« НазадПродовжити »
Ambition is like cholor ; if it can more, it makes men active; if ÆDICULA RIDICULI, in Mythology, a Roman ÆDICUit be stoppd, it becomes adust, and makes men melancholy.
temple to the god of mirth, erected in commemoration of LA RIDIBacon's Ornamenta Rationalia.
the repulse of Hannibal by severe weather, when he was
EDILE, in Antiquity, a Roman magistrate who was
appointed to the care of various public buildings, the
preservation of order and equity in the markets, the Milton's Par. Lost, book xii.
repair of the roads and streets, and the examination of From hence we dream of wars, and warlike things,
weights and measures. Thero were at first only two
ædiles, called the ædiles plebii, who were created in
the same year as the tribunes (A. U. 260) for their
Dryden's Cock &; For. assistance in inferior concerns; hence the ædiles were
elected every year at the same time as the tribunes.
At length these plebeian ædiles refusing to treat the
people with the expensive public shows which it had
been customary for these officers to give, the patri
cians offered to provide for them, on condition of their
being admitted to the honours of the Edilate. This
occasioned the creation of two new ædiles in a. 1.388, And sore tormented, long before his time.
who were called ædiles curules, or majores; as having Couper's Truth.
a right when they gave audience, to sit on a curule ADY, in Natural History, the name of the palm-tree chair (sella curulis), enriched with ivory; whereas the of the island of St. Thomas, having a thick, bare, plebeian ædiles sat on benches. The principal employupright stem, growing single on its root, of a lightment of the curule ædiles was, to procure the celebratimber, and full of juice, which the natives obtain by tion of the Roman games ; they were besides appointed incision and make into wine. The fruit of this tree judges in all cases relating to the rate or exchange of is called by th natives, abanga. It is of the size estates; they were to inspect all new pieces offered to and shape of a lemon, and contains a kernel very the theatres, and to be particularly watchful that no good to eat roasted ; and the raw kernels new gods, or religious ceremonies were intruded upon often mixed with meal, and are supposed to be very the people. To these four ædiles Julius Cæsar added cordial. An oil is prepared from this fruit, which two others, called ædiles cereales, chosen from the patrianswers the purposes
of butter; and is used also for cian order; their office was to inspect the public graanointing stiff or contracted parts of the body.
naries, and to take care of the corn, which was called ADYTUM, in Ancient Mythology, the most retired donum cereris. The office of ædile continued without much and sacred place of the Pagan temples, into which none variation, from this period to the reign of Constantine. but the priests were adınitted. The term signifies inac EDIPSUS, in Ancient Geography, now Dipsus, a cessible.
town in Eubea, remarkable for its hot-baths. ÆA, anciently a celebrated city, and port of Colchis, ÆDITUUS, in Roman Antiquity, an officer enfifteen miles from the sea, according to Pliny. It was trusted with the care of the Roman temples. famous for containing the golden fleece of Jason at the ÆDUI, in Ancient Geography, a powerful people of time he reached this country. Some authors have Gaul, who were the first allies of Julius Cæsar in his considered it as the Æapolis of Ptolemy; from the invasion of that country. Greek ara, earth, or the Heb. 8, island. From this ÆGADES, EG ATEs, or INSULÆ ÆGUSÆ, of the city the Circe obtained the appellation of Ææa. Hom. Romans, a cluster of islands in the Mediterranean, to Odyss. I. i. v. 32. VIRGIL, I. vi. v. 386.
the west of Sicily, and north of Cape Lilybæum. Here.
ÆAS, in Ancient Geography, the name of a river of a mountain of Attica, opposite Salamis, on which
ÆDESSA, ÆG EAS, or Æg Æ, in Ancient Geography, divides Greece from Asia Minor. Several etymologies
It extends from some ancient writers attributed the ruin of that king- north to south more than 400 miles, and contains dom.
between 40 and 50 vrincipal islands; their two general
ÆGEAN names were the Cyclades and Sporades. See Arch ÆGIPHILA, in Botany, a genus of plants, of the
PH A ÆGINE
ÆGERI, or ÆGERE, a lake in the canton of Zug, ÆGIS, in Ancient Mythology, is by some supposed Ai PTIA.
Switzerland, which gives the name to a neighbouring to be the buckler, by others the cuirass of Jupiter and TIAM
Pallas. It should appear, however, that either the
ipsamqne in pectore Divæ
Gorgona desecto vertentem lumina collo.”
the manner in which painters most usually represent
the words, ÆGIMORUS, or EG IMURUS, in Ancient Geography,
“ Cum sa pe nigrantem
Egida concuteret dextra.” Ver. 354.
The fables of antiquity, generally represent Jupiter
to have preserved the skin of the she-goat Amalthea,
more anciently called buckler with it, whence (ai, alyos, she-goat) the
ÆGITHALLUS, in Ancient Geography, a promontory
ÆGIUM, in Ancient Geography, a town of Achaia
inscription Airi, and the impression of a tortoise
ÆGOCEROS, in Ancient Astronomy, a name given
EGYPT, see EGYPT.
EGYP. name also given to divers unguents of the detergent or ÆNARIA, in Ancient Geography, an island opposite ÆNARIA TIACUM, corrosive kind.
Cumæ, in Italy, in the bay of that name. It was once
gave this name to a stone of the cameo, onyx, or sar- and was called after Æneas, who is supposed to have
ÆNEATORES, in Antiquity, the musicians atten-
Availing himself of the pride and superstition of the
ment of the “ eternal city," to those heroes and actions gallies, and never coming on shore until the matters in which had enough in them of what was human and debate had been determined.
ordinary to excite the sympathy of his countrymen; in ÆLIA CAPITOLINA, a town built by Adrian, termingled with persons and circumstances of an exnearly upon the site of Jerusalem, about A. D. 134; traordinary and superhuman character, to awaken their Ælius being the family-name of Adrian, and Capito- admiration and their awe. No subject could have linus, the well-known epithet of Jupiter, to whom he been more happily chosen. It has been admired too bere erected a temple. This circumstance so exaspe- for its perfect unity of action; for while the episodes rated the Jews, as to urge them to a desperate effort command the richest variety of description, they are toward regaining their former independence, in which always subordinated to the main object of the poem, they once more took the city, and reduced it to ashes. which is to impress the divine authority under which The emperor, however, quickly suppressed the rebel- Æneas first settled in Italy. The wrath of Juno, upon lion, rebuilt the place, and prohibiting any Jew to ap- which the whole fate of Æneas seems at first sušproach it on pain of death, he erected a marble statue pended, is at once that of a woman and a goddess : of a bog (the animal most abhorred by the Jews), over the passion of Dido, and her general character, bring the principal gate, near which he also planted, at Beth
us nearer the present world ; but the poet is continually
Hinc genus, Ausonio mixtum quod sanguine surgetz
Annuit bis Juno, et mentem lætata retorsit.
Æneid, l, xü.
The style for sweetness and for beauty, occasionally,
and in the author's finished passages, surpasses every
by some critics that the Æneid is to be considered ELII PONS, in Ancient Geography, one of the an allegorical poem, which carries a constant fortresses in the north of England, in the range of the reference to the character and reign of Augustus hither Roman wall, which intersected our island from Cesar; or that Virgil's main design in composing the Newcastle, east, to Carlisle, west. The Pons Ælii is Æneid, was to reconcile the Romans to the governrepresented by Camden as situated somewhere between ment of that prince, who is supposed to be shadowed Newcastle and Morpeth.
out under the character of Æneas." “ He had sufÆLIUS PONS, the celebrated stone bridge across ficient motives, as a poet, to determine him to the the Tiber, which is now called il Ponte St. Angelo, or choice of his subject, from its being in itself both the Bridge of St. Angelo, and leads to the Burgo and great and pleasing; from its being suited to his genius, Vatican from the city; this also is one of the monu
and its being attended with peculiar advantages for ments of the magnificence of Adrian's reign.
the full display of poetical talent." Lectures on Rhetoric,
EM, AM, or Ame, a measure for fluids, used in The first six books of the Æneid are the only finished
sired the last six to be committed to the flames after
ÆMOBOLIVM, in Antiquity, the blood of a bull originality in some of the principal scenes, and defec-
has justly observed upon the strange confusion of in-
ÆNEID, exquisite scenes for displaying the tenderness of the
BED UBIQUE JACET. poet in narrating the story of Lavinia, seem to have
Nec maritus, nec amator, nec necessarius, ÆNIGMA. been his only temptation. Though M. la Harpe has
Neque mærens, neque gaudens, neque flens,
Hanc, endeavoured to convict Virgil of numerous plagiarisms
Nec molem, nec pyramidem, nec sepulchrum. in the Æneid, it would seem to remain an unsupported
SED OMNIA. charge; especially when we consider that a large
Scit, et nescit cui posuerit;
LUCIUS Again0 PRISCIUS. portion of them are stated to have been committed on
* ON FAIR ROSAMOND. the productions of contemporary authors, who would
Ilic jacet Rosa munda, non Rosa mundi, not have failed to assert their own claims.
Non redolet, sed ulet, quæ redolere solet. ENIGMA, a definition or proposition given in ob ÆNONA, in Ancient Geography, a city of Liburnia, scure, involved, dubious, and often in contradictory denominated by Pliny, Pasini Civitas. It is now known terms. Childish as the exercise of resolving ænigmas by the name of Nona. It lies opposite the island may appear, it is certain that the practice of their Gissa, westward, and is almost surrounded by the proposition and explanation has existed in the most. Adriatic Sea. E. lon. 16o. N. lat. 28o. remote, and in the most learned ages of the world.
ENCS, in Ancient Geography, a well known river Almost the whole of the Egyptian learning is said to have of Germany, now called the Inn, it takes its source been comprised in anigmas; and that of the sphinx and in the Rhætian Alps, and thence flows into and through the supposed discovery of its celebrated riddle by the Grisons, the country of Tyrol, the dutchy of BaEdipus, appears to be testified by the numerous Egyp- varia, and into the Danube by way of Passau. tian statues of that fabulous monster. The story is this. Ænus, in Ancient Geography, now called Eno, and A certain monster, having the head and breasts of a wo too often undistinguished from Eneia, which Æneas man, the wings of a bird, the claws of a lion, and the founded. Ænus was an independent city of Thrace, body of a dog, had long ravaged the country about situate eastward at the mouth of the Hebrus. The Thebes, and could not be destroyed until this riddle was brother of Cato of Utica died, and his memory was solved, What animal is that which walks on four legs in perpetuated by a marble monument, in this city. the morning, at noon on tuo, and at night on three? The AOLIA, or Eolis, in Ancient Geography. This answer of Edipus was, it is man: when the monster, country takes its name from the colony of Greeks, called in despair, dashed out its brains against a rock. the Eolians, who settled in this part of Hither Asia, Sphinxes themselves indeed were ænigmatical of the or Asia Minor. It was sometimes a name given to rising of the Nile; the head of a woman, and the body a very extensive line of coast from lonia to the Proof a lion, indicating the overflow of that river, when pontis; others, however, speak of it as confined by the sun passed through the signs of Virgo and Leo in Troas to the north, and lonia to the south; though August; see more of these symbolical forms in the Strabo makes it reach from the river Hermus to the article HieroGLYPHICS. The Jews were not unac- promontory Lectus; and Herodotus mentions eleven quainted with ænigmas; and Gale (Court of the Gen- cities belonging to Æolis. Ptolemy gives it the tiles, 4to. p. 76) thinks them borrowed by the Egyp- boundaries of Caycus northward, and Hermus southtians from the Hebrews. Samson proposed a riddleward. The Eolians according to the opinion of (710) rendered by the Septuagint a problem; and Josephus were derived from Elishah, one of the sons it is mentioned as the distinction of Moses (Numb. xii. 8), of Javan, and the Grecian historians rather confirm than that God would not speak with him in dark speeches” contradict this when they say they descended from (1707) but “ face to face". This the Septuagint ren Æolus, the third son of Ion, who descended from ders “Kai o di alveyjatov" to which the Christian scrip- Deucalion. The Æolians migrated from Troy, as tures have been thought to allude in 1 Cor. xiii. 12, did the Ionians and the Dorians, about half a cen“ Now(in this state), we see through a mirror Ev aiviyuarı, tury after the taking of that town; although their setin an ænigmatical manner, but then (in an eternal state) tlement here, preceded that of the lonians and the face to face.” The Latins had their scrupus, scirpus, or Dorians, it is calculated, by about a century. Æolis sirpus, and our own Saxon or Belgic ancestors their is now a district of Anatolia, and has sunk into utter raeden or arethan; from one of which words comes unimportance. our popular expression riddle. There are some ænig ÆOLIÆ INSULÆ, in Ancient Geography, a cluster mas of antiquity, which, in the absence of more useful of seven islands between Sicily and Italy; viz. Lipara, or more fatiguing pursuits, have furnished an amusing Hiera, Strongyle, Didyme, Ericusa, Phænicusa,' and perplexity to critics. We shall copy the celebrated Euonymos.
Euonymos. They appear to have been called Eolie, Spanish ænigma from the Bologna marble preserved from their having been fabled to have been the retreat in the Voltaian family, which is perhaps the most of the winds, and the kingdom of Æolus, the god of famous specimen of this kind of learning, and an ænig- the winds. They are also sometimes called Vulcaniæ, matical epitaph of a similar description on the fair and Hephæstiades, by the ancients, and are known in Rosamond of our Henry II.
Modern Geography as the Lipari Islands.
ÆOLIAN HARP, or HARP of Æolus, a musical
instrument which evidently received its name from Nec vir, nec mulier, nec androgyna. Nec puella, nec juvenis, nec anus.
the effects produced upon it by the air without human Nec casta, nec meretrix, nec pudica.
aid. It is a simple box of thin fibrous wood (gene
rally of deal), to which are attached a certain numSublata,
ber of fine catgut strings, sometimes to the number Neque fame, neque ferro, neque veneno.
of fifteen, of equal size and length, and consequently Nec cælo, nec aquis, nec terris,
unisons, stretched on low bridges at each end. Its
FOLJAN length is generally made to correspond with the size son or thing. Anciently used in this literal sense, and
to be placed; its width is about five or six inches, and was gradually adopted by philosophers to express the
mation of the whole heaven, and the consummation - This instrument is generally ascribed to Father containing the unlimited duration, and the immensity Kircher, because he is the first European author who of all things is eternity, deriving its name from always has described it. But the learned Mr. Richardson being—immortal and divine.”. Lib. i. Cal. c. 10. By ( Dissertation on the Languages and Manners of the a natural metonymy, this word was frequently used to East, p. 180), says, that an instrument of the kind has express those beings themselves to whom such existbeen long in use in the eastern countries. As Kircher, ence was attributed; and the Gnostics, and other anhowever, was a great student in the Rabbins, it is cient sectaries, taking advantage of this ambiguity of probable he borrowed it from them: for it is mentioned, language, formed the notion of an invisible world of berach (fol. 6) that when David hung up his harp in Æons, entities or virtues, of which ours was one of the the night it vibrated to the north wind; and there can extreme links, and the Supreme God the other. Somebe but little doubt that the invention of the Æolian times they assigned to the divine nature itself a disharp originated in some such accidental circumstance. tinction of this kind :—" a celestial family, immutable
Kireher's harp was but five palms, or about 15 inches in its nature, and above the power of mortality, was in length, not above half the width of the modern in- called by these philosophers æon,” formed in the prostrument; he cloathed it with sounding boards, or cess of time out of the PLEROMA, or divine fulness. valves as he called them, so placed as to catch and Mosheim's Eccles. History, vol. i. concentrate the breeze, but these have been discon EORA, in Ancient Physics, signified the gestation, tinued by subsequent manufacturers as inconvenient or bearing about the body, without a correspondent and of no perceptible service; while the increased motion of the limbs, as in a chariot, or in a boat. length of the instrument gives a more sonorous and organ ÆRA, in Chronology, is used synonymously with like tone to the notes.
Epoch, or Epocha, for a fixed point of time from which The Eolian harp was introduced into this country any computation of it is reckoned. Era is more corabout half a century ago, but is rather too delicate for rectly the range or circuit of years within certain points our climate, except in summer, as it will not bear the of time, and an epoch is one of those points itself. violence of storms and rain. It is, however, a very The word Æra has been supposed to be derived from pleasing piece of furniture in a summer parlour. Va- the abridgement, or initial letters, of Amus Erat rious improvements have been attempted in their Augusti, A. ER. A., a mode of computing time in Spain, structure; and Mr. Robert Bloomfield, author of the from the year of the conquest of that country by the Farmer's Boy, now a manufacturer of Æolian harps, Romans; and Vossius favours this opinion. "Various has published an interesting collection of extracts and principal Æras have been given by chronologists, observations on the subject. He says that he has which must regulate all our researches into history :-we tried to cover the strings with silver wire, which ap- speak correctly of the Christian Era, or that space of peared to deaden the sounds; while a covering of oil time between the epoch of the birth of Christ and the wholly stopped them: that silk strings will give a most present year; the Mahometan JEra, of which the flight delicate note, but are with difficulty made to endure of Mahomet is the epoch, &c.
The Jewish Æra dates sufficient tension. He advises that the instrument be from the Creation, and embraces the whole duration of $0 placed as to catch the wind rather in a vertical the world; that of the ancient Greeks was marked by than a horizontal direction. For the theory of this instru- the Olympiads; and of the Romans, by the building of ment (as of others) we must refer to Sorxd, Div. ii. the city of Rome. See CHRONOLOGY, and EPOCH.
EOLIC, an adjective, formed from the name Æolus, ARARIUM, in Roman Antiquities, the treasury of and applied to any thing belonging to that god, or the public money. It differed from the tiscus, inasmuch 10 the country of Æolia. The folic digamma, among as the latter contained the money of the prince. They the Eolians, is the letter F prefixed to words beginning are sometimes, however, used synonymously; and with with vowels, or inserted between words to separate various epithets attached; as the Ærarium Sanctius vowels.
which contained the legal tax on all legacies, and was ÆOLIPILE, in Pneumatics, an instrument formerly reserved for peculiar exigencies of the state; the used to convert water into steam, by means of caloric. Ærarium Vicesimarum, where the foreign levies were It is now scarcely ever employed for any such purpose. deposited, &c.
AEOLUS (avoc, varius), the mythological god of ÆRARIUS, a name denoting a citizen of Rome who
These people were incapable of making wills, or of hold-