruin of Athens, by Lysander, Ptolemy writes this place corruptly Ægitharson.
they returned, but never regained their former prosperity.

ÆGIUM, in Ancient Geography, a town of Achaia
The busy mercantile character of this people (the origin Propria, where the Achæans commonly met in
probably of the fable, of the country being re-peopled council. The worship of Conventional Jupiter was
by ants turned into men, by Jupiter, in the time of celebrated here; and in this place also was it sup-
Æacus), is celebrated in history. They completely posed that that god had been suckled by the she-
changed the face of the country, from that of a barren goat Amalthea mentioned above.

Greek imperial
rock to extreme fertility; and money is said to have medals were struck in this town; and there was a coin
been first coined amongst them. The island was not formerly in the cabinet of the king of Prussia, with the
more than 18 miles from the Athenian coast.

inscription Airi, and the impression of a tortoise
Here was a magnificient temple to Jupiter, on the (the peculiar symbol of Peloponnesus), which demon-
summit of the mountain Panhellenius; the ruins of which strates the antiquity of the medal, and the importance
still remain. It is said to have been built by Æacus, of the place where it was struck.
to propitiate that deity in a time of extreme drought; ÆGOPODIUM, in Botany, a genus of plants; order
and was of the Doric order, as described by Pausanias, Digynia, class Pentandria.
having six columns in front. There was also a splendid ÆGOPRICON, in Botany, a genus of plants, in the
temple to Venus on the island, mentioned by the same Monacia, Diandria. It is an East Indian tree.

ÆGOCEROS, in Ancient Astronomy, a name given
ÆGINA, the capital of the above island, was nearly to the constellation Capricorn by Lucan and others.
destroyed by an earthquake in the time of Tiberius; it In Mythology, Pan transformed himself into a goat,
was taken by the Turks in 1536, and burnt. The town and was made a star by this name.
and island are now called Engia, and the former con ÆGOS-POTAMOS, or Goat's-River, in Ancient
tains a Turkish garrison of about 800 troops, an ancient Geography, a town and a road for ships, situated at
castle, and thirteen mean churches. Travellers have the mouth of a river of the same name, in the Thra-
stated the number of partridges in this island to cian Chersonesus, falling into the Hellespont to the
be so great, in modern times, that the inhabitants, north of Sestos. Here ii was that the Athenians, under
to preserve their corn, go out on annual expeditions to Conon, received that signal defeat, by the Lacedemo-
destroy the eggs. The revenue is farmed out to a nians, which ended the Peloponnesian war.
waiwode, or governor.

ÆGINETIA, in Botany, genus of plants, of the ÆGYPTIACUM, in Pharmacy, an ointment com-
order Angiospermia, and the class Didynamia. posed of honey, verdigrease, and vinegar; and a


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EGYP. name also given to divers unguents of the detergent or ÆNARIA, in Ancient Geography, an island opposite ÆNARIA TIACUM, corrosive kind.

Cumæ, in Italy, in the bay of that name. It was once

ÆGYPTILLA, in Natural History. The ancients famed for its cypress, as well as its mineral waters ;

gave this name to a stone of the cameo, onyx, or sar- and was called after Æneas, who is supposed to have
donyx kind, to which they assigned many fabulous landed here on his voyage from Troy. It is our mo-
qualities; such as that it possessed the power of turn- dern Ischia.
ing water into wine, &c.

ÆNEATORES, in Antiquity, the musicians atten-
ÆGYPTUS, an ancient name applied to the river dant upon an army.
Nile. Ægyptus, in fabulous history, was also the son ÆNEID, the title of Virgil's celebrated epic poem.
of Belus, and brother of Danaus.

Availing himself of the pride and superstition of the
ÆINAUTÆ, in Antiquity, acivavrai, always mari- Roman people, which never abounded more than during
ners. The senators of Miletus obtained this name from the Augustan age, the poet traces the origin and establish-
their constantly holding their councils on board their

ment of the “ eternal city," to those heroes and actions gallies, and never coming on shore until the matters in which had enough in them of what was human and debate had been determined.

ordinary to excite the sympathy of his countrymen; in ÆLIA CAPITOLINA, a town built by Adrian, termingled with persons and circumstances of an exnearly upon the site of Jerusalem, about A. D. 134; traordinary and superhuman character, to awaken their Ælius being the family-name of Adrian, and Capito- admiration and their awe. No subject could have linus, the well-known epithet of Jupiter, to whom he been more happily chosen. It has been admired too bere erected a temple. This circumstance so exaspe- for its perfect unity of action; for while the episodes rated the Jews, as to urge them to a desperate effort command the richest variety of description, they are toward regaining their former independence, in which always subordinated to the main object of the poem, they once more took the city, and reduced it to ashes. which is to impress the divine authority under which The emperor, however, quickly suppressed the rebel- Æneas first settled in Italy. The wrath of Juno, upon lion, rebuilt the place, and prohibiting any Jew to ap- which the whole fate of Æneas seems at first sušproach it on pain of death, he erected a marble statue pended, is at once that of a woman and a goddess : of a bog (the animal most abhorred by the Jews), over the passion of Dido, and her general character, bring the principal gate, near which he also planted, at Beth

us nearer the present world ; but the poet is continually
lehem, a grove to Adonis. The Jews were now reduced introducing higher and more effectual influences, until
to the necessity of bribing the Roman soldiers, ac- by the intervention of the father of gods and men,

cording to Jerome, for permission to weep over this Trojan name is to be continued in the Roman, and.
memorable spot; but peculiar indulgence was extended thus heaven and earth are appeased.
to the Christians, who established a flourishing church

Hinc genus, Ausonio mixtum quod sanguine surgetz
in the town. So commonly did it now pass by the Supra homines, supra ire Deos pietate videbis ;
name of Elia, that in the coins of Adrian, Antoninus Nec gens ulla tuos æque celebrabit: honores.
Pius, and Aurelius, we meet with the inscription col.

Annuit bis Juno, et mentem lætata retorsit.

Æneid, l, xü.
AEL. CAP. on medals struck here, and the name of
Jerusalem was only retained among the Jews and

The style for sweetness and for beauty, occasionally,
Christians. Constantine restored the ancient name,

and in the author's finished passages, surpasses every
however, and though he treated the Jews with much other production of antiquity. “I see no founda-
cruelty for a new attempt to recover the place, he tion,” says Dr. Blair,“ for the opinion entertained
repaired and beautified the town.

by some critics that the Æneid is to be considered ELII PONS, in Ancient Geography, one of the an allegorical poem, which carries a constant fortresses in the north of England, in the range of the reference to the character and reign of Augustus hither Roman wall, which intersected our island from Cesar; or that Virgil's main design in composing the Newcastle, east, to Carlisle, west. The Pons Ælii is Æneid, was to reconcile the Romans to the governrepresented by Camden as situated somewhere between ment of that prince, who is supposed to be shadowed Newcastle and Morpeth.

out under the character of Æneas." “ He had sufÆLIUS PONS, the celebrated stone bridge across ficient motives, as a poet, to determine him to the the Tiber, which is now called il Ponte St. Angelo, or choice of his subject, from its being in itself both the Bridge of St. Angelo, and leads to the Burgo and great and pleasing; from its being suited to his genius, Vatican from the city; this also is one of the monu

and its being attended with peculiar advantages for ments of the magnificence of Adrian's reign.

the full display of poetical talent." Lectures on Rhetoric,
ÆLURUS, in Egyptian Mythology, the god of cats. vol. iii.

EM, AM, or Ame, a measure for fluids, used in The first six books of the Æneid are the only finished
Germany. The aem of Heidelburg contains 48 masses; part of the poem; and the author is said to have de-
the Wirtemburg aem 160 masses; but the one most

sired the last six to be committed to the flames after
generally used, is equal to 80 masses, or 20 vertils. his death. Its imperfections are alleged to be want of

ÆMOBOLIVM, in Antiquity, the blood of a bull originality in some of the principal scenes, and defec-
slain in the sacrifice called taurobolia and criobolia. We tiveness in the exhibition of character. That of Dido is
find this word not unfrequently in inscriptions upon by far the most decided and complete. But Voltaire
ruined temples and altars.

has justly observed upon the strange confusion of in-
ÆMONIA, an ancient name for Thessaly, which terest excited by the story of the wars in Italy, in which
gave the epithet Æmonius to Achilles. The word has one is continually tempted to espouse the cause of
been applied by some writers to the whole of Greece. Turnus rather than that of Æneas; and to which the:




ÆNEID, exquisite scenes for displaying the tenderness of the

BED UBIQUE JACET. poet in narrating the story of Lavinia, seem to have

Nec maritus, nec amator, nec necessarius, ÆNIGMA. been his only temptation. Though M. la Harpe has

Neque mærens, neque gaudens, neque flens,

Hanc, endeavoured to convict Virgil of numerous plagiarisms

Nec molem, nec pyramidem, nec sepulchrum. in the Æneid, it would seem to remain an unsupported

SED OMNIA. charge; especially when we consider that a large

Scit, et nescit cui posuerit;

LUCIUS Again0 PRISCIUS. portion of them are stated to have been committed on

* ON FAIR ROSAMOND. the productions of contemporary authors, who would

Ilic jacet Rosa munda, non Rosa mundi, not have failed to assert their own claims.

Non redolet, sed ulet, quæ redolere solet. ENIGMA, a definition or proposition given in ob ÆNONA, in Ancient Geography, a city of Liburnia, scure, involved, dubious, and often in contradictory denominated by Pliny, Pasini Civitas. It is now known terms. Childish as the exercise of resolving ænigmas by the name of Nona. It lies opposite the island may appear, it is certain that the practice of their Gissa, westward, and is almost surrounded by the proposition and explanation has existed in the most. Adriatic Sea. E. lon. 16o. N. lat. 28o. remote, and in the most learned ages of the world.

ENCS, in Ancient Geography, a well known river Almost the whole of the Egyptian learning is said to have of Germany, now called the Inn, it takes its source been comprised in anigmas; and that of the sphinx and in the Rhætian Alps, and thence flows into and through the supposed discovery of its celebrated riddle by the Grisons, the country of Tyrol, the dutchy of BaEdipus, appears to be testified by the numerous Egyp- varia, and into the Danube by way of Passau. tian statues of that fabulous monster. The story is this. Ænus, in Ancient Geography, now called Eno, and A certain monster, having the head and breasts of a wo too often undistinguished from Eneia, which Æneas man, the wings of a bird, the claws of a lion, and the founded. Ænus was an independent city of Thrace, body of a dog, had long ravaged the country about situate eastward at the mouth of the Hebrus. The Thebes, and could not be destroyed until this riddle was brother of Cato of Utica died, and his memory was solved, What animal is that which walks on four legs in perpetuated by a marble monument, in this city. the morning, at noon on tuo, and at night on three? The AOLIA, or Eolis, in Ancient Geography. This answer of Edipus was, it is man: when the monster, country takes its name from the colony of Greeks, called in despair, dashed out its brains against a rock. the Eolians, who settled in this part of Hither Asia, Sphinxes themselves indeed were ænigmatical of the or Asia Minor. It was sometimes a name given to rising of the Nile; the head of a woman, and the body a very extensive line of coast from lonia to the Proof a lion, indicating the overflow of that river, when pontis; others, however, speak of it as confined by the sun passed through the signs of Virgo and Leo in Troas to the north, and lonia to the south; though August; see more of these symbolical forms in the Strabo makes it reach from the river Hermus to the article HieroGLYPHICS. The Jews were not unac- promontory Lectus; and Herodotus mentions eleven quainted with ænigmas; and Gale (Court of the Gen- cities belonging to Æolis. Ptolemy gives it the tiles, 4to. p. 76) thinks them borrowed by the Egyp- boundaries of Caycus northward, and Hermus southtians from the Hebrews. Samson proposed a riddleward. The Eolians according to the opinion of (710) rendered by the Septuagint a problem; and Josephus were derived from Elishah, one of the sons it is mentioned as the distinction of Moses (Numb. xii. 8), of Javan, and the Grecian historians rather confirm than that God would not speak with him in dark speeches” contradict this when they say they descended from (1707) but “ face to face". This the Septuagint ren Æolus, the third son of Ion, who descended from ders “Kai o di alveyjatov" to which the Christian scrip- Deucalion. The Æolians migrated from Troy, as tures have been thought to allude in 1 Cor. xiii. 12, did the Ionians and the Dorians, about half a cen“ Now(in this state), we see through a mirror Ev aiviyuarı, tury after the taking of that town; although their setin an ænigmatical manner, but then (in an eternal state) tlement here, preceded that of the lonians and the face to face.” The Latins had their scrupus, scirpus, or Dorians, it is calculated, by about a century. Æolis sirpus, and our own Saxon or Belgic ancestors their is now a district of Anatolia, and has sunk into utter raeden or arethan; from one of which words comes unimportance. our popular expression riddle. There are some ænig ÆOLIÆ INSULÆ, in Ancient Geography, a cluster mas of antiquity, which, in the absence of more useful of seven islands between Sicily and Italy; viz. Lipara, or more fatiguing pursuits, have furnished an amusing Hiera, Strongyle, Didyme, Ericusa, Phænicusa,' and perplexity to critics. We shall copy the celebrated Euonymos.

Euonymos. They appear to have been called Eolie, Spanish ænigma from the Bologna marble preserved from their having been fabled to have been the retreat in the Voltaian family, which is perhaps the most of the winds, and the kingdom of Æolus, the god of famous specimen of this kind of learning, and an ænig- the winds. They are also sometimes called Vulcaniæ, matical epitaph of a similar description on the fair and Hephæstiades, by the ancients, and are known in Rosamond of our Henry II.

Modern Geography as the Lipari Islands.
D, M.

ÆOLIAN HARP, or HARP of Æolus, a musical

instrument which evidently received its name from Nec vir, nec mulier, nec androgyna. Nec puella, nec juvenis, nec anus.

the effects produced upon it by the air without human Nec casta, nec meretrix, nec pudica.

aid. It is a simple box of thin fibrous wood (gene

rally of deal), to which are attached a certain numSublata,

ber of fine catgut strings, sometimes to the number Neque fame, neque ferro, neque veneno.

of fifteen, of equal size and length, and consequently Nec cælo, nec aquis, nec terris,

unisons, stretched on low bridges at each end. Its






FOLJAN length is generally made to correspond with the size son or thing. Anciently used in this literal sense, and
HARP. of the window or aperture in which it is intended applied to all the varieties and terms of existence, it

to be placed; its width is about five or six inches, and was gradually adopted by philosophers to express the
its depth two or three. The sash must be raised to duration of spiritual and immortal life, in distinction
admit it with the strings uppermost, under which is a from that which is corporeal and liable to change, for
circular opening in the centre, as in the belly of the which they used the word Xpovoc. Possessing an
guitar. When the wind blows athwart the strings, it immutable being," says Aristotle, speaking of the gods,
produces the effect of a choir of music in the air, “ free from external impressions, happy and self-suf-
sweetly mingling all the harmonic notes, and swelling ficient, they exist throughout all alwren, eternity.”
or diminishing its sounds according to the strength or He then adds, “ For this word has been divinely
weakness of the blast. A more recent /Eolian harp of spoken by the ancients : for the consummation con-
Mr. Crosthwaite's, has no sounding box, but consists taining the time of every life is called its age (its pe-
merely of several strings extended between two deal riod of duration). For the same reason, the consum-

mation of the whole heaven, and the consummation - This instrument is generally ascribed to Father containing the unlimited duration, and the immensity Kircher, because he is the first European author who of all things is eternity, deriving its name from always has described it. But the learned Mr. Richardson being—immortal and divine.”. Lib. i. Cal. c. 10. By ( Dissertation on the Languages and Manners of the a natural metonymy, this word was frequently used to East, p. 180), says, that an instrument of the kind has express those beings themselves to whom such existbeen long in use in the eastern countries. As Kircher, ence was attributed; and the Gnostics, and other anhowever, was a great student in the Rabbins, it is cient sectaries, taking advantage of this ambiguity of probable he borrowed it from them: for it is mentioned, language, formed the notion of an invisible world of berach (fol. 6) that when David hung up his harp in Æons, entities or virtues, of which ours was one of the the night it vibrated to the north wind; and there can extreme links, and the Supreme God the other. Somebe but little doubt that the invention of the Æolian times they assigned to the divine nature itself a disharp originated in some such accidental circumstance. tinction of this kind :—" a celestial family, immutable

Kireher's harp was but five palms, or about 15 inches in its nature, and above the power of mortality, was in length, not above half the width of the modern in- called by these philosophers æon,” formed in the prostrument; he cloathed it with sounding boards, or cess of time out of the PLEROMA, or divine fulness. valves as he called them, so placed as to catch and Mosheim's Eccles. History, vol. i. concentrate the breeze, but these have been discon EORA, in Ancient Physics, signified the gestation, tinued by subsequent manufacturers as inconvenient or bearing about the body, without a correspondent and of no perceptible service; while the increased motion of the limbs, as in a chariot, or in a boat. length of the instrument gives a more sonorous and organ ÆRA, in Chronology, is used synonymously with like tone to the notes.

Epoch, or Epocha, for a fixed point of time from which The Eolian harp was introduced into this country any computation of it is reckoned. Era is more corabout half a century ago, but is rather too delicate for rectly the range or circuit of years within certain points our climate, except in summer, as it will not bear the of time, and an epoch is one of those points itself. violence of storms and rain. It is, however, a very The word Æra has been supposed to be derived from pleasing piece of furniture in a summer parlour. Va- the abridgement, or initial letters, of Amus Erat rious improvements have been attempted in their Augusti, A. ER. A., a mode of computing time in Spain, structure; and Mr. Robert Bloomfield, author of the from the year of the conquest of that country by the Farmer's Boy, now a manufacturer of Æolian harps, Romans; and Vossius favours this opinion. "Various has published an interesting collection of extracts and principal Æras have been given by chronologists, observations on the subject. He says that he has which must regulate all our researches into history :-we tried to cover the strings with silver wire, which ap- speak correctly of the Christian Era, or that space of peared to deaden the sounds; while a covering of oil time between the epoch of the birth of Christ and the wholly stopped them: that silk strings will give a most present year; the Mahometan JEra, of which the flight delicate note, but are with difficulty made to endure of Mahomet is the epoch, &c.

The Jewish Æra dates sufficient tension. He advises that the instrument be from the Creation, and embraces the whole duration of $0 placed as to catch the wind rather in a vertical the world; that of the ancient Greeks was marked by than a horizontal direction. For the theory of this instru- the Olympiads; and of the Romans, by the building of ment (as of others) we must refer to Sorxd, Div. ii. the city of Rome. See CHRONOLOGY, and EPOCH.

EOLIC, an adjective, formed from the name Æolus, ARARIUM, in Roman Antiquities, the treasury of and applied to any thing belonging to that god, or the public money. It differed from the tiscus, inasmuch 10 the country of Æolia. The folic digamma, among as the latter contained the money of the prince. They the Eolians, is the letter F prefixed to words beginning are sometimes, however, used synonymously; and with with vowels, or inserted between words to separate various epithets attached; as the Ærarium Sanctius vowels.

which contained the legal tax on all legacies, and was ÆOLIPILE, in Pneumatics, an instrument formerly reserved for peculiar exigencies of the state; the used to convert water into steam, by means of caloric. Ærarium Vicesimarum, where the foreign levies were It is now scarcely ever employed for any such purpose. deposited, &c.

AEOLUS (avoc, varius), the mythological god of ÆRARIUS, a name denoting a citizen of Rome who
storms and winds, derived from a king of this name, had been degraded, and struck from off his century.
who reigned over Æolia.

These people were incapable of making wills, or of hold-
ÆON (alwv, an age), the life or duration of any per- ing any post in the state, but were liable to its burdens.



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